Table 1: Cytokines and their sources. EC: endothelial cell, L: lymphocyte, M: monocyte/macrophage, P: platelet, and SMC: smooth muscle cell.

Cell sourceCytokine familyLeukocyte phenotypeDetected in plaquePrimary signaling

Proatherogenic
 IL-1 M, L, EC, and SMCIL-1+p38/NF- B
 IL-6M, L, EC, and SMCIL-6+JAK1/STAT3
 IL-8M, L, EC, and SMCIL-8+GPCR/NF- B
 IL-12M, LIL-6Th1+JAK2/STAT3
 IL-18MIL-1Th1+p38/NF- B
 IFN M, L, EC, and SMCIFNTh1+JAK1/STAT1,2
 TNF M, L, and SMCTNF+p38/NF- B

Antiatherogenic
 IL-10M, LIL-10Th2+JAK1/STAT1,3,5
 IL-33M, LIL-1Th2+p38/NF- B
 TGF M, L, SMC, and PTGFTh2+SMAD2,3

Likely antiatherogenic
 IL-4LIL-4Th2+JAK1/STAT5
 IL-19M, L, EC, and SMCIL-10Th2JAK1/STAT3