About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Hypertension
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 398485, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/398485
Review Article

Blood Pressure Variability: Prognostic Value and Therapeutic Implications

1Cátedra de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina
2Instituto de Fisiopatología y Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina

Received 10 April 2013; Accepted 14 May 2013

Academic Editors: H. Komine and H. Ueshiba

Copyright © 2013 Christian Höcht. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. V. Chobanian, G. L. Bakris, H. R. Black et al., “Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1206–1252, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Parati, “Blood pressure variability: its measurement and significance in hypertension,” Journal of Hypertension, Supplement, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. S19–S25, 2005. View at Scopus
  3. G. Grassi, M. Bombelli, G. Brambilla, F. Q. Trevano, R. Dell'Oro, and G. Mancia, “Total cardiovascular risk, blood pressure variability and adrenergic overdrive in hypertension: evidence, mechanisms and clinical implications,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 14, pp. 333–338, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Su and C. Miao, “Reduction of blood pressure variability: a new strategy for the treatment of hypertension,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 388–390, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Parati, G. Bilo, and M. Valentini, “Blood pressure variability: methodological aspects, pathophysiological and clinical implications,” in Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension, G. Mancia, G. Grassi, and S. E. Kjeldsen, Eds., pp. 61–71, Informa Healthcare, London, UK, 2008.
  6. G. Parati, J. E. Ochoa, and G. Bilo, “Blood pressure variability, cardiovascular risk, and risk for renal disease progression,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 14, pp. 421–431, 2012.
  7. P. M. Rothwell, S. C. Howard, E. Dolan et al., “Effects of β blockers and calcium-channel blockers on within-individual variability in blood pressure and risk of stroke,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 469–480, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. M. Langager, B. E. Hammerberg, D. L. Rotella, and H. M. Stauss, “Very low-frequency blood pressure variability depends on voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels in conscious rats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 292, no. 3, pp. H1321–H1327, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. C. D. Souza, M. C. Martins-Pinge, V. J. Dias da Silva et al., “Heart rate and arterial pressure variability in the experimental renovascular hypertension model in rats,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 139, no. 1-2, pp. 38–45, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Fazan Jr., D. A. Huber, C. A. A. Silva, V. J. Dias Da Silva, M. C. O. Salgado, and H. C. Salgado, “Sildenafil acts on the central nervous system increasing sympathetic activity,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1683–1689, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. M. Stauss, “Identification of blood pressure control mechanisms by power spectral analysis,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 362–368, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. J. A. Janssen, J. Oosting, D. W. Slaaf, P. B. Persson, and H. A. J. Struijker-Boudier, “Hemodynamic basis of oscillations in systemic arterial pressure in conscious rats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 269, no. 1, pp. H62–H71, 1995. View at Scopus
  13. G. Parati, J. E. Ochoa, C. Lombardi, and G. Bilo, “Assessment and management of blood-pressure variability,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 143–155, 2013.
  14. F. M. Bertera, J. S. Del Mauro, D. Chiappetta et al., “Enantioselective pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of carvedilol in spontaneously hypertensive rats: focus on blood pressure variability,” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 385, pp. 325–335, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. M. Bertera, J. S. Del Mauro, V. Lovera et al., “Acute effects of third generation β-blockers on short-term and beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in sinoaortic-denervated rats,” Hypertension Research, vol. 36, pp. 349–355, 2013.
  16. S. D. Pierdomenico, M. Di Nicola, A. L. Esposito et al., “Prognostic value of different indices of blood pressure variability in hypertensive patients,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 842–847, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Mena, S. Pintos, N. V. Queipo, J. A. Aizpúrua, G. Maestre, and T. Sulbarán, “A reliable index for the prognostic significance of blood pressure variability,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 505–511, 2005. View at Scopus
  18. D. Shimbo, S. Shea, R. L. McClelland, et al., “Associations of aortic distensibility and arterial elasticity with long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure variability: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA),” American Journal of Hypertension, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. G. Parati and P. Lantelme, “Blood pressure variability, target organ damage and cardiovascular events,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1725–1729, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Y. Miao and D. F. Su, “The importance of blood pressure variability in rat aortic and left ventricular hypertrophy produced by sinoaortic denervation,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1865–1872, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. F. Su and C. Y. Miao, “Blood pressure variability and organ damage,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 28, pp. 709–715, 2001.
  22. K. Flues, I. C. Moraes-Silva, C. Mostarda et al., “Cardiac and pulmonary arterial remodeling after sinoaortic denervation in normotensive rats,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 166, no. 1-2, pp. 47–53, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Y. Miao, H. H. Xie, L. S. Zhan, and D. F. Su, “Blood pressure variability is more important than blood pressure level in determination of end-organ damage in rats,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1125–1135, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Parati, G. Pomidossi, F. Albini, D. Malaspina, and G. Mancia, “Relationship of 24-hour blood pressure mean and variability to severity of target-organ damage in hypertension,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 1987. View at Scopus
  25. A. Frattola, G. Parati, C. Cuspidi, F. Albini, and G. Mancia, “Prognostic value of 24-hour blood pressure variability,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1133–1137, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Palatini, M. Penzo, A. Racioppa et al., “Clinical relevance of nighttime blood pressure and of daytime blood pressure variability,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 152, no. 9, pp. 1855–1860, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Mancia, G. Parati, M. Hennig et al., “Relation between blood pressure variability and carotid artery damage in hypertension: baseline data from the European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis (ELSA),” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1981–1989, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Sega, G. Corrao, M. Bombelli et al., “Blood pressure variability and organ damage in a general population: results from the PAMELA study,” Hypertension, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 710–714, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Sander, C. Kukla, J. Klingelhöfer, K. Winbeck, and B. Conrad, “Relationship between circadian blood pressure patterns and progression of early carotid atherosclerosis: a 3-year follow-up study,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 13, pp. 1536–1541, 2000. View at Scopus
  30. C. J. McMullan, G. L. Bakris, R. A. Phillips, and J. P. Forman, “Association of BP variability with mortality among African Americans with CKD,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 731–738, 2013.
  31. T. Kawai, M. Ohishi, K. Kamide, et al., “Differences between daytime and nighttime blood pressure variability regarding systemic atherosclerotic change and renal function,” Hypertension Research, vol. 36, pp. 232–239, 2013.
  32. S. Iwata, Z. Jin, J. E. Schwartz et al., “Relationship between ambulatory blood pressure and aortic arch atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 221, no. 2, pp. 427–431, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Schillaci, G. Bilo, G. Pucci, et al., “Relationship between short-term blood pressure variability and large-artery stiffness in human hypertension: findings from 2 large databases,” Hypertension, vol. 60, pp. 369–377, 2012.
  34. S. Cay, G. Cagirci, A. D. Demir et al., “Ambulatory blood pressure variability is associated with restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in normotensive patients,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 219, no. 2, pp. 951–957, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. E. Schutte, R. Schutte, H. W. Huisman et al., “Blood pressure variability is significantly associated with ECG left ventricular mass in normotensive Africans: The SABPA Study,” Hypertension Research, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1127–1134, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Ozawa, K. Tamura, Y. Okano et al., “Identification of an increased short-term blood pressure variability on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as a coronary risk factor in diabetic hypertensives,” Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. Sakakura, J. Ishikawa, M. Okuno, K. Shimada, and K. Kario, “Exaggerated ambulatory blood pressure variability is associated with cognitive dysfunction in the very elderly and quality of life in the younger elderly,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 720–727, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Fukui, E. Ushigome, M. Tanaka, et al., “Home blood pressure variability on one occasion is a novel factor associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Hypertension Research, vol. 36, pp. 219–225, 2013.
  39. A. García-García, L. García-Ortiz, J. I. Recio-Rodríguez, et al., “Relationship of 24-h blood pressure variability with vascular structure and function in hypertensive patients,” Blood Pressure Monitoring, vol. 18, pp. 101–106, 2013.
  40. K. Eguchi, J. Ishikawa, S. Hoshide et al., “Night time blood pressure variability is a strong predictor for cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 46–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Verdecchia, F. Angeli, R. Gattobigio, C. Rapicetta, and G. Reboldi, “Impact of blood pressure variability on cardiac and cerebrovascular complications in hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. Pringle, C. Phillips, L. Thijs et al., “Systolic blood pressure variability as a risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly hypertensive population,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2251–2257, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. Liu, R. Liu, W. Sun, et al., “Different impacts of blood pressure variability on the progression of cerebral microbleeds and white matter lesions,” Stroke, vol. 43, pp. 2916–2922, 2012.
  44. E. Manios, K. Stamatelopoulos, G. Tsivgoulis et al., “Time rate of blood pressure variation: a new factor associated with coronary atherosclerosis,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1109–1114, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Mancia and G. Parati, “The role of blood pressure variability in end-organ damage,” Journal of Hypertension, Supplement, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. S17–S23, 2003. View at Scopus
  46. G. Mancia, M. Bombelli, R. Facchetti et al., “Long-term prognostic value of blood pressure variability in the general population: results of the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate e Lassociazioni Study,” Hypertension, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1265–1270, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. Cicconetti, M. Costarelia, A. Moise et al., “Blood pressure variability and cognitive function in older hypertensives,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Supplement, no. 9, pp. 63–68, 2004. View at Scopus
  48. K. Asayama, M. Kikuya, R. Schutte, et al., “Home blood pressure variability as cardiovascular risk factor in the population of Ohasama,” Hypertension, vol. 61, pp. 61–69, 2013.
  49. S. D. Pierdomenico, D. Lapenna, A. Bucci et al., “Blood pressure variability and prognosis in uncomplicated mild hypertension,” American Heart Journal, vol. 149, no. 5, pp. 934–938, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Kikuya, T. Ohkubo, H. Metoki et al., “Day-by-day variability of blood pressure and heart rate at home as a novel predictor of prognosis: The Ohasama Study,” Hypertension, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1045–1050, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Muntner, D. Shimbo, M. Tonelli, K. Reynolds, D. K. Arnett, and S. Oparil, “The relationship between visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure and all-cause mortality in the general population: findings from NHANES III, 1988 to 1994,” Hypertension, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 160–166, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. K. Johansson, T. J. Niiranen, P. J. Puukka, and A. M. Jula, “Prognostic value of the variability in home-measured blood pressure and heart rate: The Finn-HOME Study,” Hypertension, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 212–218, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. T. Hsieh, S. T. Tu, T. J. Cho, S. J. Chang, J. F. Chen, and M. C. Hsieh, “Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure strongly predicts all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 5·5-year prospective analysis,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 245–253, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. E. Ushigome, M. Fukui, M. Hamaguchi et al., “The coefficient variation of home blood pressure is a novel factor associated with macroalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Hypertension Research, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1271–1275, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. S. Kilpatrick, A. S. Rigby, and S. L. Atkin, “The role of blood pressure variability in the development of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2442–2447, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. Di Iorio, A. Pota, M. L. Sirico et al., “Blood pressure variability and outcomes in chronic kidney disease,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 27, pp. 4404–4410, 2012.
  57. K. Yokota, M. Fukuda, Y. Matsui, S. Hoshide, K. Shimada, and K. Kario, “Impact of visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure on deterioration of renal function in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease,” Hypertension Research, vol. 36, pp. 151–157, 2013.
  58. B. Di Iorio, L. Di Micco, S. Torraca, et al., “Variability of blood pressure in dialysis patients: a new marker of cardiovascular risk,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 173–182, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. H. Okada, M. Fukui, M. Tanaka, et al., “Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a novel risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. P. Rossignol, J. Cridlig, P. Lehert, M. Kessler, and F. Zannad, “Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events in hemodialysis: insights from FOSIDIAL,” Hypertension, vol. 60, pp. 339–346, 2012.
  61. K. Eguchi, S. Hoshide, J. E. Schwartz, K. Shimada, and K. Kario, “Visit-to-visit and ambulatory blood pressure variability as predictors of incident cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, pp. 962–968, 2012.
  62. G. Mancia, R. Facchetti, G. Parati, and A. Zanchetti, “Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability, carotid atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular events in the European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 126, pp. 569–578, 2012.
  63. H. J. Choi, “Blood pressure variability and its management in hypertensive patients,” Korean Journal of Family Medicine, vol. 33, pp. 330–335, 2012.
  64. G. Schillaci, G. Pucci, and G. Parati, “Blood pressure variability: an additional target for antihypertensive treatment?” Hypertension, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 133–135, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Wang, F. M. Shen, M. W. Wang, and D. F. Su, “Effects of nine antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability in sinoaortic-denervated rats,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1013–1017, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. M. Shen, J. Wang, C. R. Ni, J. G. Yu, W. Z. Wang, and D. F. Su, “Ketanserin-induced baroreflex enhancement in spontaneously hypertensive rats depends on central 5-HT2A receptors,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 702–707, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. P. Han, Z. X. Chu, F. M. Shen, H. H. Xie, and D. F. Su, “Synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reduction of blood pressure and blood pressure variability in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1575–1579, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. P. Xu, F. M. Shen, H. Shu, C. Y. Miao, Y. Y. Jiang, and D. F. Su, “Synergism of atenolol and amlodipine on lowering and stabilizing blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 33–38, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. F. M. Bertera, J. S. Del Mauro, A. H. Polizio, D. Chiappetta, C. A. Taira, and C. Höcht, “Effect of nebivolol on beat-to-beat and short-term blood pressure variability in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 385, pp. 833–843, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. H. Kai, H. Kudo, N. Takayama, S. Yasuoka, H. Kajimoto, and T. Imaizumi, “Large blood pressure variability and hypertensive cardiac remodeling—role of cardiac inflammation,” Circulation Journal, vol. 73, no. 12, pp. 2198–2203, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. Kudo, H. Kai, H. Kajimoto et al., “Exaggerated blood pressure variability superimposed on hypertension aggravates cardiac remodeling in rats via angiotensin II system-mediated chronic inflammation,” Hypertension, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 832–838, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. X. Tao, Y. J. Zhang, F. M. Shen, Y. F. Guan, and D. F. Su, “Fosinopril prevents the pulmonary arterial remodeling in sinoaortic-denervated rats by regulating phosphodiesterase,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 24–31, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Y. Miao, H. H. Xie, J. J. Wang, and D. F. Su, “Candesartan inhibits sinoaortic denervation-induced cardiovascular hypertrophy in rats,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 713–720, 2002. View at Scopus
  74. W. Shang, P. Han, C. B. Yang et al., “Synergism of irbesartan and amlodipine on hemodynamic amelioration and organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1109–1115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. H. Xie, F. M. Shen, X. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Jiang, and D. F. Su, “Blood pressure variability, baroreflex sensitivity and organ damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with various antihypertensive drugs,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 543, no. 1–3, pp. 77–82, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. W. M. Du, C. Y. Miao, J. G. Liu, F. M. Shen, X. Q. Yang, and D. F. Su, “Effects of long-term treatment with ketanserin on blood pressure variability and end-organ damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 233–239, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. G. Liu, L. P. Xu, Z. X. Chu, C. Y. Miao, and D. F. Su, “Contribution of blood pressure variability to the effect of nitrendipine on end-organ damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1961–1967, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. H. Xie, C. Y. Miao, J. G. Liu, and D. F. Su, “Importance of blood pressure variability in organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with combination of nitrendipine and atenolol,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1199–1204, 2002. View at Scopus
  79. H. H. Xie, X. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Chen, F. M. Shen, and D. F. Su, “Synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine on blood pressure variability reduction and organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Hypertension Research, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 685–691, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. Höcht, F. M. Bertera, and C. A. Taira, “Importance of blood pressure variability in the assessment of cardiovascular risk and benefits of antihypertensive therapy,” Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 617–621, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. J. Webb, U. Fischer, Z. Mehta, and P. M. Rothwell, “Effects of antihypertensive-drug class on interindividual variation in blood pressure and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9718, pp. 906–915, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. Cahan, I. Z. Ben-Dov, and M. Bursztyn, “Association of heart rate with blood pressure variability: implications for blood pressure measurement,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 313–318, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. J. Stewart, U. Fischer, and P. M. Rothwell, “Effects of β-blocker selectivity on blood pressure variability and stroke: a systematic review,” Neurology, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 731–737, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. S. Zuern, K. D. Rizas, C. Eick et al., “Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on 24-hour blood pressure variability,” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 3, article 134, 2012.
  85. H. Mitsuhashi, K. Tamura, J. Yamauchi et al., “Effect of losartan on ambulatory short-term blood pressure variability and cardiovascular remodeling in hypertensive patients on hemodialysis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 186–190, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. Masuda, K. Tamura, H. Wakui et al., “Effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker on ambulatory blood pressure variability in hypertensive patients with overt diabetic nephropathy,” Hypertension Research, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 950–955, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. Shigenaga, K. Tamura, T. Dejima et al., “Effects of angiotensin ii type 1 receptor blocker on blood pressure variability and cardiovascular remodeling in hypertensive patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis,” Nephron, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. c31–c40, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. Y. Zhang, D. Agnoletti, J. Blacher, and M. E. Safar, “Blood pressure variability in relation to autonomic nervous system dysregulation: The X-CELLENT Study,” Hypertension Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 399–403, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. E. Ushigome, M. Fukui, M. Hamaguchi et al., “Beneficial effect of calcium channel blockers on home blood pressure variability in the morning in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Diabetes Investigation, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. Y. Zhang, D. Agnoletti, M. E. Safar, and J. Blacher, “Effect of antihypertensive agents on blood pressure variability: the natrilix SR versus candesartan and amlodipine in the reduction of systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients (X-CELLENT) study,” Hypertension, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 155–160, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. Scholze, P. Bramlage, P. Trenkwalder, and R. Kreutz, “Efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of lercanidipine and enalapril in daily practice. A comparison of office, self-measured and ambulatory blood pressure,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 12, no. 18, pp. 2771–2779, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. Hoshino, T. Nakamura, and H. Matsubara, “The bedtime administration ameliorates blood pressure variability and reduces urinary albumin excretion in amlodipine-olmesartan combination therapy,” Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 416–422, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. O. D. Ostroumova, “Blood pressure variability and risk for complications in arterial hypertension,” Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv, vol. 84, pp. 91–97, 2012.
  94. O. D. Ostroumova, “Long-term arterial pressure variability novel target for antihypertensive therapy. Do differences between -adrenoblockers exist,” Kardiologiia, vol. 52, pp. 58–64, 2012.
  95. P. M. Rothwell, “Does blood pressure variability modulate cardiovascular risk?” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. H. Holzgreve, “Blood pressure variability—a neglected risk factor,” MMW-Fortschritte der Medizin, vol. 152, no. 31–33, pp. 47–48, 2010. View at Scopus
  97. B. P. M. Imholz, G. J. Langewouters, G. A. van Montfrans et al., “Feasibility of ambulatory, continuous 24-hour finger arterial pressure recording,” Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 1993. View at Scopus
  98. S. Omboni, G. Parati, A. Frattola et al., “Spectral and sequence analysis of finger blood pressure variability: comparison with analysis of intra-arterial recordings,” Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 26–33, 1993. View at Scopus
  99. S. Omboni, G. Parati, P. Castiglioni et al., “Estimation of blood pressure variability from 24-hour ambulatory finger blood pressure,” Hypertension, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 52–58, 1998. View at Scopus
  100. A. J. Voogel and G. A. van Montfrans, “Reproducibility of twenty-four-hour finger arterial blood pressure, variability and systemic hemodynamics,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1761–1765, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. G. Mancia, G. De Backer, A. Dominiczak, et al., “2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1105–1187, 2007.
  102. National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK), Hypertension: The Clinical Management of Primary Hypertension in Adults: Update of Clinical Guidelines 18 and 34 [Internet], Royal College of Physicians, London, UK, 2011.
  103. E. O’Brien, “Stabilizing blood pressure variability: a new therapeutic target in hypertension,” Medicographia, vol. 34, pp. 25–31, 2012.
  104. J. Redon, “The importance of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients at risk of cardiovascular events,” High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention. In press.