Table 7: Geographical distribution and species of aquatic (marine and river species) in the wild seropositive to Neospora caninum antibodies.

Species marine and river mammalsSeroprevalence studies
CountryReferences

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus)USA[153]
Sea lion (Zalophus californianus)USA[153]
Ringed seal (Phoca hispida) USA[153]
Bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus)USA[153]
Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina)USA[153]
Ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata)USA[153]
Spotted seal (Phoca largha)USA[153]
Japan[154]
Kuril harbor seal
(Phoca vitulina stejnegeri)
Japan[154]
Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) USA[153]
Sea otter (Enhydra lutris neresis) USA[153, 155]
European otter (Lutra lutra)Ireland[64]*

*DNA detection.