Table 2: CVD risk factors at baseline and at 48 months for “Never MetS,” “Always MetS,” “MetS new onset” and “MetS resolution” groups.

CVD risk factorsNever MetS ( 𝑛 = 1 2 1 )Always MetS ( 𝑛 = 5 2 )MetS resolution ( 𝑛 = 2 8 )New Onset MetS ( 𝑛 = 3 3 )
Baseline48 monthsBaseline48 monthsBaseline48 monthsBaseline48 months

TC (mmol/L) 4 . 3 9 ± 0 . 9 0 4 . 3 2 ± 0 . 9 0 4 . 6 7 ± 0 . 9 9 4 . 4 0 ± 0 . 9 5 4 . 4 3 ± 0 . 7 3 4 . 0 7 ± 0 . 7 7 4 . 5 1 ± 0 . 7 4 4 . 5 5 ± 0 . 8 3
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2 . 5 2 ± 0 . 7 4 2 . 4 8 ± 0 . 7 6 2 . 5 7 ± 0 . 8 0 2 . 4 1 ± 0 . 6 9 2 . 4 5 ± 0 . 5 9 2 . 2 9 ± 0 . 6 6 2 . 7 1 ± 0 . 6 2 2 . 6 4 ± 0 . 7 1
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1 . 2 4 ± 0 . 3 0 1 . 3 0 ± 0 . 3 6 0 . 9 9 ± 0 . 2 2 0 . 9 8 ± 0 . 2 1 1 . 0 1 ± 0 . 2 0 1 . 1 8 ± 0 . 2 6 1 . 1 7 ± 0 . 2 8 1 . 0 9 ± 0 . 2 7 x
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1 . 3 2 ± 0 . 6 7 1 . 1 8 ± 0 . 6 0 2 . 3 7 ± 0 . 8 5 2 . 3 4 ± 2 . 2 0 2 . 1 6 ± 1 . 1 1 1 . 3 0 ± 0 . 5 0 1 . 3 8 ± 0 . 5 1 1 . 7 9 ± 0 . 8 4
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 5 . 3 ± 1 . 6 5 . 3 ± 0 . 8 6 . 3 3 ± 1 . 4 2 6 . 6 7 ± 1 . 4 7 5 . 9 ± 1 . 2 5 . 6 ± 0 . 7 5 . 7 ± 1 . 2 6 . 2 ± 1 . 4
Systolic BP (mmHg) 1 2 6 ± 2 1 1 2 7 ± 2 1 1 3 4 ± 1 7 1 3 4 ± 1 7 1 3 0 ± 2 7 1 2 2 ± 1 7 1 2 0 ± 1 4 1 3 1 ± 1 4
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 7 1 ± 1 0 7 4 ± 1 2 7 5 ± 1 0 7 7 ± 9 7 2 ± 1 3 7 1 ± 9 7 3 ± 1 0 7 9 ± 1 0
Body mass index (kg/m²) 2 5 . 4 ± 2 . 9 2 5 . 6 ± 3 . 5 3 0 . 4 ± 4 . 2 3 0 . 7 ± 4 . 5 2 8 . 6 ± 3 . 8 2 8 . 3 ± 4 . 5 2 7 . 6 ± 3 . 0 2 9 . 1 ± 3 . 7
Waist circumference (cm) 8 6 . 7 ± 8 . 9 8 8 . 6 ± 1 0 . 9 1 0 2 . 4 ± 1 1 . 5 1 0 4 . 7 ± 1 2 . 8 9 9 . 8 ± 1 1 . 1 9 9 . 0 ± 1 2 . 2 9 5 . 6 ± 9 . 1 1 0 0 . 9 ± 1 0 . 9
Exercise capacity (METs) 1 0 . 6 ± 2 . 4 1 0 . 0 ± 2 . 7 9 . 5 ± 2 . 1 8 . 9 ± 2 . 3 1 4 . 8 ± 2 2 . 5 1 7 . 4 ± 3 6 . 8 1 0 . 6 ± 2 . 3 1 0 . 1 ± 2 . 4
Leisure time physical activity (kcal/week) 2 9 8 5 ± 2 2 2 5 2 2 3 0 ± 1 8 2 8 2 7 7 3 ± 1 6 1 6 2 2 4 7 ± 2 1 0 4 3 0 6 6 ± 1 5 3 8 1 7 8 6 ± 1 0 4 2 2 7 8 4 ± 1 9 7 7 8 2 1 9 8 ± 3 0 1 1
Perceived stress 3 2 ± 7 3 2 ± 8 3 2 ± 8 3 1 ± 8 3 4 ± 9 3 3 ± 1 0 3 3 ± 6 3 1 ± 5
Illness intrusiveness 2 7 ± 1 1 2 4 ± 1 1 3 3 ± 1 4 3 0 ± 1 4 3 5 ± 1 9 3 1 ± 1 6 2 8 ± 1 5 2 7 ± 1 5
Health-specific self-efficacy 4 3 ± 4 4 3 ± 4 4 2 ± 4 4 2 ± 4 4 2 ± 5 4 2 ± 4 4 1 ± 4 4 0 ± 4
Exercise self-efficacy 6 7 ± 1 2 6 4 ± 1 4 7 0 ± 1 0 6 3 ± 1 5 6 5 ± 1 1 5 8 ± 1 6 6 4 ± 1 3 5 8 ± 1 4

𝑃 0 . 0 0 1 .
𝑃 0 . 0 1 .
𝑃 0 . 0 5 .
Paired sample t-tests.
Total cholesterol, LDL-C: low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BP: blood pressure.