Table 5: Long-term blood pressure variability and target organ damage and cardiovascular events in patients.

StudyStudy populationBlood pressure variability indexOutcome

Kikuya et al. [50]General populationDay-to-day systolic BPVIncreased hazard ratios for cardiovascular and stroke mortality
Muntner et al. [51]General populationVisit-to-visit systolic BPV Increased all-cause mortality
Johansson et al. [52]General populationDay-to-day morning systolic BPVIncreased rate of cardiovascular events
Hsieh et al. [53]Patients with type 2 diabetesVisit-to-visit systolic and diastolic BPVIncreased all-cause mortality
Ushigome et al. [54]Patients with type 2 diabetesDay-to-day systolic and diastolic BPVDevelopment of macroalbuminuria
Kilpatrick et al. [55]Patients with type 1 diabetesAnnual visit-to-visit BPVDevelopment or progression of nephropathy
Di Iorio et al. [56]Subjects with chronic renal failureVisit-to-visit systolic BPV Elevated risk of death
Yokota et al. [57]Patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney diseaseVisit-to-visit systolic BPVDeterioration of renal function
Di Iorio et al. [58]Patients with end stage renal disease under hemodialysisDialysis-to-dialysis BPVIncreased cardiovascular mortality