Table 2: Demographic and lifestyle characteristics by health literacy level.

CharacteristicOverall ( )Functional health literacy
Low; 1~2.2 ( )Middle; 2.3~3.0 ( )High; 3.1~4.0 ( )

Gender (women; %)376 (60.6)159 (71.6)111 (57.5)106 (51.7)***
Age (mean ± SD) **
Education (≥high school; %)114 (19.2)21 (10)38 (20.5)55 (27.8)***
Living arrangements (%)*
 Alone57 (9.4)22 (10.2)18 (9.4)17 (8.4)
 Spouse99 (16.3)22 (10.2)32 (16.8)45 (22.3)
 Living with family453 (74.4)172 (79.6)141 (73.8)140 (69.3)
Total ADL (going out alone; %)420 (69.2)107 (48.9)183 (75.9)130 (88.4)***
Drinking habits (current; %)163 (26.5)44 (19.9)61 (31.9)58 (28.4)*
Smoking habits (current; %)27 (4.4)10 (4.5)10 (5.2)7 (3.4)ns
Physical activity (active; %)231 (37.7)60 (27.1)73 (38.4)98 (48.5)***
Dietary variety score (≥5; %)230 (39)65 (30.7)64 (35.2)101 (51.5)***
Medical check-up (attended; %)360 (58.1)96 (43.2)120 (62.2)144 (70.2)***

Note. Data are (%) or means ± SD. , , . There are missing values on some items.
ADL: activities of daily living.
was used for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance was used for continuous variables.