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ISRN Dermatology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 360590, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/360590
Research Article

A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study of Cutaneous Lesions in Newborn

1Department of Dermatology, Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, KLE University’s JN Medical College, H. No. 2, Second Cross, Veerbhadra Nagar, Belgaum, Karnataka 590010, India
2Department of Dermatology, Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, BLDE University, Bijapur, Karnataka 586103, India

Received 14 August 2013; Accepted 20 October 2013; Published 20 January 2014

Academic Editors: A. Belloni-Fortina and A. Rebora

Copyright © 2014 Farhana Tahseen Taj Sameer Haveri and Arun C. Inamadar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Cutaneous alterations are common in neonates. The majority of lesions are physiological, transient, or self-limited and require no therapy. Although much has been reported on the various disorders peculiar to the skin of infant, very little is known about variations and activity of the skin in neonates. Objective. To study the various pattern of skin lesions in newborn and to estimate the prevalence of physiological and pathological skin lesions in newborn. Methods. A total of 1000 newborns were examined in a hospital-based, cross-sectional prospective study in the period of November 2007 to May 2009. Results. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were sebaceous gland hyperplasia (89.4%), Epstein pearls (89.1%), Mongolian spot (84.7%), knuckle pigmentation (57.9%), linea nigra (44.5%), hypertrichosis (35.3%), miniature puberty (13.3%), acrocyanosis (30.9%), physiological scaling (10.8%), and vernix caseosa (7.7%). Of the transient noninfective conditions, erythema toxicum neonatorum was seen in 23.2% newborns and miliaria crystallina in 3% newborns. The birthmarks in descending order of frequency were salmon patch (20.7%), congenital melanocytic nevi (1.9%), and café-au-lait macule (1.3%). Cutaneous signs of spinal dysraphism were sacral dimple (12.8%), meningomyelocele (0.5%), acrochordons (0.1%), and dermoid cyst (0.1%). Conclusion. The physiological and transient skin lesions are common in newborns particularly sebaceous gland hyperplasia, Epstein pearls, Mongolian spots, and erythema toxicum neonatorum. It is important to differentiate them from other more serious skin conditions to avoid unnecessary therapeutic interventions.