- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
ISRN Mathematical Physics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 965164, 10 pages
Spherically Symmetric Fluid Cosmological Model with Anisotropic Stress Tensor in General Relativity
1Department of Mathematics, Government Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444404, India
2Department of Mathematics, Arts, Science and Commerce College, Chikhaldara 444807, India
3Department of Mathematics, Adarsha Science, J. B. Art and Birla Commerce College, Dhamangaon Rly 444709, India
Received 23 April 2012; Accepted 1 July 2012
Academic Editors: M. Rasetti and W.-H. Steeb
Copyright © 2012 D. D. Pawar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This paper deals with the cosmological models for the static spherically symmetric spacetime for perfect fluid with anisotropic stress energy tensor in general relativity by introducing the generating functions and and also discussing their physical and geometric properties.
The study of anisotropic fluid sphere and gravitational collapse problem is important in relativistic astrophysics. Ruderman  investigated relativistic stellar model and shows that the stellar matter may be anisotropic at very high density ranges. Anisotropy in fluid pressure could be introduced by the existences of solid core by the presence of type 3A superfluid. Rago  presented the procedure to obtain the solution of the field equations by using two arbitrary functions in Einstein general relativity where two arbitrary functions are introduced: the anisotropic function that measures the degree of anisotropy and a generating function. These functions determine the relevant physical variables as well as metric coefficients. Kandalkar and Khadekar  have obtained analytical solutions for anisotropic matter distribution in the context of bimetric theory of gravitation. The dynamical equations governing the gravitational nonadiabatic collapse of a shear-free spherical distribution of anisotropic matter in the presence of charge have been studied by Tikekar and Patel . According to Ruderman  and Canuto , the pressure in the various gravitational collapse of spherical distribution consisting of super dense matter distribution, may not be isotropic throughout for such stars; the core region may be anisotropic. Gair  obtained the spherical universes with anisotropic pressure. Thomas and Ratanpal  studied various aspects of gravitational collapse by using analytical and numerical methods by considering the gravitational collapse for spherical distributions, consisting of superdense matter distribution. In the last few years there has been increasing interest in the interior solutions of Einstein field equations corresponding to fluid distributions with anisotropic pressures Letelier , Maharaj and Maartens , Bondi , Coley and Tupper , and Singh et al. . The matter distribution is adequately described by perfect fluid due to the large-scale distribution of galaxies in our universe. Hence a relativistic treatment of the problem requires the consideration of material distribution other than the perfect fluid.
In this paper, we have obtained cosmological models for static spherically symmetric spacetime with anisotropic stress energy tensor by introducing two generating functions and and also discussed their physical properties.
2. Field Equations
Consider the static spherically symmetric space-time: where and being the function of alone.
The energy momentum tensor for perfect fluid with anisotropic stress energy with heat flux is given by where denote the matter density, fluid pressure, heat conduction vector orthogonal to , and components of unit time-like flow vector field of matter, respectively, And the anisotropic stress energy tensor is given by where symbolizes the magnitude of the anisotropic stress tensor and the radial vector is obtained as By choosing the commoving system, yields The energy momentum tensor (2.2) with (2.3) has the following nonvanishing components: The pressure along radial direction, is different from the pressure along the tangential direction, Using (2.7) and (2.8), the magnitude of anisotropic stress tensor is The Einstein field equations for space-time (2.1) with (2.6) yield where the prime over the letters indicates the derivative with respect to .
The consequence of conservation of energy momentum tensor leads to From (2.12), where = mass function.
Again, from (2.13) we obtain Using (2.14), (2.15), and then (2.10) yields Now, we define generating function and also introduce the anisotropic function , respectively, as From (2.17) and (2.18), we can obtain , and the metric potentials are as follows.
Using (2.17) and (2.18) in (2.16), Differentiating (2.14) yields Adding on both sides of (2.12) and using (2.20) and (2.17), we obtain Differentiating (2.17) yields On simplifying (2.21) and (2.22), we get Equation (2.23) is linear differential equation in . We obtain its solution as where is constant of integration and , are, Equation (2.14) yields Putting this value in (2.22) and using (2.17), we obtain which is the expression for effective density .
Here we consider the following three cases.
Case 1. We define the generating function from (2.17) and (2.18) as
Whare is a constant such that , and this choice should lead to a physically reasonable model since the function as that implies the Minkowskian space via (2.29), then the (2.25) yields,
Equation (2.24) and hence (2.7) yield
If the constant, then .
Hence from (2.25), Also from (2.27) and (2.35) we obtain Using (2.32) and (2.33), (2.29) and (2.30) give where .
Using (2.38), the cosmological model for the space-time (2.1) is,
Case 2. We choose the generating function as
From (2.40) we obtain From (2.7) we get where .
From (2.25), The metric potentials in (2.29) and (2.30) become The space-time (2.1) can be written as
Case 3. When , then (2.18) gives
On (2.10) and (2.11), we have
With (2.13), (2.49), and (2.50), we obtain
On integrating, we get
where , is the constant of integration.
Subtracting (2.12) from (2.10), we get Equations From (2.52) and (2.53) yield On differentiating and simplifying (2.12), we get where .
Using (2.54) and (2.55) we have where and , is the constant of integration.
Thus the space-time (2.1) becomes Equation (2.57) perfectly matches with Schwarzschild interior solution with
The cosmological model (2.31) is physically meaningful with radial pressure , tangential pressure , and energy density being given by (2.24), (2.28), and (2.27) respectively. The model has initial singularity at .
Here we discuss the following three cases.
While in Case 3, we consider this gives; which implies that the cosmological model (2.57) is isotropic with pressure density given by (2.58), and our result perfectly matches with Schwarzschild interior solution.
We have investigated the spherically symmetric cosmological model for perfect fluid with anisotropic stress tensor in general relativity. Here we discuss the three different cases in which the last case for matches with the Schwarzschild interior solution.
The authors are grateful to the referee for his valuable comments and suggestions.
- R. Ruderman, “Pulsars: Structure and dynamics,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 10, p. 427, 1972.
- H. Rago, “Anisotropic spheres in general relativity,” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 333–338, 1991.
- S. P. Kandalkar and G. S. Khadekar, “Anisotropic fluid distribution in bimetric theory of relativity,” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 293, no. 4, pp. 415–422, 2004.
- R. Tikekar and L. K. Patel, “Non-adiabatic gravitational collapse of charged radiating fluid spheres,” Pramana, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 1992.
- V. Canuto, “Equation of state at ultrahigh densities,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 12, pp. 167–214, 1974.
- J. R. Gair, “Spherical universes with anisotropic pressure,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 4897–4919, 2001.
- V. O. Thomas and B. S. Ratanpal, “Non-adiabatic gravitational collapse with anisotropic core,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1479–1495, 2007.
- P. S. Letelier, “Anisotropic fluids with two-perfect-fluid components,” Physical Review D, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 807–813, 1980.
- S. D. Maharaj and R. Maartens, “Anisotropic spheres with uniform energy density in general relativity,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 899–905, 1989.
- H. Bondi, “Addendum-Anisotropic Spheres in General Relativity,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 262, p. 1088, 1993.
- A. Coley and B. Tupper, “Spherically symmetric anisotropic fluid ICKV spacetimes,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 2553–2574, 1994.
- T. Singh, P. Singh, and A. Helmi, “New solutions for charged anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity,” Nuovo Cimento B, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 387–393, 1995.