- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 398297, 8 pages
The Effect of Weight Loss on Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
1Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Science, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, 1955 East West Road, Agriculture Science 314 J, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
2Department of Pediatrics, Kapi’olani Medical Center for Women and Children, 1319 Punahou Street, Honolulu, HI 96826, USA
Received 2 April 2013; Accepted 30 April 2013
Academic Editors: A. Nakajima, C.-T. Shun, and A. A. te Velde
Copyright © 2013 David E. St-Jules et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. B. Schwimmer, C. Behling, R. Newbury et al., “Histopathology of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 641–649, 2005.
- J. B. Schwimmer, R. Deutsch, T. Kahen, J. E. Lavine, C. Stanley, and C. Behling, “Prevalence of fatty liver in children and adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 1388–1393, 2006.
- D. E. Kleiner, E. M. Brunt, M. van Natta et al., “Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1313–1321, 2005.
- J. B. Schwimmer, P. E. Pardee, J. E. Lavine, A. K. Blumkin, and S. Cook, “Cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 277–283, 2008.
- M. Manco, M. Marcellini, R. DeVito, D. Comparcola, M. R. Sartorelli, and V. Nobili, “Metabolic syndrome and liver histology in paediatric non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 381–387, 2008.
- E. Fabbrini, F. Magkos, B. S. Mohammed et al., “Intrahepatic fat, not visceral fat, is linked with metabolic complications of obesity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 36, pp. 15430–15435, 2009.
- E. D'Adamo, M. L. Marcovecchio, C. Giannini et al., “The possible role of liver steatosis in defining metabolic syndrome in prepubertal children,” Metabolism, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 671–676, 2010.
- D. E. St-Jules, C. A. Watters, J. Davis, and S. H. Waxman, “Liver disease among children in Hawai’i diagnosed with metabolic syndrome,” Hawaii Journal of Medicine & Public Health, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 167–171, 2013.
- K. D. Kistler, J. Molleston, A. Unalp, S. H. Abrams, C. Behling, and J. B. Schwimmer, “Symptoms and quality of life in obese children and adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 396–406, 2010.
- N. Kerkar, C. D’Urso, K. van Nostrand, et al., “Psychosocial outcomes for children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease over time and compared with obese controls,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 56, pp. 77–82, 2013.
- C. Carter-Kent, L. M. Yerian, E. M. Brunt et al., “Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in children: a multicenter clinicopathological study,” Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1113–1120, 2009.
- R. Kohli, T. Boyd, K. Lake et al., “Rapid progression of NASH in childhood,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 453–456, 2010.
- A. E. Feldstein, P. Charatcharoenwitthaya, S. Treeprasertsuk, J. T. Benson, F. B. Enders, and P. Angulo, “The natural history of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children: a follow-up study for up to 20 years,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1538–1544, 2009.
- A. Franzese, P. Vajro, A. Argenziano et al., “Liver involvement in obese children: ultrasonography and liver enzyme levels at diagnosis and during follow-up in an Italian population,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 1428–1432, 1997.
- V. Nobili, M. Marcellini, R. Devito et al., “NAFLD in children: a prospective clinical-pathological study and effect of lifestyle advice,” Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 458–465, 2006.
- T. Reinehr, C. Schmidt, A. M. Toschke, and W. Andler, “Lifestyle intervention in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: 2-year follow-up study,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 437–442, 2009.
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Percentile data files with LMS values,” 2009, http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/percentile_data_files.htm.
- 19. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents, “The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, supplement 4th report, pp. 555–576, 2004.
- J. B. Schwimmer, R. Deutsch, J. B. Rauch, C. Behling, R. Newbury, and J. E. Lavine, “Obesity, insulin resistance, and other clinicopathological correlates of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 143, no. 4, pp. 500–505, 2003.
- R. C. Graham, A. Burke, and N. Stettler, “Ethnic and sex differences in the association between metabolic syndrome and suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 442–449, 2009.
- J. B. Schwimmer, W. Dunn, G. J. Norman et al., “SAFETY study: alanine aminotransferase cutoff values are set too high for reliable detection of pediatric chronic liver disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 1357–1364, 2010.
- L. N. Kolonel, B. E. Henderson, J. H. Hankin et al., “A multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles: baseline characteristics,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 346–357, 2000.
- US Census Bureau, “census population profile maps,” 2011, http://www.census.gov/geo/www/maps/2010_census_profile_maps/census_profile_2010_main.html.
- National Institutes of Health, “NIH policy on reporting race and ethnicity data: subjects in clinical research,” 2001, http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not-od-01-053.html.
- J. B. Schwimmer, N. McGreal, R. Deutsch, M. J. Finegold, and J. E. Lavine, “Influence of gender, race, and ethnicity on suspected fatty liver in obese adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. e561–e565, 2005.
- A. Fraser, M. P. Longnecker, and D. A. Lawlor, “Prevalence of elevated alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) among US adolescents and associated factors: NHANES 1999–2004,” Gastroenterology, vol. 133, no. 6, pp. 1814–1820, 2007.
- S. J. Miyagi, I. W. Brown, J. M. L. Chock, and A. C. Collier, “Developmental changes in hepatic antioxidant capacity are age- and sex-dependent,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 440–445, 2009.
- M. I. Goran and B. A. Gower, “Longitudinal study on pubertal insulin resistance,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 7–12, pp. 2444–2450, 2001.
- V. Gilsanz, S. A. Chung, and N. Kaplowitz, “Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1146–1153, 2011.
- T. T. K. Huang, M. S. Johnson, R. Figueroa-Colon, J. H. Dwyer, and M. I. Goran, “Growth of visceral fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, and total body fat in children,” Obesity Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 283–289, 2001.
- J. S. Ko, J. M. Yoon, H. R. Yang et al., “Clinical and histological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 54, pp. 2225–2230, 2009.
- G. Musso, R. Gambino, and M. Cassader, “Recent insights into hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),” Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 1–26, 2009.
- J. E. Lavine, J. B. Schwimmer, J. P. Molleston et al., “Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children: TONIC trial design,” Contemporary Clinical Trials, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2010.
- J. E. Lavine, J. B. Schwimmer, M. L. van Natta et al., “Effect of vitamin e or metformin for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents the tonic randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 16, pp. 1659–1668, 2011.
- T. S. Burgert, S. E. Taksali, J. Dziura et al., “Alanine aminotransferase levels and fatty liver in childhood obesity: associations with insulin resistance, adiponectin, and visceral fat,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 11, pp. 4287–4294, 2006.
- D. R. Mager, J. Yap, C. Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, V. Mazurak, G. Ball, and S. Gilmour, “Anthropometric measures of visceral and subcutaneous fat are important in the determination of metabolic dysregulation in body and girls at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Nutrition in Clinical Practice, vol. 28, pp. 101–111, 2013.
- N. A. Johnson and J. George, “Fitness versus fatness: moving beyond weight loss in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 370–381, 2010.
- K. A. Lê and M. Bortolotti, “Role of dietary carbohydrates and macronutrients in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 477–482, 2008.
- R. D. Lee and D. C. Nieman, Nutrition Assessment, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 2009.