International Scholarly Research Notices The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Metabolic Effects of Social Isolation in Adult C57BL/6 Mice Wed, 26 Nov 2014 11:54:20 +0000 Obesity and metabolic dysfunction are risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and certain forms of cancers. Both animal studies and human population-based and clinical studies have suggested that chronic stress is a risk factor for metabolic disorders. A good social support system is known to exert positive effects on the mental and physical well-being of an individual. On the other hand, long-term deprivation of social contacts may represent a stressful condition that has negative effects on health. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic social isolation on metabolic parameters in adult C57BL/6 mice. We found that individually housed mice had increased adipose mass compared to group-housed mice, despite comparable body weight. The mechanism for the expansion of white adipose tissue mass was depot-specific. Notably, food intake was reduced in the social isolated animals, which occurred around the light-dark phase transition periods. Similarly, reductions in heat generated and the respiratory exchange ratio were observed during the light-dark transitions. These phase-specific changes due to long-term social isolation have not been reported previously. Our study shows social isolation contributes to increased adiposity and altered metabolic functions. Meng Sun, Eugene Y. Choi, Daniel J. Magee, Colin W. Stets, Matthew J. During, and En-Ju D. Lin Copyright © 2014 Meng Sun et al. All rights reserved. Concentrated Hypoxia-Preconditioned Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Wounds Healing in Full-Thickness Skin Defect Model Wed, 26 Nov 2014 00:10:15 +0000 In recent years, the bioactive factors were utilized in exercise and athletic skin injuries. In this research, the concentrated conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cells, which is rich in bioactive factor, is applied in full-thickness skin defect model to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues. The surface markers and the potential of differentiation were analyzed. The conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned stem cells was collected and freeze-dried and then applied on the rat full-thickness skin defect model, and the healing time of each group was recorded. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of skin was assessed by microscope. The characteristics of adipose mesenchymal stem cells were similar to those of other mesenchymal stem cells. The concentration of protein in freeze-dried conditioned medium in 1 mL water was about 15 times higher than in the normal condition medium. In vivo, the concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned conditioned medium can reduce the wound size and accelerate the skin wound healing. The concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium has great effect on rat model of wound healing, and it would be an ideal agent for wound care in clinical application. Biao Sun, Shilei Guo, Fei Xu, Bin Wang, Xiujuan Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, and Yan Xu Copyright © 2014 Biao Sun et al. All rights reserved. Polymorphisms in Glutathione S-Transferase M1, T1, and P1 in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Pilot Study Tue, 25 Nov 2014 12:46:30 +0000 Background. Although the direct cause of chronic periodontitis is bacterial infection, the progression of this disease depends on genetic and environmental factors, and smoking is a known risk factor in the development and severity of the disease. An individual’s susceptibility may be influenced by polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase genes. These genes encode enzymes that metabolize xenobiotic compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms in Mexicans with chronic periodontitis. Methods. 60 Mexicans with chronic periodontitis (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers) were studied. A peripheral blood sample was taken for subsequent DNA extraction. The genetic material was PCR-amplified followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism with the aim of identifying GST polymorphisms. Results. Polymorphisms in the GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes were not significantly different between the smokers and nonsmokers. However, there were significant differences between groups in polymorphisms in the GSTM1 gene. The patients with chronic periodontitis have a higher frequency of null and mutant polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 compared with historical data from a healthy Mexican population. Conclusions. The presence of these polymorphisms may be a risk factor for the development of chronic periodontitis. Victor Raul Camargo Ortega, Leliette Deyanira Bravo López, Angel Visoso Salgado, Fernando Mejia Sanchez, and Julieta Castillo Cadena Copyright © 2014 Victor Raul Camargo Ortega et al. All rights reserved. Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy with a Posterior Approach to the Seminal Vesicle in 300 Patients Mon, 24 Nov 2014 13:03:15 +0000 Background. The goal of this study was to analyze the perioperative outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (RALPs) performed at our center. Methodology. We retrospectively reviewed 300 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent RALP with a posterior dissection approach to the seminal vesicle between May 2011 and November 2013. The mean patient age was years (range: 41–78 years), and the mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, at diagnosis of prostate cancer, was  ng/mL (range: 2.20–55.31 ng/mL). Results. The median duration of robotic surgery was 160 min (mean:  min; range: 75–345 min). Median estimated blood loss, including that in urine, was 200 mL (mean:  mL; range: 4–3250 mL). Intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications occurred in 3.0% of patients; 4 patients required allogeneic blood transfusion. As a measure of patient continence, 82.4% did not use more than 1 absorbent pad in 24 h, at 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion. RALP with an initial posterior dissection to the seminal vesicle was a safe and efficient method for controlling prostate cancer, even in these initial cases. Takahiro Yasui, Keiichi Tozawa, Atsushi Okada, Satoshi Kurokawa, Hiroki Kubota, Kentaro Mizuno, Yukihiro Umemoto, Noriyasu Kawai, Shoichi Sasaki, Yutaro Hayashi, and Kenjiro Kohri Copyright © 2014 Takahiro Yasui et al. All rights reserved. Incidence of Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Palestinian Population: A Clinical Investigation Mon, 24 Nov 2014 13:02:17 +0000 Purpose. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate clinically the percentage of permanent mandibular first molar teeth with three roots amongst Palestinian population. Patients and Methods. Three hundred twenty-two mandibular first molars from 185 females and 137 males scheduled for root canal treatment at the Dental Center of the Arab American University were examined over a 2-year period. The incidence of a third root revealed by periapical radiographs and the comparison of the occurrence between males and females and between the right and left sides of the mandible were recorded. Statistical Analysis. It was performed using the chi-square test with a significant level set at %. Results. Of the 322 treated mandibular first molars, twelve teeth were found to have a third root with an overall incidence being 3.73%. More teeth with a third root were treated on the right side of the mandible compared to the left side. Conclusion. The incidence of a third root in Palestinian population was within the range of previous reports from the Middle East but considerably lower than the percentage from the Far East. Raed Mukhaimer and Zafer Azizi Copyright © 2014 Raed Mukhaimer and Zafer Azizi. All rights reserved. Motor Activity in Aging: An Integrated Approach for Better Quality of Life Mon, 24 Nov 2014 10:12:35 +0000 Old age is normally associated with stereotypical structural and physiological changes in the brain that are caused by deterioration in elementary cognitive, sensory, and sensorimotor functions as well as increased susceptibility to stress. These changes are connected with gait impairment and falls, especially among patients with common neurological diseases. Even in the absence of history of falling or when there is no physical injury after a fall, many older people develop a fear of falling that leads to restricted mobility, reduced activity, depression, social isolation, worsened metabolic disease, and increasing risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although links between cognitive decline and age-associated brain changes have been clarified, relationships between gait disorders and psychophysiological alterations in aging are less well understood. This review focuses on two crucial elements of aged individuals with gait disorders: characteristic comorbidities in the elderly and the psychophysiological effects of physical exercise in the elderly with gait disorder. We propose an integrated approach to studying elderly subjects with gait disorder before starting a program of motor rehabilitation with wearable robotic devices, in order to investigate the effectiveness and safety of the ambulatory training. Lorenza Pratali, Francesca Mastorci, Nicola Vitiello, Annamaria Sironi, Amalia Gastaldelli, and Angelo Gemignani Copyright © 2014 Lorenza Pratali et al. All rights reserved. Approximate Solutions for Flow with a Stretching Boundary due to Partial Slip Mon, 24 Nov 2014 09:45:44 +0000 The homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is coupled with versions of Laplace-Padé and Padé methods to provide an approximate solution to the nonlinear differential equation that describes the behaviour of a flow with a stretching flat boundary due to partial slip. Comparing results between approximate and numerical solutions, we concluded that our results are capable of providing an accurate solution and are extremely efficient. U. Filobello-Nino, H. Vazquez-Leal, A. Sarmiento-Reyes, B. Benhammouda, V. M. Jimenez-Fernandez, D. Pereyra-Diaz, A. Perez-Sesma, J. Cervantes-Perez, J. Huerta-Chua, J. Sanchez-Orea, and A. D. Contreras-Hernandez Copyright © 2014 U. Filobello-Nino et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Analysis of Hall Effect on Transient Hartman Flow about a Rotating Horizontal Permeable Surface in a Porous Medium under Inclined Magnetic Field Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper proposes the exact solution for unsteady flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past a impulsively started infinite horizontal surface which is rotating with an angular velocity embedded in a saturated porous medium under the influence of strong magnetic field with hall effect. Our study focuses on the change of direction of the external magnetic field on the flow system which leads to change in the flow behavior and skin frictional forces at the boundary. Systems of flow equations are solved using Laplace transform technique. The impacts of control parameters Hartman number, rotation of the system, hall effect, inclination of the magnetic field, and Darcy number on primary and secondary velocities are shown graphically, skin friction at horizontal boundary in tabular form. For validating our results, in the absence of permeability of the porous medium and inclination of the magnetic field the results are in good agreement with the published results. M. Suresh and A. Manglik Copyright © 2014 M. Suresh and A. Manglik. All rights reserved. Does a Dedicated Unit for the Treatment of Hip Fractures Improve Acute Outcomes? Sun, 23 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of this study is to establish whether management of patients in a unit dedicated to the treatment of hip fractures improves acute outcomes. We prospectively studied 300 patients with hip fractures in two separate groups. Patients in Group 1 were operated on in a mixed trauma unit and recovered in a traditional trauma ward. Patients in Group 2 were operated on in dedicated theatres and recovered in a unit which catered exclusively for hip fractures. The ages, ASA grades, and type of procedure performed in the two groups were comparable. The 30-day mortality rate in Group 2 was 9% as opposed to 12% in Group 1 (). The inpatient length of stay was significantly lower in Group 2 (18 days versus 25 days; ) and so was the time taken to operate (28 hours versus 34 hours; ). A greater percentage of patients in Group 2 were discharged home as opposed to a nursing home (75% versus 67%). This difference approached significance (). We conclude that prioritisation and prompt management of patients with hip fractures in a dedicated unit significantly improve time to surgery and significantly decrease length of stay. Al-achraf Khoriati, Wael Dandachli, Rupinderbir Deol, and Nicholas de Roeck Copyright © 2014 Al-achraf Khoriati et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Salivary Fistulas in Patients Undergoing Salvage Total Laryngectomy Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:06:10 +0000 Background. Salivary fistula is a common complication after salvage total laryngectomy. Previous studies have not considered the number of layers of pharyngeal closure and have not classified fistulas according to severity. Our objective was to analyze our institutional experience with salvage total laryngectomy, categorize salivary fistulas based on severity, and study the effect of various pharyngeal closure techniques on fistula incidence. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 48 patients who underwent salvage total laryngectomy, comparing pharyngeal closure technique and use of a pectoralis major flap with regard to salivary fistula rate. Fistulas were categorized into major and minor fistulas based on whether operative intervention was required. Results. The major fistula rate was 18.8% (9/48) and the minor fistula rate was 29.2% (14/48). The overall (major plus minor) fistula rate was 47.9%. The overall fistula and major fistula rates decreased with increasing the number of closure layers and with use of a pectoralis major flap; however, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. Other than age, there were no clinicopathologic variables associated with salivary fistulas. Conclusion. For salvage total laryngectomies, increasing the number of closure layers or use of a pectoralis major flap may reduce the risk of salivary fistula. Shethal Bearelly and Steven J. Wang Copyright © 2014 Shethal Bearelly and Steven J. Wang. All rights reserved. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:41:51 +0000 Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani, Shahrokh Amiri, Asghar Arfaie, Azadeh Ahmadi, and Mahmoud Farvareshi Copyright © 2014 Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Screening of Novel 4-Substituted Phenyl-5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-yl]-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:30:25 +0000 The paper describes a convenient method for the preparation of 4-substituted phenyl-5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-yl]-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones. The structures of the synthesized compounds are established by the results of LCMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR and elemental analyses. The mercaptotriazoles are indicated to be in thione form by 1H NMR spectra. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds 12d and 12h exhibit encouraging results, while the remaining compounds show moderate activities. On the basis of spectral studies, formation of 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles from the isobenzofuran acyl thiosemicarbazides 11(a–h) is ruled out. Namratha Bhandari and Santosh L. Gaonkar Copyright © 2014 Namratha Bhandari and Santosh L. Gaonkar. All rights reserved. Study of the Effect of Dillenia indica Fruit Mucilage on the Properties of Metformin Hydrochloride Loaded Spray Dried Microspheres Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Natural materials are preferred over synthetic counterparts because of their biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The present work was proposed to utilize mucilage from natural source for the development of controlled release formulation of metformin hydrochloride. Natural mucilaginous substance extracted from Dillenia indica L. (DI) fruit was used in fabricating controlled release microspheres. The microspheres were prepared by spray drying method under different formulation parameters. The prepared microspheres were studied for particle size, drug excipient compatibility, particle shape and surface morphologies, drug entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesivity, and in vitro drug release properties. The prepared microspheres exhibited mucoadhesive properties and demonstrated controlled release of metformin hydrochloride. The study reveals that the natural materials can be used for formulation of controlled release microspheres and would provide ample opportunities for further study. Hemanta Kumar Sharma and Lila Kanta Nath Copyright © 2014 Hemanta Kumar Sharma and Lila Kanta Nath. All rights reserved. Attitude and Knowledge of Indian Emergency Care Residents towards Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:38:06 +0000 Objective. Several studies carried out in developed countries have reported disproportionately high usage of acid suppressive drugs, especially proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, systematic assessment of attitude and practices of health care providers towards the use of these drugs in developing countries is lacking. In this study, we assessed the knowledge, attitude, and preferences of resident doctors posted in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in North India, towards the use of PPIs. Methods. A questionnaire based survey was carried out. Results. Fifty resident doctors responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-six percent reported prescribing acid suppressive drugs for majority of their patients, while 12% prescribed them to almost all patients they attended. Acute gastritis was the most common indication for prescribing PPI/H2 blockers (50%). The majority of respondents (92%) regarded PPIs as their first choice in acid suppressive agents and 58% administered it through intravenous route. Knowledge about PPI related adverse effects was low. Conclusions. Emergency care residents in India also tend to overuse PPIs in a manner similar to their counterparts in developed countries. Specific measures may be helpful in preventing such practices. Biswa Mohan Padhy, Hemant Singh Bhadauria, and Yogendra Kumar Gupta Copyright © 2014 Biswa Mohan Padhy et al. All rights reserved. Covariations between Shell-Growth Parameters and the Control of the Ranges of Variation of Functionally Relevant Shell-Shape Parameters in Bivalves: A Theoretical Approach Tue, 18 Nov 2014 10:59:38 +0000 Major traits of shell shape in bivalves may alternatively be described in terms of (i) functionally relevant parameters, assumed to play a significant role in the adaptation of bivalves molluscs to their environments (such as the shell-outline elongation , ventral convexity , and dissymmetry ), or (ii) growth-based parameters, directly controlled by the animal. Due to the geometrical linkage between functionally-relevant and growth-based parameters, adaptive constraints that may either widen or narrow the respective ranges of variations of the functional parameters lead to the onset of specific covariations (either positive or negative) between the growth-based parameters. This has practical interest since adaptive constraints are often difficult to identify directly, while they can be conveniently inferred indirectly via the easily recorded patterns of covariances between growth-based parameters. Hereafter, I provide the theoretical background of this tool, including (1) establishing the geometrical relationships between growth-based and functionally relevant parameters and (2) then specifying the correspondences between the different patterns of adaptive constraints, widening or narrowing the variations of the functional parameters and the corresponding patterns of covariations between the growth-based parameters. Illustrative examples of the practical use of this tool are provided, considering both interspecific and intraspecific variations within marine and fresh-water clams. Jean Béguinot Copyright © 2014 Jean Béguinot. All rights reserved. Zone-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Tue, 18 Nov 2014 09:15:15 +0000 Extensive research happening across the globe witnessed the importance of Wireless Sensor Network in the present day application world. In the recent past, various routing algorithms have been proposed to elevate WSN network lifetime. Clustering mechanism is highly successful in conserving energy resources for network activities and has become promising field for researches. However, the problem of unbalanced energy consumption is still open because the cluster head activities are tightly coupled with role and location of a particular node in the network. Several unequal clustering algorithms are proposed to solve this wireless sensor network multihop hot spot problem. Current unequal clustering mechanisms consider only intra- and intercluster communication cost. Proper organization of wireless sensor network into clusters enables efficient utilization of limited resources and enhances lifetime of deployed sensor nodes. This paper considers a novel network organization scheme, energy-efficient edge-based network partitioning scheme, to organize sensor nodes into clusters of equal size. Also, it proposes a cluster-based routing algorithm, called zone-based routing protocol (ZBRP), for elevating sensor network lifetime. Experimental results show that ZBRP out-performs interims of network lifetime and energy conservation with its uniform energy consumption among the cluster heads. Muni Venkateswarlu Kumaramangalam, Kandasamy Adiyapatham, and Chandrasekaran Kandasamy Copyright © 2014 Muni Venkateswarlu Kumaramangalam et al. All rights reserved. Behavioral Pattern during Dental Pain in Intellectually Disabled Children: A Comparative Study Tue, 18 Nov 2014 06:59:11 +0000 Aim. Children with developmental disabilities generally experience more pain than the normal children. Description of pain is generally difficult in children and more so in children with intellectual disabilities. The study aimed at evaluating dental pain in children with intellectual disabilities. Methods. The survey was carried out in an institution caring for intellectually disabled children to determine the oral health status and the treatment needs of the special kids. 236 children were surveyed out of which the test group is comprised of 111 intellectually disabled children and the control group had 125 normal children with age ranging between five to eighteen years. A questionnaire was presented to the caregivers to elaborate about dental pain in their wards using the dental discomfort questionnaire (DDQ+). The children were examined for dental caries and periodontal status based on the WHO indices for oral hygiene status. Result. Results revealed a statistically significant difference between intellectual disability and brushing, chewing, and earache. The frequency of reporting dental pain was lesser in the intellectually disabled group. Conclusion. Children with intellectual disability tended to report dental pain of any nature with lesser frequency than typically developing peers. They also faced greater difficulty in brushing and chewing. Muthukali Shanmugam, Vetrivel Shivakumar, Vijayarangan Anitha, Bagavathi Perumal Meenapriya, Srinivasan Aishwarya, and Ramakrishnan Anitha Copyright © 2014 Muthukali Shanmugam et al. All rights reserved. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study Tue, 18 Nov 2014 06:23:50 +0000 Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations between child’s and caretaker’s characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were analyzed. More than 90% of caretakers were female with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and about 60% were biological mothers. The children’s age ranged from 1 to 9 years. Disciplinary acts and child rearing practices that were considered to be child maltreatment behaviors were reported as follows: psychological discipline 82.4%, physical discipline 79.4%, and neglect 29.4%. No associations between the child’s or the caretaker’s characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were found. In conclusion, child maltreatment behaviors were frequent in caretakers of children born to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy. Supervision on child rearing and careful monitoring are needed for this population. Nontima Patcharoros, Sudsabuy Chulakadabba, Nattawadee Na Manorom, and Vitharon Boon-yasidhi Copyright © 2014 Nontima Patcharoros et al. All rights reserved. The Burden of Diarrheal Diseases among Children under Five Years of Age in Arba Minch District, Southern Ethiopia, and Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 18 Nov 2014 06:10:54 +0000 Introduction. In Ethiopia diarrhea is the second cause for clinical presentation among under five-year child population next to pneumonia and it is also more common in rural than in urban areas. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch District. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. To identify predictors of diarrhea the negative binomial regression model was used to predict and control the effect of confounders. Results. The prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children was 30.5%. This study showed children whose mothers did not attend any formal education were 89% more likely to develop diarrhea (APR = 1.89, [95% CI: 1.35, 2.53]) compared to their counterparts. Similarly, children’s being in age category 6-23 months (APR = 2.78 [95% CI: 1.72, 4.55]) and mothers’ poor hand washing practice (APR = 2.33 [95% CI: 1.80, 4.15]) were found predictors of diarrhea. The study also showed that, out of 180 mothers whose child had got diarrhea, about 31% of mothers could not give anything to manage the diarrhea. Conclusions. In this study the prevalence of diarrhea was high which was significantly associated with maternal education level, age of the child, and personal hygiene practices. Therefore, women’s education level of at least primary school and enhancing community based behavioral change communications using multiple channels (radio) and community health workers are recommended to reduce the occurrence and consequences of childhood diarrhea in the study area. Shikur Mohammed and Dessalegn Tamiru Copyright © 2014 Shikur Mohammed and Dessalegn Tamiru. All rights reserved. Exact Analytical Solution for 3D Time-Dependent Heat Conduction in a Multilayer Sphere with Heat Sources Using Eigenfunction Expansion Method Tue, 18 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An exact analytical solution is obtained for the problem of three-dimensional transient heat conduction in the multilayered sphere. The sphere has multiple layers in the radial direction and, in each layer, time-dependent and spatially nonuniform volumetric internal heat sources are considered. To obtain the temperature distribution, the eigenfunction expansion method is used. An arbitrary combination of homogenous boundary condition of the first or second kind can be applied in the angular and azimuthal directions. Nevertheless, solution is valid for nonhomogeneous boundary conditions of the third kind (convection) in the radial direction. A case study problem for the three-layer quarter-spherical region is solved and the results are discussed. Nemat Dalir Copyright © 2014 Nemat Dalir. All rights reserved. Aspect Ratio Model for Radiation-Tolerant Dummy Gate-Assisted n-MOSFET Layout Tue, 18 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In order to acquire radiation-tolerant characteristics in integrated circuits, a dummy gate-assisted n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (DGA n-MOSFET) layout was adopted. The DGA n-MOSFET has a different channel shape compared with the standard n-MOSFET. The standard n-MOSFET has a rectangular channel shape, whereas the DGA n-MOSFET has an extended rectangular shape at the edge of the source and drain, which affects its aspect ratio. In order to increase its practical use, a new aspect ratio model is proposed for the DGA n-MOSFET and this model is evaluated through three-dimensional simulations and measurements of the fabricated devices. The proposed aspect ratio model for the DGA n-MOSFET exhibits good agreement with the simulation and measurement results. Min Su Lee and Hee Chul Lee Copyright © 2014 Min Su Lee and Hee Chul Lee. All rights reserved. Functional Performance Testing and Patient Reported Outcomes following ACL Reconstruction: A Systematic Scoping Review Mon, 17 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. A systematic scoping review of the literature to identify functional performance tests and patient reported outcomes for patients who undergo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and rehabilitation that are used in clinical practice and research during the last decade. Methods. A literature search was conducted. Electronic databases used included Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and AMED. The inclusion criteria were English language, publication between April 2004 and April 2014, and primary ACL reconstruction with objective and/or subjective outcomes used. Two authors screened the selected papers for title, abstract, and full-text in accordance with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality of all papers was assessed by a checklist of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Results. A total of 16 papers were included with full-text. Different authors used different study designs for functional performance testing which led to different outcomes that could not be compared. All papers used a measurement for quantity of functional performance except one study which used both quantity and quality outcomes. Several functional performance tests and patient reported outcomes were identified in this review. Conclusion. No extensive research has been carried out over the past 10 years to measure the quality of functional performance testing and control stability of patients following ACL reconstruction. However this study found that the measurement of functional performance following ACL reconstruction consisting of a one-leg hop for a set distance or a combination of different hops using limb symmetry index (LSI) was a main outcome parameter of several studies. A more extensive series of tests is suggested to measure both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of functional performance after the ACL reconstruction. The KOOS and the IKDC questionnaires are both measures that are increasingly being used for ACL reconstruction throughout the last decade. Adel Almangoush and Lee Herrington Copyright © 2014 Adel Almangoush and Lee Herrington. All rights reserved. On the Application of Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Systems of Linear Equations Sun, 16 Nov 2014 12:22:45 +0000 The application of homotopy perturbation method (HPM) for solving systems of linear equations is further discussed and focused on a method for choosing an auxiliary matrix to improve the rate of convergence. Moreover, solving of convection-diffusion equations has been developed by HPM and the convergence properties of the proposed method have been analyzed in detail; the obtained results are compared with some other methods in the frame of HPM. Numerical experiment shows a good improvement on the convergence rate and the efficiency of this method. S. A. Edalatpanah and M. M. Rashidi Copyright © 2014 S. A. Edalatpanah and M. M. Rashidi. All rights reserved. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats Sun, 16 Nov 2014 11:44:46 +0000 Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males . The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased . Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights . In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females. Sittichai Koontongkaew, Orapan Poachanukoon, Seewaboon Sireeratawong, Thaweephol Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Parirat Khonsung, Kanjana Jaijoy, Ruedee Soawakontha, and Monraudee Chanchai Copyright © 2014 Sittichai Koontongkaew et al. All rights reserved. Determinant Factors of Anemia among Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Study Sun, 16 Nov 2014 09:20:26 +0000 Background. Anemia affects one-quarter of the world’s population; nonpregnant women were one of the groups for whom it is common, making it a global public health problem. Objective. To determine prevalence and risk factors of anemia among nonpregnant women of childbearing age in Jimma town southwest Ethiopia. Methodology. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study involving 441 nonpregnant women. Data was collected over two months of period. We collected sociodemographic and related data using structured questionnaire. We collected four milliliters of venous blood and five grams of stool samples from each study participant for hematological and parasitological analysis. We performed statistical analysis using SPSS-V 16 software. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.1% () with mean hemoglobin 12.96 g/dL (±1.04), among which 97.2% () were mildly anemic. Age group of 25–36 years old, lower economic level, illiteracy, multiparity, having intestinal parasitic infection, using more than two sanitary pads per day during menstruation period, and low body mass index were found to be risk factors of anemia among the group. Conclusion. Prevalence of anemia indicates mild public health importance which shows it was indeed public health problem. Identified risk factors should be considered for prevention and control of anemia among the group. Yaregal Asres, Tilahun Yemane, and Lealem Gedefaw Copyright © 2014 Yaregal Asres et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Three-Component Tablet Formulation Containing Rilpivirine Hydrochloride Sun, 16 Nov 2014 08:43:06 +0000 Developing a single analytical method for estimation of individual drug from a multidrug composition is a very challenging task. A complexation, derivatization, extraction, evaporation, and sensitive-free direct UV spectrophotometric method is developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of some antiviral drugs such as emtricitabine (EMT), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and rilpivirine HCl (RPV) in tablet dosage form by Vierordt’s method. The solutions of standard and sample were prepared in methanol. The for emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and rilpivirine hydrochloride were 240.8 nm, 257.6 nm, and 305.6 nm, respectively. Calibration curves are linear in the concentration ranges 4–12 μg/ml for EMT, 6–18 μg/ml for TDF, and 0.5–1.5 μg/ml for RPV, respectively. Results of analysis of simultaneous equation method were analyzed and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. S. Venkatesan and N. Kannappan Copyright © 2014 S. Venkatesan and N. Kannappan. All rights reserved. Partial Cystectomy after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Contemporary Experience Sun, 16 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. To report our contemporary experience with partial cystectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods. Retrospective review of patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and partial cystectomy for urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 1995 to 2013. Log-rank test and Cox regression models were used to analyze variables possibly associated with recurrence-free, advanced recurrence-free (free from recurrence beyond salvage with intravesical therapy or radical cystectomy), and overall survival. Results. All 36 patients had a solitary tumor <5 cm in size. Twenty-one patients (58%) achieved cT0 following neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 7 (33%) having residual disease at PC. At last follow-up, 19 (53%) patients had recurrence, 15 (42%) had advanced recurrence, 10 (28%) died of disease, and 22 (61%) maintained an intact bladder. Median follow-up of those who were with no evidence of disease was 17 months. On univariable analysis, after neoadjuvant chemotherapy positive nodes on imaging and positive surgical margin at partial cystectomy were both associated with worse recurrence-free, advanced recurrence-free, and overall survival. Five-year recurrence-free, advanced recurrence-free, and overall survival were 28%, 51%, and 63%, respectively. Conclusion. Partial cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides acceptable oncologic outcomes in highly selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Wassim M. Bazzi, Ryan P. Kopp, Timothy F. Donahue, Melanie Bernstein, Paul Russo, Bernard H. Bochner, Sherri M. Donat, Guido Dalbagni, and Harry W. Herr Copyright © 2014 Wassim M. Bazzi et al. All rights reserved. Beneficial Effects of Maprotiline in a Murine Model of Colitis in Normal and Reserpinised Depressed Rats Sun, 16 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities have been reported for maprotiline, a strong norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. In addition, some other antidepressant drugs have shown beneficial effects in experimental colitis. Methods. All the animals were divided into normal and depressed groups. In normal rats colitis was induced by instillation of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid and after 2 hours, maprotiline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered. In reserpinised depressed rats, depression was induced by injection of reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 h prior to colitis induction, and then treated with maprotiline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg). Treatment continued daily for four days. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was given as a reference drug. On day five following colitis induction, animals were euthanized and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically (assessment of myeloperoxidase activity). Results. Maprotiline significantly improved macroscopic and histologic scores and diminished myeloperoxidase activity in both normal and depressed rats while reserpine exacerbated the colonic damage. Conclusion. Our data suggests that the salutary effects of maprotiline on acetic acid colitis are probably mediated first through depressive behavioral changes that could be mediated through the brain-gut axis and second for the anti-inflammatory effect of the drug. Mohsen Minaiyan, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Mohammad Rabbani, Ehsan Fattahian, and Parvin Mahzouni Copyright © 2014 Mohsen Minaiyan et al. All rights reserved. Hypertrophic Scar Formation on Application of Terpenoid Fraction of Tuberous Root of Mirabilis jalapa L. on Excision Wound Model in Wistar Albino Rats Thu, 13 Nov 2014 08:30:45 +0000 The study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydromethanolic extract of tuberous root of M. jalapa and its terpenoid and flavonoid fractions on cutaneous wound healing in Wistar Albino rats. The hydromethanolic extract was subfractionated by sequential extraction in solvents (moderately nonpolar to polar). The extract and its (terpenoid and flavonoid) fractions were used for cutaneous wound healing studies by using excision wound model on rat. Their effects on wound contraction rate, biochemical and histological changes, and expression of growth factors such as collagen 3A, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were investigated. The results indicated that flavonoid treated group showed significant decrease () in antioxidant enzyme level as compared to control in wound healing process, whereas terpenoid fraction showed significant increase () in expression of growth factor levels but regeneration and remodeling stages were delayed due to formation of thicker ulcus layer and also there were no hair follicle-like blood capillaries formation which ultimately may lead to formation of hypertrophic scar of wound. Therefore, from this study, it can be concluded that terpenoid fraction prolongs proliferation phase and hence may have tendency to convert the wound into hypertrophic wound. Jyotchna Gogoi, Khonamai Sewa Nakhuru, Pronobesh Chattopadhayay, Ashok Kumar Rai, and Vijay Veer Copyright © 2014 Jyotchna Gogoi et al. All rights reserved. Atorvastatin Treatment Does Not Alter Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy Adults Thu, 13 Nov 2014 07:31:27 +0000 Introduction. Both statins and regular physical activity (PA) reduce arterial stiffness. The present post hoc analysis examined if arterial stiffness was improved with high-dose atorvastatin treatment in healthy adults and whether PA levels magnified this response. We utilized data from a double-blind, random-assignment clinical trial investigating the effects of atorvastatin 80 mg/d for 6 mo on skeletal muscle symptoms. Methods. Central and peripheral arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured and PA levels assessed at baseline and 6 mo in subjects randomized to atorvastatin , 9 men) or placebo , 16 men). Results. Baseline participant characteristics, PWV, and PA levels were not different between treatments. Central (means ± SD; to  m/sec) and peripheral PWV to  m/sec) were unchanged from baseline following atorvastatin treatment (time × drug interaction: . Similarly, PA levels were unaffected by time or treatment. In sex and age adjusted models, baseline levels of PA were not related to changes in PWV with atorvastatin treatment. Conclusion. These data indicate that high-dose atorvastatin treatment for 6 mo does not influence arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Participation in habitual PA did not magnify the vascular effects of statin therapy. This study was registered with NCT00609063. Kevin D. Ballard, Beth A. Taylor, Jeffrey A. Capizzi, Adam S. Grimaldi, C. Michael White, and Paul D. Thompson Copyright © 2014 Kevin D. Ballard et al. All rights reserved.