- About this Journal ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 926817, 11 pages
Intratumoral TLR-4 Agonist Injection Is Critical for Modulation of Tumor Microenvironment and Tumor Rejection
1Faculdade de Biociências e Instituto de Pesquisas Biomédicas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Avenida Ipiranga 6690, 2° Andar, 90680-001 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
2Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Received 9 May 2012; Accepted 20 June 2012
Academic Editors: K. Müller and A. Vicente
Copyright © 2012 Fabio Luiz Dal Moro Maito et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. Håkansson, B. Gustafsson, L. Krysander, B. Hjelmqvist, B. Rettrup, and L. Håkansson, “Biochemotherapy of metastatic malignant melanoma. Predictive value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 1871–1877, 2001.
- F. Piras, R. Colombari, L. Minerba et al., “The predictive value of CD8, CD4, CD68 and human leukocyte antigen-D-related cells in the prognosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma with vertical growth phase,” Cancer, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1246–1254, 2005.
- J. M. Reiman, M. Kmieciak, M. H. Manjili, and K. L. Knutson, “Tumor immunoediting and immunosculpting pathways to cancer progression,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 275–287, 2007.
- Z. Cui and F. Qiu, “Synthetic double-stranded RNA poly(I:C) as a potent peptide vaccine adjuvant: therapeutic activity against human cervical cancer in a rodent model,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 1267–1279, 2006.
- A. P. de Souza and C. Bonorino, “Tumor immunosuppressive environment: effects on tumor-specific and nontumor antigen immune responses,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1317–1332, 2009.
- R. F. Wang, Y. Miyahara, and H. Y. Wang, “Toll-like receptors and immune regulation: implications for cancer therapy,” Oncogene, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 181–189, 2008.
- W. B. Coley, “The treatment of inoperable sarcoma by bacterial toxins (the mixed toxins of the streptococcus erysipelas and the Bacillus prodigiosus),” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 3, pp. 1–48, 1910.
- M. Okamoto, T. Oshikawa, T. Tano et al., “Mechanism of anticancer host response induced by OK-432, a streptococcal preparation, mediated by phagocytosis and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling,” Journal of Immunotherapy, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 78–86, 2006.
- O. M. Grauer, J. W. Molling, E. Bennink et al., “TLR ligands in the local treatment of established intracerebral murine gliomas,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 181, no. 10, pp. 6720–6729, 2008.
- U. K. Scarlett, J. R. Cubillos-Ruiz, Y. C. Nesbeth et al., “In situ stimulation of CD40 and toll-like receptor 3 transforms ovarian cancer-infiltrating dendritic cells from immunosuppressive to immunostimulatory cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 18, pp. 7329–7337, 2009.
- M. J. Berendt, R. J. North, and D. P. Kirstein, “The immunological basis of endotoxin induced tumor regression. Requirement for a pre existing state of concomitant anti tumor immunity,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 148, no. 6, pp. 1560–1569, 1978.
- R. Engelhardt, A. Mackensen, C. Galanos, and R. Andreesen, “Biological response to intravenously administered endotoxin in patients with advanced cancer,” Journal of Biological Response Modifiers, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 480–491, 1990.
- S. Goto, S. Sakai, J. Kera, Y. Suma, G. I. Soma, and S. Takeuchi, “Intradermal administration of lipopolysaccharide in treatment of human cancer,” Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 255–261, 1996.
- F. Otto, P. Schmid, A. Mackensen et al., “Phase II trial of intravenous endotoxin in patients with colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer,” European Journal of Cancer Part A, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1712–1718, 1996.
- M. R. Chicoine, E. K. Won, and M. C. Zahner, “Intratumoral injection of lipopolysaccharide causes regression of subcutaneously implanted mouse glioblastoma multiforme,” Neurosurgery, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 607–615, 2001.
- E. K. Won, M. C. Zahner, E. A. Grant, P. Gore, and M. R. Chicoine, “Analysis of the antitumoral mechanisms of lipopolysaccharide against glioblastoma multiforme,” Anti-Cancer Drugs, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 457–466, 2003.
- C. L. Mariani, D. Rajon, F. J. Bova, and W. J. Streit, “Nonspecific immunotherapy with intratumoral lipopolysaccharide and zymosan A but not GM-CSF leads to an effective anti-tumor response in subcutaneous RG-2 gliomas,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 231–240, 2007.
- Q. J. Zhang, R. P. Seipp, S. S. Chen et al., “TAP expression reduces IL-10 expressing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and restores immunosurveillance against melanoma,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 120, no. 9, pp. 1935–1941, 2007.
- M. J. Palmowski, M. Salio, P. R. Dunbar, and V. Cerundolo, “The use of HLA class I tetramers to design a vaccination strategy for melanoma patients,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 188, pp. 155–163, 2002.
- W. Zou, “Immunosuppressive networks in the tumour environment and their therapeutic relevance,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 263–274, 2005.
- A. Khoruts, A. Mondino, K. A. Pape, S. L. Reiner, and M. K. Jenkins, “A natural immunological adjuvant enhances T cell clonal expansion through a CD28-dependent, interleukin (IL)-2-independent mechanism,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 187, no. 2, pp. 225–236, 1998.
- D. Fishman, B. Irena, S. Kellman-Pressman, M. Karas, and S. Segal, “The role of MHC class I glycoproteins in the regulation of induction of cell death in immunocytes by malignant melanoma cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1740–1744, 2001.
- M. Hirao, N. Onai, K. Hiroishi et al., “CC chemokine receptor-7 on dendritic cells is induced after interaction with apoptotic tumor cells: critical role in migration from the tumor site to draining lymph nodes,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 2209–2217, 2000.
- T. Ishida, T. Oyama, D. P. Carbone, and D. I. Gabrilovich, “Defective function of langerhans cells in tumor-bearing animals is the result of defective maturation from hemopoietic progenitors,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 161, no. 9, pp. 4842–4851, 1998.
- V. C. Liu, L. Y. Wong, T. Jang et al., “Tumor evasion of the immune system by converting CD4+CD25−T cells into CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells: role of tumor-derived TGF-β,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 5, pp. 2883–2892, 2007.
- Q. Chen, V. Daniel, D. W. Maher, and P. Hersey, “Production of IL-10 by melanoma cells: examination of its role in immunosuppression mediated by melanoma,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 755–760, 1994.
- M. E. Polak, N. J. Borthwick, F. G. Gabriel et al., “Mechanisms of local immunosuppression in cutaneous melanoma,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 1879–1887, 2007.
- P. Shrikant, A. Khoruts, and M. F. Mescher, “CTLA-4 blockade reverses CD8+ T cell tolerance to tumor by a CD4+ T cell- and IL-2-dependent mechanism,” Immunity, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 483–493, 1999.
- J. M. Curtsinger, M. Y. Gerner, D. C. Lins, and M. F. Mescher, “Signal 3 availability limits the CD8 T cell response to a solid tumor,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 11, pp. 6752–6760, 2007.
- A. L. Marzo, K. D. Klonowski, A. le Bon, P. Borrow, D. F. Tough, and L. Lefrançois, “Initial T cell frequency dictates memory CD8+ T cell lineage commitment,” Nature Immunology, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 793–799, 2005.
- B. Hennemann, G. Beckmann, A. Eichelmann, A. Rehm, and R. Andreesen, “Phase I trial of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer patients using monocyte-derived macrophages activated with interferon γ and lipopolysaccharide,” Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 250–256, 1997.
- Y. Yang, C. T. Huang, X. Huang, and D. M. Pardoll, “Persistent Toll-like receptor signals are required for reversal of regulatory T cell-mediated CD8 tolerance,” Nature Immunology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 508–515, 2004.
- Y. J. Cho, B. Y. Ahn, N. G. Lee, D. H. Lee, and D. S. Kim, “A combination of E. coli DNA fragments and modified lipopolysaccharides as a cancer immunotherapy,” Vaccine, vol. 24, no. 31-32, pp. 5862–5871, 2006.
- O. Preynat-Seauve, P. Schuler, E. Contassot, F. Beermann, B. Huard, and L. E. French, “Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells able to activate T cells and mediate tumor rejection,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2006.
- K. Furumoto, L. Soares, E. G. Engleman, and M. Merad, “Induction of potent antitumor immunity by in situ targeting of intratumoral DCs,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 774–783, 2004.
- J. A. Westwood, N. M. Haynes, J. Sharkey et al., “Toll-like receptor triggering and T-cell costimulation induce potent antitumor immunity in mice,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 7624–7633, 2009.
- J. A. Villadangos, P. Schnorrer, and N. S. Wilson, “Control of MHC class II antigen presentation in dendritic cells: a balance between creative and destructive forces,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 207, pp. 191–205, 2005.
- N. S. Wilson, G. M. N. Behrens, R. J. Lundie et al., “Systemic activation of dendritic cells by Toll-like receptor ligands or malaria infection impairs cross-presentation and antiviral immunity,” Nature Immunology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 2006.
- B. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Li et al., “Toll-like receptors on tumor cells facilitate evasion of immune surveillance,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 5009–5014, 2005.
- L. J. Young, N. S. Wilson, P. Schnorrer et al., “Dendritic cell preactivation impairs MHC class II presentation of vaccines and endogenous viral antigens,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 45, pp. 17753–17758, 2007.
- T. Kisseleva, L. Song, M. Vorontchikhina, N. Feirt, J. Kitajewski, and C. Schindler, “NF-κB regulation of endothelial cell function during LPS-induced toxemia and cancer,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. 2955–2963, 2006.
- C. Jayasinghe, N. Simiantonaki, R. Michel-Schmidt, and C. J. Kirkpatrick, “Comparative study of human colonic tumor-derived endothelial cells (HCTEC) and normal colonic microvascular endothelial cells (HCMEC): Hypoxia-induced sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 levels,” Oncology Reports, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 933–939, 2009.
- C. Guiducci, A. P. Vicari, S. Sangaletti, G. Trinchieri, and M. P. Colombo, “Redirecting in vivo elicited tumor infiltrating macrophages and dendritic cells towards tumor rejection,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 3437–3446, 2005.
- S. Nierkens, M. H. den Brok, T. Roelofsen et al., “Route of administration of the TLR9 agonist CpG critically determines the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy in mice,” PloS One, vol. 4, no. 12, Article ID e8368, 2009.
- J. M. Ehrchen, C. Sunderkötter, D. Foell, T. Vogl, and J. Roth, “The endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 agonist S100A8/S100A9 (calprotectin) as innate amplifier of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 557–566, 2009.