Figure 15: Observed permeate efficiency of bovine serum albumin-loaded TMC nanoparticles, ALG-modified TMC nanoparticles at low (5 mg/mL) and high concentration (20 mg/mL), and control (bovine serum albumin solution) using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Circles indicated permeate efficiency that was significantly higher () than that of the control. Asterisks indicated permeate efficiency that was significantly higher () than that of nonmodified TMC nanoparticles. No significant difference was observed between nonmodified and ALG-modified TMC nanoparticles at 5 mg/mL. All data are . (). Reproduced from  with permission of Elsevier.