Table 5: Geographical distribution and species of wild lagomorphs, rodents, and insectivorous species seropositive to Neospora caninum antibodies and/or DNA detection.

Species Positive seroprevalence studiesPositive DNA detection studies
CountryReferencesCountryReferences

Lagomorphs
 Wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Egypt [137] UK[138]
 Iberian Hare (Lepus granatensis)Spain [48]+
 Brown hare (Lepus europaeus)Hungary-Slovakia[139]
Austria-Czech Republic[140]

Rodents
 Rat (Rattus norvegicus)Grenada-West Indies
Taiwan
[141]
[142]
Italy[55]
 House mouse (Mus musculus)USA
UK
[141]
[143]
Italy
Australia
[55]
[144]
 Field mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)UK[143]Italy [55]
 Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) Brazil[145, 146]Brazil[147]
 Vole (Microtus arvalis) Austria[148]
 Water vole (Arvicola terrestris) Austria[148]
 Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) Mexico[149]
 Harvest mouse (Micromys minitus) The Netherlands[150]

Insectivorous
 Common shrew (Sorex araneus)The Netherlands[150]
 White-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula)The Netherlands[150]

+cELISA positive results not confirmed by IFAT due to lack of sample.