Table 5: Homer optimization results for grid standalone and PV-integrated systems.

PV panel
and inverter
PV
derating factor (%)
Inverter
life (yr)
PV (kW)Converter (kW)Grid (kW)Initial capital (RM)Operating cost (RM/yr)Total NPC (RM)COE (RM/kWh)Net grid purchases (RM/kWh)Renewable fraction (%)Capacity shortageEmission (kg/yr)
Carbon dioxideSulfur dioxide Nitrogen
oxides

Inverter = 250 KW × 4

PV = 165 W902010001000160000003,575,703413,9958,667,9480.1214,316,6320.2602728111118285784
PV = 225 W902010001000160000004,388,760414,2669,684,4640.1324,316,6320.260
PV = 315 W902010001000160000004,388,760414,2669,684,4640.1324,316,6320.260

Inverter = 500 KW × 2

PV = 165 W902010001000160000003,547,983413,7138,836,6230.1204,316,6320.2602728111118285784
PV = 225 W902010001000160000004,361,040413,8769,651,7640.1314,316,6320.260
PV = 315 W902010001000160000004,361,040413,8769,651,7640.1314,316,6320.260

Grid16000000RM0542,8966,940,0330.0955,744,363003630438157407697