Table 2: Comparison of respiratory groups’ neuropsychological performance by cognitive domain.

MeasureIntact respirationImpaired respirationP value

Basic orientation
 MMSE (1–10)9.50 (0.86)9.81 (0.50)0.15
Working memory and processing speed
 VSAT time91.2 (44.3)123 (68.2)0.10
 VSAT errors2.83 (3.11)3.20 (5.03)0.79
 WAIS-III Digit Span15.9 (3.53)16.7 (4.17)0.55
 Trail Making Test, part A41.1 (22.5)43.8 (26.3)0.72
Verbal memory
 RAVLT total recall49.2 (11.1)46.8 (8.89)0.45
 RAVLT immediate recall10.6 (3.58)8.85 (3.31)0.13
 RAVLT delay recall10.6 (3.02)9.30 (3.54)0.22
Visual memory
 BVMT-R total recall19.5 (7.93)18.6 (7.56)0.72
 BVMT-R delay recall7.50 (3.62)7.41 (3.07)0.93
Language
 Semantic fluency (Animals)18.4 (6.73)16.4 (4.60)0.31
 Confrontational naming54.0 (6.82)55.1 (3.55)0.61
Visuoconstruction/spatial
 Rey-O30.5 (7.02)33.0 (8.35)0.85
 WAIS-III Block Design33.8 (13.5)33.2 (8.94)0.89
Executive functioning
 WAIS-III Similarities22.5 (6.61)22.3 (6.39)0.91
 Trail Making Test, part B118 (92.6)124 (78.6)0.81
 Lexical fluency (FAS)33.7 (14.8)30.2 (10.3)0.43
 WCST Categories3.00 (1.83)3.14 (1.24)0.78
 WCST Perseverative Errors13.6 (16.3)11.6 (8.93)0.64

Note: mean (SD) is given for each variable. Abbreviations are as follows: MMSE: Mini Mental State Examination; VSAT: Verbal Sustained Attention Test; WAIS-III: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition; RAVLT:~Rey~Auditory Verbal Learning Test; BVMT-R: Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised; Rey-O: Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test; WCST: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.