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ISRN Allergy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 735031, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/735031
Review Article

Innate Immune Responses in House Dust Mite Allergy

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Oor-Por-Ror Building, 10th Floor, Room No. 1010/5, 1873 Rama IV Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Received 4 November 2012; Accepted 22 November 2012

Academic Editors: Y. Gon, Y. L. Ye, and Z. Zhu

Copyright © 2013 Alain Jacquet. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity.