Table 1: Independent risk factors for incident heart failure.

ReferenceRisk factors

Eriksson et al. [26]Hypertension, smoking, weight, heart size, T-wave abnormality, heart rate variability, peak expiratory flow rate, and psychological stress

Chen et al. [27]Gender, age, diabetes, pulse pressure, and body mass index

Kannel et al. [28]Age, blood pressure, LVH, vital capacity, heart rate, CHD, murmurs, diabetes, cardiomegaly, and body mass index

Gottdiener et al. [25] Age, gender, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, blood pressure, FEV1, creatinine, C reactive protein, ankle arm index, atrial fibrillation, LVH, abnormal ejection fraction, and ECG- ST-T abnormality

He et al. [6] Gender, education, physical activity, smoking, weight, hypertension, diabetes, valvular disease, and CHD

Wilhelmsen et al. [31]Age, family history of infarction, diabetes, history of chest pain, smoking, coffee consumption, alcohol abuse, bloods pressure, and body mass index

Bibbins-Domingo et al. [32]Diabetes, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, creatinine clearance, blood pressure, smoking, body mass index, left bundle branch block, and LVH

Carr et al. [33]Age, history of myocardial infarction, vascular disease, atrial fibrillation, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, alcohol abuse, Cornell product, and body mass index

Butler et al. [34] Age, coronary heart disease, smoking, blood pressure, heart rate, serum creatinine, fasting glucose, albumin level, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram

CHD: coronary heart disease; ECG: electrocardiogram; EPESE: established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in the 1st second; LIFE: losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension; LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy; NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; RENAAL: reduction of endpoints in noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus with the Angiotensin II antagonist Losartan.