Table 1: Natural substances and their confirmed effects in modern medicine described in Al-Tasrif for the surgical management of gynecomastia.

Common nameScientific nameEffects

Dragon’s bloodCalamus dracoWound healing [22], antimicrobial [22]
SarcocollaAstragalus fasciculifoliusWound healing [23, 24]
MyrrhCommiphora molmolWound healing [25], antibacterial [26]
AloeAloe veraAntimicrobial [27], wound healing [28]
Gum Arabic treeAcacia arabicaAntibacterial [29]