Figure 5: Effect of glyphosate on cell-cycle progression and G1/S-phase proteins in HaCaT cells. Cultured cells were treated with (a) vehicle, glyphosate (0.1 mM), and TPA (10 nM). 24 h later, cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. (b) Quantitative assessment of the percentage of HaCaT cells in G1/S-phases, as indicated by propidium iodide (PI). (c) Immunoblot of G1-S-phase cell-cycle-associated proteins in HaCaT cells after treatment with glyphosate and TPA for 24, 42, and 72 h. All results represent the average of three independent experiments ± S.D. * compared with the vehicle control.