International Scholarly Research Notices The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Multicriteria Decision Making Method Based on the Higher Order Hesitant Fuzzy Soft Set Thu, 21 Aug 2014 12:53:43 +0000 The main goal of this contribution is to introduce the concept of higher order hesitant fuzzy soft set as an extension of fuzzy soft set that encompasses most of the existing extensions of fuzzy soft set as special cases. Furthermore, this new concept provides us with a method for dealing with multicriteria fuzzy decision making problems which are difficult to explain in other existing extensions of fuzzy soft set theory, especially when problems involve parameters with different-dimensional levels. B. Farhadinia Copyright © 2014 B. Farhadinia. All rights reserved. Classification of Microarray Data Using Kernel Fuzzy Inference System Thu, 21 Aug 2014 12:50:13 +0000 The DNA microarray classification technique has gained more popularity in both research and practice. In real data analysis, such as microarray data, the dataset contains a huge number of insignificant and irrelevant features that tend to lose useful information. Classes with high relevance and feature sets with high significance are generally referred for the selected features, which determine the samples classification into their respective classes. In this paper, kernel fuzzy inference system (K-FIS) algorithm is applied to classify the microarray data (leukemia) using t-test as a feature selection method. Kernel functions are used to map original data points into a higher-dimensional (possibly infinite-dimensional) feature space defined by a (usually nonlinear) function through a mathematical process called the kernel trick. This paper also presents a comparative study for classification using K-FIS along with support vector machine (SVM) for different set of features (genes). Performance parameters available in the literature such as precision, recall, specificity, F-measure, ROC curve, and accuracy are considered to analyze the efficiency of the classification model. From the proposed approach, it is apparent that K-FIS model obtains similar results when compared with SVM model. This is an indication that the proposed approach relies on kernel function. Mukesh Kumar and Santanu Kumar Rath Copyright © 2014 Mukesh Kumar and Santanu Kumar Rath. All rights reserved. Effects and Management of Parthenium hysterophorus: A Weed of Global Significance Wed, 20 Aug 2014 09:01:34 +0000 Congress grass, Parthenium hysterophorus L., of the family Asteraceae (tribe: Heliantheae), is an erect and much branched annual or ephermeral herb, known for its notorious role as environmental, medical, and agricultural hazards. It is believed to have been introduced into India and Australia from North America and in the last few years the weed has emerged as the seventh most devastating weed in Africa, Asia, and Australia. The aim of this review is to provide general information about the physiology, distribution, ill effects, and management of parthenium. Control of parthenium has been tried by various methods, but no single management option would be adequate to manage parthenium, and there is a need to integrate various management options. Successful management of this weed can only be achieved by an integrated approach with biological control as the key element. Manpreet Kaur, Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal, Vikas Kumar, and Romika Dhiman Copyright © 2014 Manpreet Kaur et al. All rights reserved. Biological Characteristics of Captive Chinese Wuzhishan Minipigs (Sus scrofa) Wed, 20 Aug 2014 08:33:51 +0000 In order to meet the demands of experimental minipigs for biomedical researches, we have aimed at cultivating grazing Chinese Wuzhishan (WZS) minipigs and trying to make them useful and affordable since the 1990s. After more than ten years of captive cultivation following sound management practices and a rigorous selection program for fertility and litter size, we established an outbred WZS minipigs colony with a core group (14 males and 30 females) and an expanding group (20 males and 40 females). In 2010–2013 periods, extensive background data of this colony were recorded and analyzed. This paper was written to provide pertinent information about outbred WZS minipigs for producers, users, and others concerned with WZS minipigs. It contains physical characteristics, growth performance, productive performance, hematology and blood biochemistry, microsatellite analysis, organ coefficients, and carcass properties. Results show that WZS minipigs have characteristics of small body size, slow growth rate, long life cycle, high reproductive rate, and maintaining original genetic diversity. All data present that outbred WZS minipigs are suitable laboratory animal and model animal. Fangui Min, Jinchun Pan, Xilong Wang, Rui’ai Chen, Fengguo Wang, Shuming Luo, and Jiancong Ye Copyright © 2014 Fangui Min et al. All rights reserved. Transadmittance Type Universal Current-Mode Biquad Filter Using VDTAs Tue, 19 Aug 2014 05:43:24 +0000 A new resistorless single-input-multi-output (SIMO) universal transadmittance (TA) type filter employing two voltage differencing transconductance amplifiers (VDTA) and two grounded capacitors is proposed. The proposed topology realizes simultaneously low pass (LP), high pass (HP), and band pass (BP) filter functions. Band rejects (BR) and all pass (AP) filters are also realizable through appropriate connections of currents. The proposed configuration also offers independent control of natural angular frequency and bandwidth (BW) and low active and passive sensitivities. The workability of proposed configuration has been demonstrated through PSPICE simulations with TSMC CMOS 0.18 μm process parameters. Dinesh Prasad, Mayank Srivastava, and D. R. Bhaskar Copyright © 2014 Dinesh Prasad et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Interventional Program on Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy and Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Pregnant Women in Ahvaz, Iran Tue, 19 Aug 2014 05:04:49 +0000 Objective. This study aimed to determine the effect of educational program on Breastfeeding self-efficacy and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in pregnant women in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods. This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 nulliparous pregnant women who tended to breastfeed. The primary self-efficacy scores of samples were measured using Faux and Dennis breastfeeding self-efficacy questionnaire. Women were randomly recruited into two intervention and control groups. Educational program (two training sessions, each lasted two hours) with two days interval was performed for intervention group. One month after delivery, self-efficacy scores were determined. Six months after child birth, duration of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings. The breastfeeding self-efficacy in the intervention group increased significantly compared to the control group one month after delivery (123.6 versus 101.7, ). The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly higher in the intervention group (5.03 mo versus 2.7 mo, ). Also, there was a significant relationship between breastfeeding self-efficacy and duration of exclusive breastfeeding (). Conclusion. The educational program could increase the self-efficacy and exclusive breastfeeding duration of mothers. These results can draw the attention of authorities to the importance of educational programs for mothers regarding the exclusive breastfeeding. Somayeh Ansari, Parvin Abedi, Shirin Hasanpoor, and Soheila Bani Copyright © 2014 Somayeh Ansari et al. All rights reserved. Mechanisms of Myofascial Pain Mon, 18 Aug 2014 12:59:31 +0000 Myofascial pain syndrome is an important health problem. It affects a majority of the general population, impairs mobility, causes pain, and reduces the overall sense of well-being. Underlying this syndrome is the existence of painful taut bands of muscle that contain discrete, hypersensitive foci called myofascial trigger points. In spite of the significant impact on public health, a clear mechanistic understanding of the disorder does not exist. This is likely due to the complex nature of the disorder which involves the integration of cellular signaling, excitation-contraction coupling, neuromuscular inputs, local circulation, and energy metabolism. The difficulties are further exacerbated by the lack of an animal model for myofascial pain to test mechanistic hypothesis. In this review, current theories for myofascial pain are presented and their relative strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Based on new findings linking mechanoactivation of reactive oxygen species signaling to destabilized calcium signaling, we put forth a novel mechanistic hypothesis for the initiation and maintenance of myofascial trigger points. It is hoped that this lays a new foundation for understanding myofascial pain syndrome and how current therapies work, and gives key insights that will lead to the improvement of therapies for its treatment. M. Saleet Jafri Copyright © 2014 M. Saleet Jafri. All rights reserved. Fractional Calculus of the Generalized Mittag-Leffler Type Function Mon, 18 Aug 2014 05:41:49 +0000 We introduce and study a new function called -function, which is an extension of the generalized Mittag-Leffler function. We derive the relations that exist between the -function and Saigo fractional calculus operators. Some results derived by Samko et al. (1993), Kilbas (2005), Kilbas and Saigo (1995), and Sharma and Jain (2009) are special cases of the main results derived in this paper. Dinesh Kumar and Sunil Kumar Copyright © 2014 Dinesh Kumar and Sunil Kumar. All rights reserved. Exposure of Prostate to Lipopolysaccharide and Hypoxia Potentiates Neoplastic Behavior and Risk for Prostate Carcinogenesis In Vivo Sun, 17 Aug 2014 10:54:07 +0000 A number of studies showed that men from tropical countries have higher burden of prostate cancer similar to data from USA. We developed a translational model to examine whether exposure to microbial inflammation-inducing molecule lipopolysacchride LPS was associated with prostatic cell transformation to more proliferative phenotype as indicated by PSA secretion. Immunocompetent adult mice were divided into two groups; the first group received a local prostate inoculation with E. coli, while the second group received inoculation with sterile solution of saline as vehicle. At the end of 6 days, the PSA values were measured and compared. In the second experiment, two groups of animals were involved. The test group received two drops of the hydrogen peroxide orally for six to seven days to induce hypoxia, while the control group received normal saline. Blood samples were evaluated for serum level of PSA. Result showed a 2-fold increase in level of PSA compared to the control mice in the E. coli inoculated-LPS exposed animals. In addition, exposure of the animals to hypoxic stress resulted in 3.5 fold increase in the serum PSA compared to the control group, which was found to be statistically significant (). In conclusion, our data shows that chronic prostatic infection and exposure to inflammatory stimulus, especially LPS, may alter the phenotype of prostate epithelial cells for increased PSA secretion, a known cancer-like behavior; this is mediated by compromised redox state and oxidative stress injury. We propose that exposure of the prostate epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes chronic inflammation and risk of neoplastic behavior of the prostate in vivo; this may explain the high rate of prostate cancer in tropics. Maxwell Omabe, Kenneth Omabe, Martin Okwuegbu, Ogo Grace, and Desmond Uchenna Okoro Copyright © 2014 Maxwell Omabe et al. All rights reserved. Enantioselectivity and Enzyme-Substrate Docking Studies of a Ketoreductase from Sporobolomyces salmonicolor (SSCR) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YOL151w) Sun, 17 Aug 2014 10:52:41 +0000 Models for two ketoreductases were created and used to predict the stereoselectivity of the enzymes. One was based on the crystal structure of Sporobolomyces salmonicolor. This model was used to predict the stereoselectivity for 46 ketone reductions using this enzyme; only 6 were incorrectly predicted. The stereochemistries of the products were compared to the experimental values found in the literature. The Prelog rules were also used to predict the stereoselectivity for this enzyme; however the Prelog rules seem to be highly substrate dependent. As a result, predicting stereoselectivity of KREDs is more complicated than is allowed for with just substrate size and geometry. This enzyme showed Prelog docking geometry for 13 substrates if the enzyme is assumed to prefer an anti-Prelog docking geometry. For SSCR the molecular modeling proved to be a better method for predicting stereoselectivity of the enzymes. The second model was a homology model for YOL151w based on the enzyme crystal structure of Sporobolomyces salmonicolor carbonyl reductase, SSCR. In this homology model, 14 compounds were docked and the predicted stereochemistry was compared to the literature values. Of these, 5 were incorrectly predicted. Phung-Hoang Nguyen, Maya West, Brent D. Feske, and Clifford W. Padgett Copyright © 2014 Phung-Hoang Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. Improvements of Jensen-Type Inequalities for Diamond- Integrals Thu, 14 Aug 2014 12:31:25 +0000 We give further improvements of the Jensen inequality and its converse on time scales, allowing also negative weights. These results generalize the Jensen inequality and its converse for both discrete and continuous cases. Further, we investigate the exponential and logarithmic convexity of the differences between the left-hand side and the right-hand side of these inequalities and present several families of functions for which these results can be applied. Rabia Bibi, Josip Pečarić, and Mirna Rodić Lipanović Copyright © 2014 Rabia Bibi et al. All rights reserved. Occupational and Personal Determinants of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Urban Taxi Drivers in Ghana Thu, 14 Aug 2014 05:54:57 +0000 Background. There is a lack of epidemiological data on musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among occupational drivers in Ghana. The present study seeks to estimate the prevalence, body distribution, and occupational and personal determinants of MSDs in a sample of taxi drivers in the Accra Metropolis of Ghana. Methods. A total of 210 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All the participants were evaluated by using a semistructured questionnaire and the standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire. Results. The estimated prevalence of MSDs was 70.5%. The prevalence of the various MSD domains was as follows: lower back pain (34.3%), upper back pain (16.7%), neck pain (15.2%), shoulder pain (11.0%), knee pain (10.0%), hip/thigh pain (2.9%), elbow pain (4.8%), ankle/feet pain (2.4%), and wrist/hand pain (1.9%). Multiple logistic regression analysis of the data showed that participants who were employee drivers, drove taxi more than 12 hours per day or at least 5 days per week, perceived their job as stressful, and were dissatisfied with their job were at a greater risk of developing MSDs. Conclusions. These findings call for preventive strategies and safety guidelines in order to reduce the incidence of MSDs among urban taxi drivers in Ghana. J. K. Abledu, E. B. Offei, and G. K. Abledu Copyright © 2014 J. K. Abledu et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Root Canal Configuration of Mandibular First Molars in a Palestinian Population by Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: An Ex Vivo Study Wed, 13 Aug 2014 12:53:13 +0000 Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the number of canals and variations in root canal configuration in the mandibular permanent first molar teeth of a Palestinian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods. A sample of 320 extracted double-rooted mandibular permanent first molars from Palestinian population was collected for this study and scanned with CBCT scanner. The following observations were made: number of root canals per root and canal configuration in each root based on Vertucci’s classification. Results. Of the 320 mandibular first molars analyzed, 174 (54.4%) had three canals, 132 teeth (41.3%) had four canals, and only four teeth had two canals. The most common canal configuration in the mesial roots was Vertucci type IV (53.8%) followed by type II (38.8%). In the distal roots, the most prevalent canal configuration was Vertucci type I (57.5%) followed by type II ( 22.5%) and type III (10.6%). Conclusion. Our results showed that the number of canals and canal configuration in Palestinian population were consistent with previously reported data. The present study also indicates that CBCT is helpful as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of root canal morphology. Raed Hakam Mukhaimer Copyright © 2014 Raed Hakam Mukhaimer. All rights reserved. Effects of Marine Phospholipids Extract on the Lipid Levels of Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:03:19 +0000 High intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) from fish has shown to reduce metastatic progression of prostate cancer. This clinical trial investigated the influence of high n-3 FA intake (marine phospholipids, MPL) on the FA composition of blood lipids, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and on lipoproteins in prostate cancer patients and elderly men without prostate cancer. MPL supplementation resulted in a significant increase of n-3 FAs (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) in blood lipids, while arachidonic acid (n-6 FA) decreased significantly. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly, but the LDL increase was observed only in subjects with an inactive tumour. Similarly, LPC plasma concentration increased significantly only in patients without tumour. The missing increase of LDL and LPC after MPL supplementation in patients with actively growing (metastasizing) prostate cancer suggests that tumour cells have an elevated demand for LDL and LPC. Due to the MPL-induced increase of n-3 FAs in these blood lipids, it can be assumed that especially actively growing and metastasizing prostate cancer cells are provided with elevated amounts of these antimetastatic n-3 FAs. A hypothetic model explaining the lower incidence of metastatic progression in prostate cancer patients with high fish consumption is presented. Daniela Küllenberg de Gaudry, Lenka A. Taylor, Jessica Kluth, Tobias Hübschle, Jonas Fritzsche, Bernd Hildenbrand, Lars Pletschen, Karin Schilli, Arwen Hodina, Lee S. Griffith, Jürgen Breul, Clemens Unger, and Ulrich Massing Copyright © 2014 Daniela Küllenberg de Gaudry et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Pozzolan Portland and MTA-Based Cements Tue, 12 Aug 2014 09:14:28 +0000 Physicochemical properties of pozzolan Portland cement were compared to ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. To test the pH, the samples were immersed in distilled water for different periods of time. After the pH analysis, the sample was retained in the plastic recipient, and the electrical conductivity of the solution was measured. The solubility and radiopacity properties were evaluated according to specification 57 of the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA). The statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test at a 5% level of significance. Pozzolan Portland cement exhibited pH and electrical conductivity mean values similar to those of the MTA-based cements. The solubilities of all tested materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA standards. Only the MTA-based cements met the ANSI/ADA recommendations for radiopacity. It might be concluded that the pH and electrical conductivity of pozzolan Portland cement are similar to and comparable to those of MTA-based cements. Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati Dorileo, Ricardo Dalla Villa, Orlando Aguirre Guedes, Andreza Maria Fábio Aranha, Alex Semenoff-Segundo, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, and Alvaro Henrique Borges Copyright © 2014 Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati Dorileo et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluents by Local Isolated Microorganisms Tue, 12 Aug 2014 05:33:50 +0000 This study was designed to investigate the microorganisms associated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Johor Bahru state, Malaysia. Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents (POME) was conducted to measure the discarded POME based on physicochemical quality. The bacteria that were isolated are Micrococcus species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species, and Staphylococcus aureus, while the fungi that were isolated are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, and Penicillium species. The autoclaved and unautoclaved raw POME samples were incubated for 7 days and the activities of the microorganisms were observed each 12 hours. The supernatants of the digested POME were investigated for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color (ADMI), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of each digestion cycle. The results showed that the unautoclaved raw POME sample degraded better than the inoculated POME sample and this suggests that the microorganisms that are indigenous in the POME are more effective than the introduced microorganisms. This result, however, indicates the prospect of isolating indigenous microorganisms in the POME for effective biodegradation of POME. Moreover, the effective treatment of POME yields useful products such as reduction of BOD, COD, and color. Mohammadreza Soleimaninanadegani and Soheila Manshad Copyright © 2014 Mohammadreza Soleimaninanadegani and Soheila Manshad. All rights reserved. Phenolic Acids (Gallic and Tannic Acids) Modulate Antioxidant Status and Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats Mon, 11 Aug 2014 08:28:30 +0000 Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP), used in the treatment of many solid-tissue cancers, has its chief side-effect in nephrotoxicity. Hence, this study sought to investigate and compare the protective effect of gallic acid (GA) and tannic acid (TA) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The rats were given a prophylactic treatment of GA and TA orally at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days before the administration of a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cisplatin (CP) at 7.5 mg/kg bwt. The protective effects of both GA and TA on CP induced nephrotoxicity were investigated by assaying renal function, oxidative stress biomarkers, and histopathological examination of kidney architecture. A single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg bwt) injected i.p. caused a significant increase in some biomarkers of renal function (creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels), with a marked elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) content accompanied by a significant () decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content (103.27%) of kidney tissue as compared to control group. Furthermore, a significant () reduction in kidney antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx, and GST) activity was observed. However, pretreatment with oral administration of tannic acid and gallic acid at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 7 days prior to cisplatin administration reduced histological renal damage and suppressed the generation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in kidney tissues. These results indicate that both gallic and tannic acids could serve as a preventive strategy against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Seun F. Akomolafe, Ayodele J. Akinyemi, and Scholarstical O. Anadozie Copyright © 2014 Seun F. Akomolafe et al. All rights reserved. Exploiting Visibility Information in Surface Reconstruction to Preserve Weakly Supported Surfaces Mon, 11 Aug 2014 06:53:37 +0000 We present a novel method for 3D surface reconstruction from an input cloud of 3D points augmented with visibility information. We observe that it is possible to reconstruct surfaces that do not contain input points. Instead of modeling the surface from input points, we model free space from visibility information of the input points. The complement of the modeled free space is considered full space. The surface occurs at interface between the free and the full space. We show that under certain conditions a part of the full space surrounded by the free space must contain a real object also when the real object does not contain any input points; that is, an occluder reveals itself through occlusion. Our key contribution is the proposal of a new interface classifier that can also detect the occluder interface just from the visibility of input points. We use the interface classifier to modify the state-of-the-art surface reconstruction method so that it gains the ability to reconstruct weakly supported surfaces. We evaluate proposed method on datasets augmented with different levels of noise, undersampling, and amount of outliers. We show that the proposed method outperforms other methods in accuracy and ability to reconstruct weakly supported surfaces. Michal Jancosek and Tomas Pajdla Copyright © 2014 Michal Jancosek and Tomas Pajdla. All rights reserved. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Collected from Selected Local Markets of Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia Sun, 10 Aug 2014 13:30:33 +0000 Background. A study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from local markets in Jimma Town, Ethiopia, was conducted between April and May 2013. Methods. A total of 360 samples of fruits and vegetables were examined by sedimentation concentration after washing using normal saline. Results. The overall prevalence of parasitic contamination was 57.8%. Strongyloides like parasite (21.9%) was the most frequent parasitic contaminant followed by Toxocara Spp (14.7%), Cryptosporidium Spp (12.8%), H. nana (8.3%), G. lamblia (7.5%), A. lumbricoides (6.7%), E. histolytica/dispar (5.3%), Cyclospora spp (5.0%), and H. diminuta (1.4%). Washing of the fruits and vegetables before display for selling was significantly associated with decreased parasitic contamination . Conclusion. Since fruits and vegetables are potential sources of transmission for intestinal parasites in the study area, consumers should always avoid acquiring parasitic infection from contaminated fruits and vegetables supplied in Jimma Town through proper cleaning and cooking. Tamirat Tefera, Abdissa Biruksew, Zeleke Mekonnen, and Teferi Eshetu Copyright © 2014 Tamirat Tefera et al. All rights reserved. Elucidation of Underlying Mechanisms by Which Millettia macrophylla Benth Induces Its Estrogenic Activity Sun, 10 Aug 2014 13:29:27 +0000 Millettia macrophylla is used traditionally to treat menopause related symptoms. This plant was shown to exhibit estrogenic effects in vitro on human embryonic kidney cells and in vivo on ovariectomized rats. The present study aimed at elucidating underlying mechanisms by which M. macrophylla induced its estrogenic effects. To accomplish our goal, kidney Hek293T cells transiently transfected with estrogen alpha or beta receptor expression plasmids were cotreated with a pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and the dichloromethane or methanol soluble fractions of M. macrophylla. To follow up, we cotreated ovariectomized rats with both extracts and ICI 182,780 for 3 days in the classical uterotrophic assay. Animals were then sacrificed and the uterine wet weight, total protein levels in uteri, uterine, and vaginal epithelial heights, and mammary gland were assessed. In vitro, the results suggested that the induction of the estrogenic activity by M. macrophylla is due to the binding of its secondary metabolites to ERα and ERβ. In vivo, the cotreatment of extracts and ICI 182,780 significantly abrogated the biological responses induced by the extracts alone. Taken together, these results indicate that the active principles of M. macrophylla induce their beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms by activating the ERs. Stéphane Zingue, Chantal Beatrice Magne Nde, Colin Clyne, and Dieudonné Njamen Copyright © 2014 Stéphane Zingue et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Marginal Leakage and Shear Bond Strength of Bonded Restorations in Primary Teeth after Caries Removal by Conventional and Chemomechanical Techniques Thu, 07 Aug 2014 13:09:28 +0000 Background/Purpose. To evaluate and compare the marginal leakage and shear bond strength between conventional and Papacarie techniques of caries removal in primary molars. Materials and Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human carious primary molars were randomly divided into two groups: group I—caries removal by conventional method and group II—caries removal using Papacarie. After bonded restorations, both groups were further randomly subdivided into four subgroups for marginal leakage and shear bond strength evaluation. Results. Papacarie treated teeth (46.70%) showed less marginal leakage when compared to conventionally treated teeth (86.70%) for caries removal. The mean shear bond strength was found more in Papacarie treated teeth (12.91 MPa) than in those treated conventionally (9.64 MPa) for caries removal. Conclusion. Papacarie showed less marginal leakage and more shear bond strength when compared to those treated conventionally for caries removal. Viral Pravin Maru, Bethur Siddaiah Shakuntala, and Nagarathna Dharma Copyright © 2014 Viral Pravin Maru et al. All rights reserved. Use of Nonspecific, Glutamic Acid-Free, Media and High Glycerol or High Amylase as Inducing Parameters for Screening Bacillus Isolates Having High Yield of Polyglutamic Acid Thu, 07 Aug 2014 12:59:28 +0000 Out of fifty-five Bacillus isolates obtained from ten different regional locations and sources, seven showed the ability to consistently produce specific extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on rich as well as synthetic but nonspecific media which did not contain glutamic acid. The isolates were identified as either Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis. The EPS from all isolates was resistant to alpha protease, proteinase K, and was thus of high molecular weight. Further it was detected after SDS-PAGE by methylene blue but not by coomassie blue R staining as in case of proteins with high proportion of acidic amino acids. Cell-free EPS, after acid hydrolysis, showed absence of carbohydrates and presence of only glutamic acid. Thus the native the EPS from all seven isolates was confirmed to be gamma polyglutamic acid (PGA) and not exopolysaccharide. The Bacillus isolate T which produced maximum polymer on all media tested had higher amylase: protease activity as compared to other strains. If inoculum was developed in rich medium as compared to synthetic medium, the PGA produced increased by twofold in the subsequent synthetic production medium. Similarly, use of inoculum consisting of young and vegetative cells also increased the PGA production by twofold though amount of inoculum did not affect yield of PGA. Though PGA was produced in even in the absence of glutamic acid supplementation in the production medium by all isolates, the yield of PGA increased by fourfold in the presence glutamic acid and the maximum yield was 30 g/l for isolate K. The supplementation of glutamine instead of glutamic acid into the medium caused an increase in the viscosity of the non-Newtonian solution of PGA. Nandita N. Baxi Copyright © 2014 Nandita N. Baxi. All rights reserved. Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMI) and Semistructured Interviews for the Selection of Family Medicine Residents: A Comparative Analysis Tue, 05 Aug 2014 13:11:26 +0000 Background. Family Medicine Residency Program at the Aga Khan University has applicants for the residency position in excess of the positions offered resulting in formulation of certain selection criteria. The objective of this study was to compare MMI versus semistructured interviews for assessing noncognitive domains in the selection of residents. The secondary objectives were to determine perceptions of the interviewers and candidates for the acceptability and feasibility of MMI as a selection tool. Methods. The candidates underwent semistructured interviews along with MMI and identical attributes were tested in both. The attributes tested were safe doctor, communication skills, professionalism, problem solving, team approach, ethical issues, reasons for selecting family medicine, and commitment to the program. Descriptive statistics were calculated and comparison between ratings for MMI and interview was performed by Wilcoxon sign rank test. Results. Total number of candidates was 14. On comparison between interview and MMI, the scores were not statistically different for all attributes except ethics (mean interview scores: 3.04, mean MMI scores: 2.5, and P value 0.046). Conclusion. The study showed no difference between MMI and semistructured interviews. However, it needs to be replicated in order to determine the predictive validity and feasibility of MMI over time. Marie Andrades, Seema Bhanji, Samreen Kausar, Fouad Majeed, and Sheilla Pinjani Copyright © 2014 Marie Andrades et al. All rights reserved. A Biochemical Evaluation on Inflammatory Markers after Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy Tue, 05 Aug 2014 13:00:41 +0000 Ibrahim Aydin, Fevzi Nuri Aydin, and Mehmet Agilli Copyright © 2014 Ibrahim Aydin et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Assembly Stresses on Fatigue Life of Symmetrical 65Si7 Leaf Springs Mon, 04 Aug 2014 08:34:14 +0000 The maximum stress induced plays vital role in fatigue life improvement of leaf springs. To reduce this maximum stress, leaves with different unassembled cambers are assembled by pulling against each other and a common curvature is established. This causes stress concentration or sets assembly stress in the assembled leaf springs which is subtractive from load stress in master leaf while it is additive to load stress for short leaves. By suitable combination of assembly stresses and stepping, it is possible to distribute the stress and improve the fatigue life of the leaf spring. The effect of assembly stresses on fatigue life of the leaf spring of a light commercial vehicle (LCV) has been studied. A proper combination of stepping and camber has been proposed by taking the design parameters into consideration, so that the stress in the leaves does not exceed maximum design stress. The theoretical fatigue life of the leaf springs with and without considering the assembly stresses is determined and compared with experimental life. The numbers of specimens are manufactured with proposed parameters and tested for load rate, fatigue life on a full scale leaf springs testing machine. The effect of stress range, maximum stress, and initial stress is also discussed. Vinkel Kumar Arora, Gian Bhushan, and M. L. Aggarwal Copyright © 2014 Vinkel Kumar Arora et al. All rights reserved. “Silent Voices”: A Description of Views and Attitudes of Health Professionals towards Reproduction by HIV Positive People Mon, 04 Aug 2014 05:55:16 +0000 Objective. The role of health professionals in the decision making process of patients is usually heard or seen from the perspective of the patients. This paper gives the usually silent and invisible health professionals voice and visibility. It describes their views and attitudes towards reproduction by couples who are HIV positive and attempts to understand their perspectives. Methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with twelve health professionals at an opportunistic infections clinic. Transcribed interviews were analysed using the grounded approach to identify patterns and themes concerning views and attitudes of health professionals towards reproduction by HIV positive people. Results. The study found that most health professionals generally had a negative attitude towards childbearing by HIV positive couples. Their views and approaches on the issue were based mainly on biomedical considerations. The main discourses on childbearing that emerged from the study were the conditional choice, the antichildbearing, and the prorights. Conclusion. Most of the health professionals interviewed tend to take a generally negative stance towards reproduction by people with HIV/AIDS. There is a need for a clear set of guidelines for health professionals (HPs) on how to deal with HIV positive people who may desire to reproduce. Vezumuzi Ndlovu Copyright © 2014 Vezumuzi Ndlovu. All rights reserved. Outcome in Women with Traumatic Brain Injury Admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center Sun, 03 Aug 2014 06:59:49 +0000 Background. The aim of this study was to compare acute outcome between men and women after sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods. A total of 5,642 patients admitted to the Traumatic Brain Injury Program of the McGill University Health Centre-Montreal General Hospital between 2000 and 2011 and diagnosed with a TBI were included in the study. The overall percentage of women with TBI was 30.6% (). Outcome measures included the length of stay (LOS), the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE), the functional independence measure instrument (FIM), discharge destination, and mortality rate. Results. LOS, GOSE, the FIM ratings, and discharge destination did not show significant differences between genders once controlling for several confounding variables and running the appropriate diagnostic tests (). However, women had less chance of dying during their acute care hospitalization than men of the same age, with the same TBI severity and following the same mechanism of injury. Although gender was a statistically significant predictor, its contribution in explaining variation in mortality was small. Conclusion. More research is needed to better understand gender differences in mortality; as to date, the research findings remain inconclusive. Elaine de Guise, Joanne LeBlanc, Jehane Dagher, Simon Tinawi, Julie Lamoureux, Judith Marcoux, Mohammed Maleki, and Mitra Feyz Copyright © 2014 Elaine de Guise et al. All rights reserved. Adding of Sitagliptin on Insulin Therapy Effectively and Safely Reduces a Hemoglobin A1c Level and Glucose Fluctuation in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Sun, 03 Aug 2014 06:53:05 +0000 Aims. Efficacy and safety of DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, add-on therapy to insulin were investigated in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Subjects and Methods. Two hundred and sixteen patients (126 men, 65 ± 12 years old, BMI 24.9 ± 4.5, means ± S.D.) who had been treated by insulin alone or insulin combined with other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) were recruited, and sitagliptin was added for 3 months. Results. HbA1c was significantly decreased after 3 months of add-on therapy as a whole (8.56 ± 1.50% to 7.88 ± 1.25%, ). Body weight did not change and insulin dosage was significantly () decreased for 3 months. Furthermore, day-to-day glucose variability was significantly reduced (18.3 ± 9.1 to 16.1 ± 8.1%, ). In stepwise multiple regression analysis on ΔHbA1c as an outcome variable, the higher baseline HbA1c value and a preserved CPR were selected as significant predictive variables. Fifteen patients complained of mild hypoglycemia without any assistance during 3 months of sitagliptin add-on, while no severe hypoglycemic episode was reported. Conclusions. Add-on of sitagliptin to ongoing insulin therapy effectively reduced either HbA1c level or glucose fluctuation and could be a practical and well-tolerated alternative to treat Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who had been inadequately controlled by insulin with or without other OHAs. Yuji Tajiri, Seiko Kawano, Saori Hirao, Tamami Oshige, Shinpei Iwata, Yasuhiro Ono, Chizuko Inada, Tomoyuki Akashi, Hideki Hayashi, Yuichi Sato, Masayuki Tojikubo, and Kentaro Yamada Copyright © 2014 Yuji Tajiri et al. All rights reserved. Transfusion-Dependent Anaemia: An Overlooked Complication of Paraoesophageal Hernias Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:25:29 +0000 Introduction. A paraoesophageal hernia (PH) may be one reason for iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) but is often overlooked as a cause. We aimed to assess the incidence and resolution of transfusion-dependent IDA in patients presenting for hiatal hernia surgery. Methods. We analysed a prospective database of patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal repair in order to identify patients with severe IDA requiring red cell/iron transfusion. Results. Of 138 patients with PH managed over a 4-year period, 7 patients (5.1%; M : F 2 : 5; median age 62 yrs (range 57–82)) with IDA requiring red cell/iron transfusion were identified. Preoperatively, 3/7 patients underwent repetitive and unnecessary diagnostic endoscopic investigations prior to surgery. Only 2/7 ever demonstrated gastric mucosal erosions (Cameron ulcers). All patients were cured from anaemia postoperatively. Discussion. PH is an important differential diagnosis in patients with IDA, even those with marked anaemia and no endoscopically identifiable mucosal lesions. Early recognition can avoid unnecessary additional diagnostic endoscopies. Laparoscopic repair is associated with low morbidity and results in resolution of anaemia. Richard J. E. Skipworth, Ralph F. Staerkle, Steven Leibman, and Garett S. Smith Copyright © 2014 Richard J. E. Skipworth et al. All rights reserved. Recovery of Ga(III) by Raw and Alkali Treated Citrus limetta Peels Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:23:07 +0000 Alkali treated Citrus limetta peels were used for recovery of Ga(III) from its aqueous solution. The raw and alkali treated peels were characterized for functional groups. The efficiency of adsorption increased from 47.62 mg/g for raw peels to 83.33 mg/g for alkali treated peels. Between pH 1 and 3, the adsorption increased and thereafter decreased drastically. The adsorption followed pseudosecond order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit for the experimental data. Desorption studies showed 95.28% desorption after 3 cycles for raw peels while it was 89.51% for alkali treated peels. Simulated Bayer liquor showed 39.57% adsorption for gallium ions on raw peels which was enhanced to 41.13% for alkali treated peels. Sachin C. Gondhalekar and Sanjeev R. Shukla Copyright © 2014 Sachin C. Gondhalekar and Sanjeev R. Shukla. All rights reserved.