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ISRN Radiology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 496438, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/496438
Review Article

Radiographic Contrast-Media-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Pathophysiology and Prophylactic Strategies

Department of Surgery, Cambridge Vascular Unit, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Box 201, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Received 16 June 2013; Accepted 14 July 2013

Academic Editors: M. Brodmann, G. Crisi, and G. Korosoglou

Copyright © 2013 Umar Sadat. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is one of the most widely discussed and debated topics in cardiovascular medicine. With increasing number of contrast-media- (CM-) enhanced imaging studies being performed and growing octogenarian population with significant comorbidities, incidence of CI-AKI remains high. In this review, pathophysiology of CI-AKI, its relationship with different types of CM, role of serum and urinary biomarkers for diagnosing CI-AKI, and various prophylactic strategies used for nephroprotection against CI-AKI are discussed in detail.