- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

ISRN Optics

VolumeΒ 2012Β (2012), Article IDΒ 841695, 4 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/841695

## SCLC Degradation in 980βnm Pump Laser by Using Electrical Noise

^{1}Centre dβElectronique et de MicrooptoΓ©lectronique de Montpellier (CEM2), UniversitΓ© Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France^{2}HIRLA, Damascus University, 99 Damascus, Syria

Received 16 November 2011; Accepted 5 December 2011

Academic Editors: R.Β JΓ€ger and D.-N.Β Wang

Copyright Β© 2012 B. Orsal and I. Asaad. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

The knowledge of the noise levels is important for pump laser diodes as it allows to study and to locate the noise sources and their origin. 980βnm fresh and aged pump lasers have been characterized by using electrical noise measurements. At 10βHz, the spectra are dominated by () noise. Current noise spectral density (CNSD) is dominated by
(). The trapping defect density near the n^{+}n^{-} and p^{+}p^{-} interfaces is related to pinching of the space-charge-limited current (SCLC) effect. An excess electrical noise due to longitudinal mode hopping is correlated with optical power fluctuations.

#### 1. Introduction

In this work, we present the electrical noise at low frequency for fresh pump laser diodes emitting at 980βnm (reference laser), and we study the parametric evolution and the defects generated in aged 980βnm, stressed during 400βhrs at 50Β°C and high current injection (500βmA) (aged laser).

#### 2. Device Description

The device used in this study is a conventional ridge waveguide AlGaAs/InGaAs pump laser with a GRIN-SCH (Graded Index Separate Confinement Heterostructure) and a Single Quantum Well (SQW) () emitting at 980βnm. The laser has a cavity length of 1200β*ΞΌ*m and is coated, for the 50Β°C aging tests, with standard low- (*β
*1%) and high-reflectivity (*β
*90%) coatings on the facets. A different coating reflectivity and aging configuration has also been studied in a previous work [1β3].

#### 3. Static Characteristic of the Pump Laser Diode

From the static analysis, current laser versus externally applied voltage , we then deduce in Figure 1 the evolution of the differential resistance . The characteristic recorded after 400βh of aging under a stress at 50Β°C and high current density injection (500βmA) was compared with the same laser diode before aging.

Before threshold, differential resistance is proportional to ; above threshold current (βmA), decreases to . This phenomenon is usually observed when the carriers are injected from high doping material to low doping material. In our structure, the carriers are injected from or into or .

The physical phenomenon can be explained in Figure 2. The and interfaces form space charge regions. The carriers are prevented to go into quantum well by the two space charge effects; then, the carrier injection is associated to space-charge-limited current effect (SCLC) [4, 5].

Consider the relation of Mott-Gurney: where is the dielectric constant, the free space permitivity, the junction thickness, and the carriers mobility. We then deduce the evolution of the differential resistance :

The typical evolution of the electrical and optical parameters is shown in Table 1.

We show that the static characteristics do not allow making difference between the aged laser and the reference laser. This difference can be made with electrical noise measurements.

#### 4. Low-Frequency Noise Measurements

##### 4.1. Noise Equivalent Circuit

In order to obtain a better analysis of the behavior of the devices studied, it is necessary to give the noise equivalent circuit of multimode laser diode (4 modes for this Pump laser) at low frequency (Figure 3).

This circuit is obtained by deriving the rate equations including Langevin white noise sources and noise sources describing in [6], and we are considering all other noise sources to be produced by the interfaces and the trapping defect density [7].

Where is a differential diode resistance, is an additional resistance due to coupling of spontaneous emission into lasing mode for mode, is a voltage noise source due to the fluctuation of the photon population, and is the current noise source due to the fluctuation of the electron population. The input signal is the modulation current or the modulation voltage for intrinsic circuit; is the thermal noise due to series resistance is the noise source due to space-charge-limited current effect.

##### 4.2. Current Noise Spectral Density (CNSD)

We make a noise analysis by Fast Fourier Transform FFT measurements and very low-noise amplifier. The Current Noise Spectral Density (CNSD) represents the current intensity fluctuations at 20 Β± 0, 1Β°C. The CNSD has been measured over a wide frequency range from 1βHz to 1βMHz; we give in Figure 4 a typical noise spectrum: () decreases followed by flat noise level.

Figure 5 exhibits the low-frequency current noise measured at 10βHz, as a function of the laser current. We notice that the spectra are dominated by (flicker) noise due to the carrier mobility fluctuations given by TGM Kleinpenningβs model [8]; the CNSD varies as : with being Hooge parameter, being free carrier number, and being frequency.

In this case, we can calculate (Hooge parameter) at very weak current, βHz, βnA, and we found [9] that
where
(*ΞΌ*m) is the sample length, () is the elementary charge, (cm^{2}V^{β1}Β·S^{β1} at 300βK for AlGaAs/InGaAs) is the carrier mobility, and βΞ© is the dynamic resistance. The value is in agreement with those given by Hooge for AlGaAs/InGaAs at 300βK [10].

*Region II*

At 10βHz, the CNSD varies as , it can be explained by fluctuations of diffusion current, and, it is due to the traps placed near the and interfaces [4]. Then,
where is the coefficient that depends on the section and on the number of free carriers, is junction resistance of interfaces, is the applied voltage of junction, is a statistic factor, depending on the material, and is the recombination time.

This noise is related to pinching of the space-charge-limited current SCLC effect superposed with the noise due to fluctuations of current in the MQW outside the space charge region [11].

*Region III*

At 10βHz, we observe saturation of CNSD, the CNSD as predicted by Vandamme and Ruyven, when the laser current is lower than the threshold current [12], because series resistance , in this region, is not neglected in comparison with differential resistance [13].

*Regions IV and V*

The CNSD increases at 10βHz, due to the optical gain fluctuations in the active layer related to increase of number of photons around threshold [14, 15]. In this case modeling is given by
where is the equivalent impedance of intrinsic circuit, is the noise source giving an excess noise due to longitudinal mode hopping which is related to output power fluctuations (exchange of power between two voltage noise sources due to the fluctuation of the photon population), is related to trap noise generators placed in the intrinsic layer and near and interfaces which absorb many photons in the aged active layer, and the end term of (7), in region V, becomes dominant.

*Region V*

At 10βHz, the level of noise shows also that a proportionality of about originates to the traps in the vicinity of the and related to SCLC effect.

The CNSD in the aged laser is higher than that in the fresh laser; it is due to active layer degradation due to decrease of recombination time .

#### 5. Summary

The study of the electrical noise that represents the fluctuations of current at low frequency is very significant of degradation of the active layer. The spectra are dominated by conventional (flicker) noise at weak current and the CNSD at 10βHz is dominated by . Pinching of the Space Charge shows limited current SCLC effect.

The defect is associated with carrier transport controlled by the and interfaces and the trapping defect density. An excess electrical noise due to longitudinal mode hopping is related with output optical fluctuations at low frequency. The CNSD in the aged laser is higher than that in the fresh laser, certainly due to the degradation of recombination time .

#### References

- M. Bettiati, C. Starck, M. Pommies et al., βGradual degradation in 980 nm InGaAs/AlGaAs pump lasers,β
*Materials Science and Engineering B*, vol. 91-92, pp. 486β490, 2002. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Scopus - B. Orsal, J. M. Peransin, P. Signoret, and K. Daulasim, βLow frequency noise of a 980 nm InGa-As/GaAs strained quantum well laser,β
*Journal de Physique III*, pp. 1739β1749, 1993. View at Google Scholar - I. Asaad, B. Orsal, J. P. Perez et al., βCharacterizations of 980 nm aged pump laser by using electrical and optical noise,β in
*Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF '03)*, p. 409, Prague, Czech Republic, August 2003. - P. Balco, J. M. Peransin, B. Orsal , and Th. Ducourant, βTempereture dependence of noise characteristcs in the PIN hydrogenated amorphous silicon switching diodes,β in
*Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF '97)*, Photonics West, leuven, Belgium, 1997. - E. von Hauff, J. Parisi, and V. Dyakonov, βField effect measurements on charge carrier mobilities in various polymer-fullerene blend compositions,β
*Thin Solid Films*, vol. 511-512, pp. 506β511, 2006. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Scopus - B. Orsal, P. Signoret, J. M. Peransin, K. Daulasim, and R. Alabedra, βCorrelation between electrical and optical photocurrent noises in semiconductor laser diodes,β
*IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices*, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 2151β2161, 1994. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Scopus - C. Harder, J. Katz, S. Margalit, J. Shacham, and A. Yariv, βNoise equivalent circuit of a semiconductor laser diode,β
*IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics*, vol. QE-18, no. 3, pp. 333β337, 1982. View at Google Scholar Β· View at Scopus - T. G. M. Kleipenning, β1/f noise in pn junction diodes,β
*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A*, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 185β191, 1985. View at Google Scholar - F. N. Hooge, β1/f noise in semiconductor materials,β in
*Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Fluctuations*, V. Bareikis and R. Katilius, Eds., pp. 8β13, Lithuania, Palanga, 1995. - L. K. J. Vandamme, S. Kibeya, B. Orsal, and R. Alabedra, β1/$f$ noise and thermal noise of As/Al
_{0.4}Ga_{0.6}As superlattice,β in*Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise in Physics Systems and 1/f Fluctuations*, pp. 324β328, American Institute of Physics, New York, NY, USA, 1993. - S. Kibeya, B. Orsal, R. Alabedra, and L. K. J. Vandamme, βNoise in superlatice avalanche photo-diodes,β in
*Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise in Physics Systems and 1/f Fluctuations*, pp. 325β329, Kyoto, Japan, November 1991. - L. K. J. Vandamme and L. J. V. Ruyven, β1/f noise used as reliability test for laser diode,β in
*Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Fluctuations*, pp. 245β247, NewYork, NY, USA, 1983. - B. Orsal, P. Signoret, J. M. Peransin, K. Daulasim, and R. Alabedra, βCorrelation between electrical and optical photocurrent noises in semiconductor laser diodes,β
*IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices*, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 2151β2161, 1994. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Scopus - R. J. Fronen and L. K. J. Vandamme, β“Low frequency intensity noise in semicoductor laser,β
*IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics*, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 724β736, 1988. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Scopus - Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon et al., βCompetition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device,β
*Journal of Optics*, vol. 12, no. 10, Article ID 104019, 2010. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Scopus