Table 4: Wild herbivore species positive for N. caninum antibodies or DNA detection in zoo collections and/or in captivity worldwide.

SpeciesPositive seroprevalence studies
CountryReferences

Ruminants
 Eld’s deer (Cervus eldi siamensis)France[56]*
 Antelope (Tragelaphus imberbis)Germany[98]*
 Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)Czech Republic[84]
 Lechwe (Kobus leche)Czech Republic[84]
 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)Czech Republic[84]
 Eland (Taurotragus oryx)Czech Republic[84]
 European bison (Bison bonasus)Czech Republic[84]
 Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus)Czech Republic[84]
 Pere David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus)Czech Republic[84]
 Thorold’s deer (Cervus albirostris)Czech Republic[84]
 Eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis)Czech Republic[84]
 Vietnam sika deer (Cervus Nippon pseudaxis)Czech Republic[84, 123]
 Brocket deer (Mazama spp.)Brazil[130]
Musteloidea
 Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens)China[131]
Proboscidea
 Elephants (Elephaus maximus indicus) Thailand[132]
Perissodactyla
South Africa[133]*
 White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)Thailand[134]*
Australia[135]*
Herbivore marsupials
 Parma wallaby (Macropus parma)Austria[136]*

*Clinical cases.