Table 3: Geographical distribution and species of herbivores in the wild seropositive to Neospora caninum, DNA detection, and/or isolation of N. caninum.

Positive seroprevalence Positive DNA detection Positive isolation
Species of wild ruminantsstudiesstudiesstudies
CountryReferencesCountryReferencesCountryReferences

North America
 White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)USA[13, 58, 68, 113, 114]USA[36]
Mexico[112]
Canada[115]
 Bison (Bison bison) USA-Alaska[69]
 Musk ox (Ovibos moschatus)USA-Alaska[69]
 Moose (Alces alces)USA[69]
USA-Alaska[65]
Canada[115]
 Caribou (Rangifer tarandus)USA[69]
USA-Alaska[65]
Canada[115]
 Elk (Cervus canadensis)Canada[115]
 Black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) USA[116] USA[57]**
 Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus)USA[116]
 Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) Brazil[117]

Europe
 Red deer (Cervus elaphus)Italy[59, 118]
Spain[48]
Poland[119]
Greece[120]
 Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)Italy[59, 118, 121]
Italy[118, 121] Belgium[78]
 Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)Spain[48, 122]
Czech Republic[123]a  
Belgium[78]
Sweden[124]
 Alpine ibex (Capra ibex)Italy[118]*
 Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) Spain[125]
 European mouflon (Ovis musimon) Czech Republic[123]a
 Fallow deer (Dama dama)Czech Republic
Poland
[123]a  
[126]
 Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia)Spain[48]
 European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus L.) Poland [127, 128]Poland[127]
 Moose (Alces alces)Sweden[124]b

Asia
 Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis)China[129]
Africa
 Zebra (Equus burchelli) Kenya[32]
 Eland (Taurotragus oryx)Kenya[32]
 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)Kenya[32]
 Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) Kenya[32]
 Impala (Aepyceros melampus)Kenya[32]

*Cited by [118].
aIncluded some animals from hunting farms.
bPositive results by iscom ELISA, negative by WB.
**Systemic neosporosis.