Figure 4: Measurement of glyphosate-induced generation of ROS in HaCaT cells. (a) Generation of ROS was measured using the fluorescent dye (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-20, 70-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) after treatment of HaCaT cells with vehicle alone, NAC (20 mM), (0.01–0.1 mM) glyphosate, and 10 nM TPA. (b) Inhibition of ROS generation after a prior treatment of NAC. Data are expressed as mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *Increase in ROS generation versus control cells (); **decrease in ROS generation versus control cells ().