Table 4: The more common clinical disorders presenting with neurological and/or psychiatric FNS.

(I) Neurological

(a) Neurodegenerative
 Frontotemporal disorders (FTLD)
 Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
 Cognitive vascular disorders (CVD)
 Frontal variant of AD
 Corticobasal-ganglionic disorders (CBD)
(b) Cerebrovascular and cognitive vascular disorders
 Bland infarcts
  Strategic infarct
  Subcortical infarct
  Watershed infarct
  Frontal, sometimes bilateral as with common origin of both anterior cerebral arteries off the anterior communicating artery
  Leukoaraiosis
  Brainstem infarct
  Cerebellar infarct
  Strategic infarct such as caudate nucleus, basal ganglia, and thalamus
  Frontal lobe amyloid angiopathy
 Hemorrhage
  Amyloid angiopathy
  Microhemorrhage
  Subcortical hypertensive related
(c) Tumors
 Frontal lobe meningioma (Foster Kennedy syndrome)
(d) Traumatic brain injury
 Diffuse axonal injury
 Chronic subacute encephalopathy
(e) Multiple sclerosis
(f) Parkinson’s, Huntington’s
(g) Frontal lobe epilepsies
(h) Normal pressure hydrocephalus
(i) Neurotoxicology—alcohol

(II) Psychiatric

Schizophrenia
Mania and hypomania
Depression
Anxiety
Obsessive compulsive
Tourette’s
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Autism
William’s syndrome
Pervasive developmental disorders