Table 2: Wild carnivore species positive for Neospora caninum antibodies in zoo collections and/or in captivity worldwide.

SpeciesPositive seroprevalence studies
CountryReferences

Eurasian or European wolf (Canis lupus lupus)Czech Republic[84]
Brazil[95]
Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)Brazil[50, 95, 109]
Czech Republic[84]
Chiloe fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes)Chile[110]
Czech Republic[84]
Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Czech Republic[84]
Jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi syn.  Herpailurus yagouaroundi)Czech Republic[84]
Brazil[95]
Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)Czech Republic[84]
Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis)Czech Republic[84]
Fisher (Martes pennanti) Czech Republic[84]
Fennec (Vulpes zerda)Czech Republic[84]
Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Brazil[95]
Little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus)Brazil[95]
Jaguar (Panthera onca)Brazil[95]
Puma (Puma concolor)Brazil[95]
Tiger (Panthera tigris)Brazil[95]
Pampas cat (Oncifelis colocolo)Brazil[95]
Caracal (Caracal caracal)Brazil[95]
Serval (Letailurus serval)Brazil[95]
Lion (Panthera leo)Senegal[111]
Brazil[95]
Fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus)Brazil[95]
Bush dog (Speothos venaticus)Brazil[94, 95]
Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous)Brazil[95]
Hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus)Brazil[95]
Blue foxes (Alopex lagopus)China (farm-bred)[96]*

*Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations.