Table 3: Estimated impact of formal financial market participation on farm size and expenditure on variable inputs per hectare.
(a) Nearest neighbour matching (NNM)

OutcomesAverage treatment
effect (ATE)
Average treatment
effect on untreated
(ATU)
Average treatment
effect on the treated (ATT)

Farm size5.9935.8820.111 (0.21)
Expenditure on variable inputs190.826105.64285.184*** (4.93)
No. of observations 218 180

(b) Radius matching (RM) with a calliper of 0.01

OutcomesAverage treatment
effect (ATE)
Average treatment
effect on untreated (ATU)
Average treatment
effect on the treated (ATT)

Farm size6.05845.1430.985 (0.66)
Expenditure on variable inputs192.519113.09579.423*** (3.17)
No. of observations 190 174

(c) Kernel-based matching (KBM) using smoothening parameter of 0.06

OutcomesAverage treatment
effect (ATE)
Average treatment
effect on untreated (ATU)
Average treatment
effect on the treated (ATT)

Farm size6.1275.7210.406 (0.65)
Expenditure on variable inputs192.083109.50282.581*** (3.02)
No. Of observations 227 190

-statistics are in parenthesis.
Source: own calculations.
.