Table 1: Geographical distribution and species of carnivores in the wild seropositive to Neospora caninum antibodies and/or DNA detection.

SpeciesSeroprevalence studiesDNA detection studies
CountryReferencesCountryReferences

Canids
 Coyote USA[19, 60]
 (Canis latrans) confirmed DH [19]USA-Alaska[65]
Canada[66]
 Australian dingo (Canis lupus dingo) confirmed DH [20]Australia[67]
Gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) confirmed DH [21] North America
 USA[68, 69, 99]
 USA-Alaska[65]
Europe
 Spain[40]
 Scandinavia[70]
Other areas
 Israel [71]
 Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) Israel [71]
 Aboriginal and feral wild dogs (some hybrid with dingoes)Australia[51]
 African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)Kenya[82]
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)Europe
 UK [67, 79, 100]   Spain[76]
 Ireland[52, 64, 101]Czech Republic[77]
 Belgium[61]Belgium [78]
 Germany (fur farm)  [102]Ireland[64]
 Poland[80] UK[54]
 Hungary [103]
 Spain[40, 81]
North America
 Canada [66]
Other areas
 Israel [71]
 Culpeo fox (Dusicyon culpaeus)Argentina[104]
 South American gray fox (Dusicyon griseus)Argentina[104]
 North American gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) USA[62]
 Azara’s fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) Brazil[105]
 Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous)Brazil[105]
 Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) Kenya[32]
 Raccoon dog (Nyctereute procyonoides)Korea[106]

Mustelids
 Stone martin (Martes foina) Spain[40]
 Pine martin (Martes martes)Spain[40]
 Eurasian badger (Meles meles)Spain[40]UK[54]
 Polecat (Mustella putorius)Spain[40]UK[54]
 Ferret (Mustela furo or M. putorius furo)UK[54]
 American mink (Neovison vison)Ireland[64] Ireland [64]
UK[54]

Viverrids
 Common genet (Genetta genetta)Spain[40]*

Herpetids
 Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon)Spain[40]*  
[85]

Felids
 Feral cat (Felis silvestris catus)Spain[86]
 Eurasian wild cat (Felis silvestris silvestris)Spain[40]
 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus)Spain[40]
 Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)Kenya[32]
Namibia[87]
 Lion (Panthera leo)South Africa[87]
Kenya[32]

Wild carnivore-scavenger birds
 Common raven (Corvus corax)Spain[93]
 Magpies (Pica pica)Spain[92]
 Common buzzard (Buteo buteo)Spain[92]

Procyonids
 Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
USA[107] USA[108]**

Carnivore marsupials
 Fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata)Australia[38]Australia[38]

*Positive only by cELISA, not confirmed by NAT and/or IFAT.
**Detected by histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods in the brain of a free-ranging raccoon (Procyon lotor) during a canine distemper virus (CDV) outbreak.