- About this Journal ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
ISRN Physical Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 675138, 10 pages
Inefficient Vibrational Cooling of C60 in a Supersonic Expansion
1Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
3Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
4Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Received 17 September 2013; Accepted 12 November 2013
Academic Editors: M. Sliwa, D. Strout, L. Vattuone, and A. Vergara
Copyright © 2013 Jacob T. Stewart et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O'Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, “C60: buckminsterfullerene,” Nature, vol. 318, no. 6042, pp. 162–163, 1985.
- J. Cami, J. Bernard-Salas, E. Peeters, and S. E. Malek, “Detection of C60 and C70 in a young planetary nebula,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5996, pp. 1180–1182, 2010.
- K. Sellgren, M. W. Werner, J. G. Ingalls, J. D. T. Smith, T. M. Carleton, and C. Joblin, “C60 in reflection nebulae,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 722, no. 1, pp. L54–L57, 2010.
- D. A. García-Hernández, A. Manchado, P. García-Lario et al., “Formation of fullerenes in H-containing planetary nebulae,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 724, no. 1, pp. L39–L43, 2010.
- D. A. García-Hernández, N. K. Rao, and D. L. Lambert, “Are C60 molecules detectable in circumstellar shells of R Coronae Borealis stars?” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 729, no. 2, p. 126, 2011.
- D. A. García-Hernndez, S. Iglesias-Groth, J. A. Acosta-Pulido et al., “The formation of fullerenes: clues from new C60, C70, and (Possible) planar C24 detections in Magellanic cloud planetary nebulae,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 737, no. 2, article L30, 2011.
- O. Berné and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Formation of buckminsterfullerene (C60) in interstellar space,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 401–406, 2012.
- J. Bernard-Salas, J. Cami, E. Peeters, A. P. Jones, E. R. Micelotta, and M. A. T. Groenewegen, “On the excitation and formation of circumstellar fullerenes,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 757, no. 1, p. 41, 2012.
- R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Hindered rotation of solid 12C60 and 13C60,” Physical Review B, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 5680–5688, 1994.
- N. Sogoshi, Y. Kato, T. Wakabayashi et al., “High-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy of C60 molecules and clusters in parahydrogen solids,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 104, no. 16, pp. 3733–3742, 2000.
- C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Mahmoudi, G. Guelachvili, and J. W. C. Johns, “Line positions and intensities in the ν2 band of D2O improvied pumped D2O laser frequencies,” International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 199–233, 1985.
- R. A. Toth, “HDO and D2O low pressure, long path spectra in the 600–3100 cm−1 region II. D2O line positions and strengths,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. 98–122, 1999.
- B. E. Brumfield, J. T. Stewart, and B. J. McCall, “Extending the limits of rotationally resolved absorption spectroscopy: pyrene,” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 3, pp. 1985–1988, 2012.
- A. Amirav, U. Even, and J. Jortner, “Cooling of large and heavy molecules in seeded supersonic beams,” Chemical Physics, vol. 51, pp. 31–42, 1980.
- V. Piacente, G. Gigli, P. Scardala, A. Giustini, and D. Ferro, “Vapor pressure of C60 buckminsterfullerene,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 99, no. 38, pp. 14052–14057, 1995.
- J. Menendez and J. B. Page, Light Scattering in Solids VIII: Fullerenes, Semiconductor Surfaces, Coherent Phonons, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2000.
- D. E. Weeks and W. G. Harter, “Rotation-vibration scalar coupling χ coefficients and spectroscopic band shapes of buckminsterfullerene,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 209–216, 1991.
- B. E. Brumfield, J. T. Stewart, S. L. Widicus Weaver et al., “A quantum cascade laser cw cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a supersonic expansion source,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 81, no. 6, Article ID 063102, 2010.
- B. E. Brumfield, J. T. Stewart, and B. J. McCall, “High-resolution spectroscopy of the ν8 band of methylene bromide using a quantum cascade laser,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 266, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2011.
- A. Amirav, U. Even, and J. Jortner, “Absorption spectroscopy of ultracold large molecules in planar supersonic expansions,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 1981.
- C. I. Frum, R. Engleman Jr., H. G. Hedderich, P. F. Bernath, L. D. Lamb, and D. R. Huffman, “The infrared emission spectrum of gas-phase C60 (buckmisterfullerene),” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 176, no. 6, pp. 504–508, 1991.
- L. Nemes, R. S. Ram, P. F. Bernath et al., “Gas-phase infrared emission spectra of C60 and C70. Temperature-dependent studies,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 218, no. 4, pp. 295–303, 1994.
- B. Chase, N. Herron, and E. Holler, “Vibrational spectroscopy of C60 and C70 temperature-dependent studies,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 96, no. 11, pp. 4262–4266, 1992.
- R. E. Haufler, J. Conceicao, L. P. F. Chibante et al., “Efficient production of C60 (buckminsterfullerene), C60H36, and the solvated buckide ion,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 94, no. 24, pp. 8634–8636, 1990.
- D. A. Dixon, B. E. Chase, G. Fitzgerald, and N. Matsuzawa, “Prediction of the fundamental vibrational frequencies for C60 by local density functional theory,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 99, no. 13, pp. 4486–4489, 1995.
- K. Busch and M. Busch, Eds., Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: An Ultratrace Absorption Measurement Technique, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 1999.
- O. F. Hagena, “Nucleation and growth of clusters in expanding nozzle flows,” Surface Science, vol. 106, no. 1–3, pp. 101–116, 1981.
- B. E. Brumfield, Development of a quantum cascade laser based spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gas phase C60 [Ph.D. thesis], University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011.
- C. S. Sundar, A. Bharathi, Y. Hariharan, J. Janaki, V. Sankara Sastry, and T. S. Radhakrishnan, “Thermal decomposition of C60,” Solid State Communications, vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 823–826, 1992.
- A. Popović, G. Dražič, and J. Marsel, “Mass spectrometric investigations of fullerenes. I. vapour pressure over the C60/C70 binary system,” Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 985–990, 1994.
- E. Schönherr, K. Matsumoto, and M. Freiberg, “On the evaporation of C60 in vacuum and inert gases at temperatures between 830 K and 1050 K,” Fullerene Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 455–466, 1999.
- P. F. Coheur, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “The absorption cross sections of C60 and C70 in the visible-UV region,” Journal of Physics B, vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 4987–4995, 1996.
- M. E. Sanz, M. C. McCarthy, and P. Thaddeus, “Vibrational excitation and relaxation of five polyatomic molecules in an electrical discharge,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 122, no. 19, Article ID 194319, 2005.
- D. R. Miller, Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, vol. 1, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
- “Chemicalize.org was used for geometry prediction of pyrene, anthracene, tetracene, pentacene, ovalene, and D2O,” April 2013, http://www.chemaxon.com/.
- C. W. Bauschlicher Jr., C. Boersma, A. Ricca et al., “The NASA Ames polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon infrared spectroscopic database: the computed spectra,” The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 341–351, 2010.
- S. R. Langhoff, “Theoretical infrared spectra for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon neutrals, cations, and anions,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 2819–2841, 1996.
- T. Shimanouchi, Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies Consolidated, vol. 1 of National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, USA, 1972.
- M. Sulkes, “Anomalously small jet-cooling of benzene: absence of efficient low-energy collision-induced vibrational relaxation,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 426–430, 1985.
- K. Jinno and C. Kohrikawa, “Supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction of fullerenes from carbon soot,” Chimica Oggi, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 9–15, 1998.
- S. Saim, K. C. Kuo, and D. L. Stalling, “Supercritical fluid extraction of fullerenes C60 and C70 from carbon soot,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1509–1525, 1993.
- C. H. Sin, M. R. Linford, and S. R. Goates, “Supercritical fluid/supersonic jet spectroscopy with a sheath-flow nozzle,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 233–238, 1992.
- R. E. Haufler, Y. Chai, L. P. F. Chibante et al., “Cold molecular beam electronic spectrum of C60 and C70,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 2197–2199, 1991.
- R. E. Haufler, L.-S. Wang, L. P. F. Chibante et al., “Fullerene triplet state production and decay: R2PI probes of C60 and C70 in a supersonic beam,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 179, no. 5-6, pp. 449–454, 1991.
- P. Voumard and R. Zenobi, “Laser-induced thermal desorption of aniline from silica surfaces,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 103, no. 15, pp. 6795–6805, 1995.
- J.-Y. Zhang, D. S. Nagra, and L. Li, “Molecular cooling and supersonic jet formation in laser desorption,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 65, no. 20, pp. 2812–2818, 1993.
- K. Hansen, R. Müller, P. Brockhaus, E. E. B. Campbell, and I. V. Hertel, “Resonant two-photon ionisation spectroscopy of C60,” Zeitschrift fur Physik D, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 153–155, 1997.
- U. Zimmermann, N. Malinowski, U. Näher, S. Frank, and T. P. Martin, “Producing and detecting very large clusters,” Zeitschrift für Physik D, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 85–93, 1994.
- C. Ellert, M. Schmidt, C. Schmitt, T. Reiners, and H. Haberland, “Temperature dependence of the optical response of small, open shell sodium clusters,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 1731–1734, 1995.
- R. Z. Martínez, M. Metsälä, O. Vaittinen, T. Lantta, and L. Halonen, “Laser-locked, high-repetition-rate cavity ringdown spectrometer,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 727–740, 2006.
- M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochimica Acta A, vol. 60, no. 14, pp. 3457–3468, 2004.