About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Vascular Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 785094, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/785094
Review Article

New Alternatives for Atherosclerosis Treatment Based on Immunomodulation

Center for Research and Biological Evaluations, Institute of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Havana, 13600 Havana, Cuba

Received 12 July 2012; Accepted 13 August 2012

Academic Editors: A. Mugge and A. Paolicchi

Copyright © 2012 Livan Delgado Roche and Danay Alfonso Hernández. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Mendis, P. Puska, and B. Norrving, Eds., Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
  2. D. Steinberg, S. Parthasarathy, T. E. Carew, J. C. Khoo, and J. L. Witztum, “Beyond cholesterol: Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 320, no. 14, pp. 915–924, 1989. View at Scopus
  3. D. Steinberg, “Atherogenesis in perspective: Hypercholesterolemia and inflammation as partners in crime,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1211–1217, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. J. Williams and I. Tabas, “The response-to-retention hypothesis of early atherogenesis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 15, pp. 551–561, 1995.
  5. I. Tabas, K. J. Williams, and J. Borén, “Subendothelial lipoprotein retention as the initiating process in atherosclerosis: update and therapeutic implications,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 16, pp. 1832–1844, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. K. Hansson, “Immune and inflammatory mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis,” British Heart Journal, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. S38–S41, 1993. View at Scopus
  7. R. Ross, “Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 2, pp. 115–126, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. K. Shah, “Apolipoprotein A-I/HDL infusion therapy for plaque stabilization-regression: a novel therapeutic approach,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1031–1038, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Kishimoto, “Immunoglobulin therapy, myocardial diseases and atherosclerosis: recent experimental and clinical studies,” Current Cardiology Reviews, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 15–21, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. M. Grosso, S. Ferderbar, A. C. B. A. Wanschel, M. H. Krieger, M. L. Higushi, and D. S. P. Abdalla, “Antibodies against electronegative LDL inhibit atherosclerosis in LDLr-/- mice,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1086–1092, 2008. View at Scopus
  11. H. Ait-Oufella, O. Herbin, J. D. Bouaziz et al., “B cell depletion reduces the development of atherosclerosis in mice,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 207, no. 8, pp. 1579–1587, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. L. L. Habets, G. H. M. Van Puijvelde, L. M. Van Duivenvoorde et al., “Vaccination using oxidized low-density lipoprotein-pulsed dendritic cells reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 622–630, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Dunér, F. To, K. Beckmann et al., “Immunization of apoE-/- mice with aldehyde-modified fibronectin inhibits the development of atherosclerosis,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 528–536, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Hermansson, D. K. Johansson, D. F. J. Ketelhuth, J. Andersson, X. Zhou, and G. K. Hansson, “Immunotherapy with tolerogenic apolipoprotein B-100-loaded dendritic cells attenuates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 10, pp. 1083–1091, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. Soto, E. Acosta, L. Delgado, et al., “Antiatherosclerotic effect of an antibody that binds to extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 32, pp. 595–604, 2012.
  16. M. H. Davidson, K. Maki, D. Umporowicz, A. Wheeler, C. Rittershaus, and U. Ryan, “The safety and immunogenicity of a CETP vaccine in healthy adults,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 113–120, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Amir and C. J. Binder, “Experimental immunotherapeutic approaches for atherosclerosis,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 66–79, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. J. Geng and L. Jonasson, “Linking immunity to atherosclerosis: implications for vascular pharmacology -A tribute to Göran K. Hansson,” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 56, pp. 29–33, 2012.
  19. C. W. Rittershaus, D. P. Miller, L. J. Thomas et al., “Vaccine-induced antibodies inhibit CETP activity in vivo and reduce aortic lesions in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 2106–2112, 2000. View at Scopus
  20. Q. Gaofu, L. Jun, Y. Xin et al., “Vaccinating rabbits with a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) B-cell epitope carried by heat shock protein-65 (HSP65) for inducing anti-CETP antibodies and reducing aortic lesions in vivo,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 591–598, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Schiopu, B. Frendéus, B. Jansson et al., “Recombinant antibodies to an oxidized low-density lipoprotein epitope induce rapid regression of atherosclerosis in apobec-1-/-/low-density lipoprotein receptor-/- mice,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 24, pp. 2313–2318, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Klingenberg, M. Lebens, A. Hermansson et al., “Intranasal immunization with an apolipoprotein B-100 fusion protein induces antigen-specific regulatory T cells and reduces atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 946–952, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. Maron, G. Sukhova, A. M. Faria et al., “Mucosal administration of heat shock protein-65 decreases atherosclerosis and inflammation in aortic arch of low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 13, pp. 1708–1715, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. H. M. Van Puijvelde, T. Van Es, E. J. A. Van Wanrooij et al., “Induction of oral tolerance to HSP60 or an HSP60-peptide activates t cell regulation and reduces atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2677–2683, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. X. Zeng, J. Chen, Y. I. Miller, K. Javaherian, and K. S. Moulton, “Endostatin binds biglycan and LDL and interferes with LDL retention to the subendothelial matrix during atherosclerosis,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1849–1859, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Mao, G. Kai, Q. Gaofu et al., “Intramuscular immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding a 26-amino acid CETP epitope displayed by HBc protein and containing CpG DNA inhibits atherosclerosis in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis,” Vaccine, vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 4942–4950, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Qi, J. Li, S. Wang et al., “A chimeric peptide of intestinal trefoil factor containing cholesteryl ester transfer protein B cell epitope significantly inhibits atherosclerosis in rabbits after oral administration,” Peptides, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 790–796, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. N. Fredrikson, I. Söderberg, M. Lindholm et al., “Inhibition of atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice by immunization with apoB-100 peptide sequences,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 879–884, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. Palinski and J. L. Witztum, “Immune responses to oxidative neoepitopes on LDL and phospholipids modulate the development of atherosclerosis,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 247, no. 3, pp. 371–380, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. X. Shaw, S. Hörkkö, S. Tsimikas et al., “Human-derived anti-oxidized LDL autoantibody blocks uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages and localizes to atherosclerotic lesions in vivo,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1333–1339, 2001. View at Scopus
  31. A. De Maio, “Heat shock proteins: facts, thoughts, and dreams,” Shock, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1999. View at Scopus
  32. G. Caligiuri, A. Nicoletti, B. Poirierand, and G. K. Hansson, “Protective immunity against atherosclerosis carried by B cells of hypercholesterolemic mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 745–753, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Tsimikas, E. S. Brilakis, R. J. Lennon et al., “Relationship of IgG and IgM autoantibodies to oxidized low density lipoprotein with coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 425–433, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. P. W. Moos, N. John, R. Gräbner et al., “The lamina adventitia is the major site of immune cell accumulation in standard chow-fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2386–2391, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. C. Aubry, D. L. Riehle, W. D. Edwards et al., “B-Lymphocytes in plaque and adventitia of coronary arteries in two patients with rheumatoid arthritis and coronary atherosclerosis: preliminary observations,” Cardiovascular Pathology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 233–236, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. J. Little, M. L. Ballinger, and N. Osman, “Vascular wall proteoglycan synthesis and structure as a target for the prevention of atherosclerosis,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 117–124, 2007. View at Scopus
  37. W. Halfter, S. Dong, B. Schurer, and G. J. Cole, “Collagen XVIII is a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 39, pp. 25404–25412, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Dong, G. J. Cole, and W. Halfter, “Expression of collagen XVIII and localization of its glycosaminoglycan attachment sites,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 3, pp. 1700–1707, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. S. Moulton, B. R. Olsen, S. Sonn, N. Fukai, D. Zurakowski, and X. Zeng, “Loss of collagen XVIII enhances neovascularization and vascular permeability in atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 1330–1336, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. D. Roche, E. A. Medina, Y. Hernández-Matos, M. A. Bécquer Viart, A. M. Vázquez López, and E. Fernández-Sánchez, “High levels of lipid peroxidation induced by Lipofundin administration correlate with atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits,” Pharmacologyonline, vol. 3, pp. 727–736, 2010. View at Scopus
  41. L. Delgado, E. Acosta, A. Fraga, et al., “Lipofundin-induced hyperlipidemia promotes oxidative stress and atherosclerotic lesions in New Zealand white rabbits,” International Journal of Vascular Medicine, vol. 2012, pp. 1–7, 2011.
  42. A. S. Bourinbaiar and V. Jirathitikal, “Effect of oral immunization with pooled antigens derived from adipose tissue on atherosclerosis and obesity indices,” Vaccine, vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 2763–2768, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus