International Scholarly Research Notices http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Control of Drug Dissolution Rate from Film Dosage Forms Containing Valsartan Mon, 23 May 2016 07:43:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/5135173/ Film dosage forms (FDs) containing valsartan (VST), a popular antihypertensive drug, were prepared using a casting method with sodium alginate and other polysaccharides as the film base. Drug dissolution profiles of the FDs were investigated in limited medium. The FDs were 170–200 μm thick and were easy to handle. All FDs immediately swelled and disintegrated in the medium. About 23% of the VST incorporated into the FD prepared with 1.5% sodium alginate dissolved at 5 min. The initial dissolution rate of VST increased upon the addition of chitosan to the film base; this effect was not observed in the case of chitin. On the other hand, the rate apparently decreased upon modification with alginic acid. In addition, the solubility of VST in the dissolution medium was changed by the addition of chitosan or alginic acid. FDs prepared with polysaccharides are useful for simplifying the administration of drugs to patients, and the drug dissolution rate from FDs can be controlled by modification. Yoshifumi Murata, Kyoko Kofuji, and Chieko Maida Copyright © 2016 Yoshifumi Murata et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Perspectives of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among University Students in Atlanta, Newcastle upon Tyne, and New Delhi Tue, 03 May 2016 09:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9309534/ Objective. A cross-cultural comparative study was developed that surveyed university students in Atlanta (United States), New Delhi (India), and Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom) to understand the prevalence and perspectives of CAM in three urban societies with different healthcare systems. Design. Surveys were sent to students in the three aforementioned cities. Survey distribution occurred over 6 months from May to November 2015. A total of 314 surveys were received. Results. Dietary and vitamin supplements had the highest prevalence collectively (), followed by meditation, yoga, and massage. Commentary analysis showed the importance of science and evidence in justifying CAM practice. Conclusions. Matching the most prevalent practices with their designated NCCAM categories suggested that the students were attracted to biologically based, body-based, and mind-body practices as the central themes of attraction. Selected and prevalent CAM practices suggested the students’ desire to maintain physical and mental fitness. Access to healthcare may have influence on the prevalence of CAM. Indian students were more likely to view CAM as a viable alternative to conventional medicine. Kritika Subramanian and Inuka Midha Copyright © 2016 Kritika Subramanian and Inuka Midha. All rights reserved. Nursing in Ghana: A Search for Florence Nightingale in an African City Thu, 24 Mar 2016 11:03:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/9754845/ Nursing in Ghana is a crucial subject that permeates almost every issue in the society especially the field of hospital care. To a large extent, the frontiers of nursing have expanded since the time of Florence Nightingale. Globally some studies have been done to study nursing icons like her. The values in nursing practice however continue to preoccupy our minds. The need to accentuate the gains made by historical figures in nursing in present times as well as the nature of interactions between practitioners and patients continues to be of paramount concern to many across the globe and Ghana in particular. This study does an analysis of existing literature on Florence Nightingale and the nature of nursing in Ghana from the colonial times. Additionally, it analyzes responses concerning the activities of nurses and their interactions with patients in Kumasi. The varied information has been thematically pieced together to make inferences that are of great interest to nursing practitioners, policy makers, administrators, and educators among others. The findings to the study suggest among other things that the challenges faced by the nursing institution in modern times are similar to those of the earlier period. The study calls for the emulation of the positive ideas of Florence Nightingale to promote the interest of patients, a core objective championed by a revered nurse. Samuel Adu-Gyamfi and Edward Brenya Copyright © 2016 Samuel Adu-Gyamfi and Edward Brenya. All rights reserved. Guidelines for Reporting Medical Research: A Critical Appraisal Tue, 22 Mar 2016 15:55:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/1346026/ As a response to a low quality of reporting of medical research, guidelines for several different types of study design have been developed to secure accurate reporting and transparency for reviewers and readers from the scientific community. Herein, we review and discuss the six most widely accepted and used guidelines: PRISMA, CONSORT, STROBE, MOOSE, STARD, and SPIRIT. It is concluded that the implementation of these guidelines has led to only a moderate improvement in the quality of the reporting of medical research. There is still much work to be done to achieve accurate and transparent reporting of medical research findings. Mathilde Johansen and Simon Francis Thomsen Copyright © 2016 Mathilde Johansen and Simon Francis Thomsen. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children’s Chewing Habits Thu, 10 Mar 2016 07:38:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/4304265/ This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children’s chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes’ daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children’s chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. Nanae Sato, Fumi Hayashi, and Nobuo Yoshiike Copyright © 2016 Nanae Sato et al. All rights reserved. Exchange Transfusion for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2006 to 2011 Mon, 29 Feb 2016 10:50:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/1268149/ Background. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia requiring exchange transfusion has become less common in recent years; however, kernicterus still occurs. The aim of this study was to review babies undergoing exchange transfusion for severe hyperbilirubinaemia in a Johannesburg hospital. Methodology. This was a retrospective review of babies who required exchange transfusion in both the neonatal and the paediatric wards from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011. Results. There were 64 patients who underwent 67 exchange transfusions. Isoimmune haemolysis (both Rh and ABO incompatibility) was the cause of jaundice in 9/64 (14%). Most babies who underwent exchange transfusion were sick or preterm and were admitted in hospital after birth (38/64; 59.5%); three of these babies died, but not during the exchange transfusion (3/38; 7.9%); all three had signs suggestive of neonatal sepsis. The remaining 26 babies (40.6%) were readmitted to the paediatric wards for exchange transfusion. Six of these babies (6/26; 23.0%) had signs of kernicterus. The most significant complication of exchange transfusion was apnoea requiring mechanical ventilation in three patients (3/64; 4.6%). Conclusion. Despite a relatively low number of babies undergoing exchange transfusion, kernicterus still occurs and must be prevented. Proper protocols for screening and management of severe hyperbilirubinaemia need to be enforced. Daynia E. Ballot and Gilbert Rugamba Copyright © 2016 Daynia E. Ballot and Gilbert Rugamba. All rights reserved. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Traditional Cosmetics Sold in Tunisian Local Markets Mon, 22 Feb 2016 12:44:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/6296458/ This study was undertaken in order to determine heavy metal contents in twelve () henna brands and eleven () kohl products. An analytical test was performed for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in henna and kohl products using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. The overall mean concentrations of heavy metals in henna varied between 1.2 and 8.9 μg g−1 for Pb; 0.8 and 18.6 μg g−1 for Cd; 0.5 μg g−1 and 3.3 μg g−1 for Cu; and 3.7 μg g−1 and 90.0 μg g−1 for Zn. As for kohl products, Pb concentrations ranged between 51.1 μg g−1 and 4839.5 μg g−1, Cd concentrations ranged between 1.0 μg g−1 and 158.6 μg g−1, Cu concentrations ranged between 2.5 μg g−1 and 162.5 μg g−1, and Zn concentrations ranged between 0.7 μg g−1 and 185.0 μg g−1. The results of our study revealed that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn contents in investigated samples were high, making from the prolonged use of such products a potential threat to human health. Therefore, major quality controls are recommended in order to enforce acceptable limits of potential contaminants in cosmetics and good manufacturing practice. Mohamed Anouar Nouioui, Salah Mahjoubi, Asma Ghorbel, Marouen Ben Haj Yahia, Dorra Amira, Hayet Ghorbel, and Abderrazek Hedhili Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Anouar Nouioui et al. All rights reserved. Appraisals of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicine Practitioners in the Prevention and Management of Malignant Neoplastic Diseases Thu, 14 Jan 2016 16:10:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/7832120/ Cancer is a group of diseases which is categorized to differentiate into diverse cell types and move around in the body to sites of organogenesis that is key to the process of tumor genesis. All types of cancer fall into the group of malignant neoplastic diseases. In Bangladesh, cancer is now one of the foremost killer diseases and its personal, social, and economic bearing are huge. Plant-derived natural compounds (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan, and irinotecan) are useful for the treatment of cancer. Since there is no extensive ethnobotanical research study in Bangladesh regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants against neoplasms, therefore, a randomized ethnopharmacological surveys were carried out in 3 districts of Bangladesh to learn more about the usage of anticancer medicinal plants and their chemical constituents having antineoplastic activity. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to the folk medicine practitioners and medicinal plants as pointed out by them were photographed, collected, deposited, and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The various plant parts have been used by the healers which included whole plant, leaves, fruits, barks, roots, and seeds. This study evaluated considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with less side effects in the management and prevention of malignancy in cancer. Md. Nur Kabidul Azam, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Samanta Biswas, and Md. Nasir Ahmed Copyright © 2016 Md. Nur Kabidul Azam et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Response of a Rigid Pavement Plate Based on an Inertial Soil Sun, 10 Jan 2016 09:00:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/4975345/ This work presents the dynamic response of a pavement plate resting on a soil whose inertia is taken into account in the design of pavements by rational methods. Thus, the pavement is modeled as a thin plate with finite dimensions, supported longitudinally by dowels and laterally by tie bars. The subgrade is modeled via Pasternak-Vlasov type (three-parameter type) foundation models and the moving traffic load is expressed as a concentrated dynamic load of harmonically varying magnitude, moving straight along the plate with a constant acceleration. The governing equation of the problem is solved using the modified Bolotin method for determining the natural frequencies and the wavenumbers of the system. The orthogonal properties of eigenfunctions are used to find the general solution of the problem. Considering the load over the center of the plate, the results showed that the deflections of the plate are maximum about the middle of the plate but are not null at its edges. It is therefore observed that the deflection decreased 18.33 percent when the inertia of the soil is taken into account. This result shows the possible economic gain when taking into account the inertia of soil in pavement dynamic design. Mohamed Gibigaye, Crespin Prudence Yabi, and I. Ezéchiel Alloba Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Gibigaye et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of Ebullition to Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emission from Water between Plant Rows in a Tropical Rice Paddy Field Tue, 29 Dec 2015 13:09:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/623901/ Although bubble ebullition through water in rice paddy fields dominates direct methane (CH4) emissions from paddy soil to the atmosphere in tropical regions, the temporal changes and regulating factors of this ebullition are poorly understood. Bubbles in a submerged paddy soil also contain high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), implying that CO2 ebullition may occur in addition to CH4 ebullition. We investigated the dynamics of CH4 and CO2 ebullition in tropical rice paddy fields using an automated closed chamber installed between rice plants. Abrupt increases in CH4 concentrations occurred by bubble ebullition. The CO2 concentration in the chamber air suddenly increased at the same time, which indicated that CO2 ebullition was also occurring. The CH4 and CO2 emissions by bubble ebullition were correlated with falling atmospheric pressure and increasing soil surface temperature. The relative contribution of CH4 and CO2 ebullitions to the daily total emissions was 95–97% and 13–35%, respectively. Shujiro Komiya, Kosuke Noborio, Kentaro Katano, Tiwa Pakoktom, Meechai Siangliw, and Theerayut Toojinda Copyright © 2015 Shujiro Komiya et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Effect and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Temporary Restorative Material Containing Antibacterial Agents Tue, 29 Dec 2015 09:15:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/697197/ Introduction. For the maintenance of the aseptic chain created during the treatment the coronal sealing becomes paramount. Aim. Evaluating the antibacterial effect and the physical-mechanical properties of a temporary restorative material containing different antibacterial agents. Material and Methods. Two antibacterial agents (triclosan and chloramine T) were manually added to a temporary restorative material used as base (Coltosol). The antibacterial action of the material was analyzed using the agar diffusion method, in pure cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC BAA-2336) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632) and mixed culture of saliva collection. The microleakage rate was analyzed using bovine teeth, previously restored with the materials, and submitted to thermocycling, in a solution of 0.5% methylene blue, for a period of 24 hours. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials analyzed were setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength. Results. No marginal leakage was observed for all groups. There was no statistical significant difference in antimicrobial activity, setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength among the materials. Conclusion. The addition of antibacterial agents on a temporary restorative material did not optimize the antibacterial ability of the material and also did not change its physical-mechanical properties. Amanda Mahammad Mushashe, Carla Castiglia Gonzaga, Paulo Henrique Tomazinho, Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha, Denise Piotto Leonardi, Janes Francio Pissaia, and Gisele Maria Correr Copyright © 2015 Amanda Mahammad Mushashe et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Lebanon: A Middle-Eastern Taste Wed, 16 Dec 2015 08:58:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/639796/ Background. Food allergy (FA) is an important health problem in Western countries but there is limited data on the prevalence of food allergy in the Middle East. The main objective of our study is to assess the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Lebanon. Methods. The survey was conducted by Telephone Calls questionnaire through random selection of landline phone numbers from the white pages all over Lebanon. A study questionnaire addressing the main objectives of the study was filled during the telephone call conversation. Results. Food allergy prevalence is estimated to be 4.1% in infants and children and 3.2% in adults. 65% of patients suffering from food allergy are females and 35% are males. Skin reactions are the most common symptoms among food allergy sufferers, reported in 86% of the cases. Signs of anaphylaxis appeared in 10.8% of cases. Fruits were the most common allergens at 35%, followed by eggs (19%) and nuts (16%). Cow’s milk and spices ranked fourth (14%). Only half of food allergy sufferers sought medical advice. Allergists, dermatologists, gastroenterologists, or GPs (general practitioners) were consulted. Blood testing for specific IgE was the main diagnostic tool used by physicians. Conclusion. This is a pilot study of self-reported food allergy prevalence in Lebanon based on telephone survey. General prevalence is estimated to be 4.1% in infants and children and 3.2% in adults. Our study may improve awareness for proper diagnosis, food elimination, and acquisition of epinephrine autoinjectors in this part of the world. C. Irani and G. Maalouly Copyright © 2015 C. Irani and G. Maalouly. All rights reserved. Caregiver Preferences regarding Technology’s Role in Supporting Adolescent Weight Management Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:16:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/153723/ Background. Health technology provides a wealth of strategies to address chronic health issues, such as childhood obesity. Few studies have assessed parental preferences regarding use of health technology to support weight management for adolescents. Objective. This study determined caregiver beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards using traditional methods and technology-based health applications to address weight management among overweight adolescents. Methods. Self-administered surveys were distributed to caregivers of children ages 11–18 years in Stony Brook Children’s Hospital outpatient offices with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age, gender. The data were entered into StudyTrax research platform and analyzed using SAS. Results.  . Mean BMI z-score = 1.95 ± 0.50. Two-thirds (65.8%) of caregivers preferred a weight management program that includes both traditional and technology components. Most parents rated involvement in program development (68.1%), access to content (72.4%) as very important. Those who believed their child’s weight was a problem were more likely than other parents to prefer a program that combined both traditional and technology components. Conclusions. Parents’ perceptions of their child’s weight drove preferences about incorporating technology elements into a weight management program. Future weight management programs should incorporate parental content preferences and be tailored to different age groups. Josette M. Bianchi-Hayes, Elinor R. Schoenfeld, Rosa Cataldo, Jiayu Huang, and Susmita Pati Copyright © 2015 Josette M. Bianchi-Hayes et al. All rights reserved. Isolation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Indigenous Chicken Embryos in Kenya Mon, 23 Nov 2015 14:22:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/464376/ Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates were recovered from outbreaks to initiate activities towards developing a local vaccine strain. Use of indigenous chicken embryos was exploited to determine their potential, promote utilization of local resources for research, and enhance household economic activities. Bursa of Fabricius (BFs) samples from outbreaks shown to be IBDV positive was homogenized and inoculated in 4-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) IBDV seronegative white leghorn chicks. The harvested virus was inoculated into 11-day-old indigenous chicken embryos that were IBDV seronegative and passaged serially three times after which they were inoculated into 4-week-old indigenous chicks to test for presence and virulence of propagated virus. Out of 153 BFs collected from outbreaks, 43.8% (67/153) were positive for IBDV antigen and 65.7% (44/67) caused disease in SPF chicks. The embryo mean mortalities were 88% on primary inoculation, 94% in 1st passage, 91% in 2nd passage, and 67% in 3rd passage. After the third passage in embryos all the 44 isolates were virulent in 4-week-old indigenous chicks. The results show that indigenous chicken embryos support growth of IBDV and can be used to propagate the virus as an alternative viral propagating tool for respective vaccine preparation. W. U. Mutinda, L. W. Njagi, P. N. Nyaga, L. C. Bebora, P. G. Mbuthia, D. Kemboi, J. W. K. Githinji, and A. Muriuki Copyright © 2015 W. U. Mutinda et al. All rights reserved. Use of a Computed Tomography Based Approach to Validate Noninvasive Devices to Measure Rotational Knee Laxity Sun, 22 Nov 2015 13:19:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/705201/ The purpose of this study is to validate a noninvasive rotational knee laxity measuring device called “Rotameter P2” with an approach based on Computed Tomography (CT). This CT-approach using X-rays is hence invasive and can be regarded as a precise reference method that may also be applied to similar devices. An error due to imperfect femur fixation was observed but can be neglected for small torques. The most significant estimation error is due to the unavoidable soft tissues rotation and hence flexibility in the measurement chain. The error increases with the applied torque. The assessment showed that the rotational knee angle measured with the Rotameter is still overestimated because of thigh and femur displacement, soft tissues deformation, and measurement artefacts adding up to a maximum of 285% error at +15 Nm for the Internal Rotation of female volunteers. This may be questioned if such noninvasive devices for measuring the Tibia-Femoral Rotation (TFR) can help diagnosing knee pathologies and investigate ligament reconstructive surgery. Simon Neumann, Stefan Maas, Danièle Waldmann, Pierre-Louis Ricci, Arno Zürbes, Pierre-Jean Arnoux, Frédéric Walter, and Jens Kelm Copyright © 2015 Simon Neumann et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Rescuers’ Gender and Body Mass Index on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation according to the American Heart Association 2010 Resuscitation Guidelines Wed, 18 Nov 2015 06:39:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/246398/ Background and Objectives. The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important factor in determining its overall outcome. This study aims to test the association between rescuers’ gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), and the accuracy of chest compressions (CC) as well as ventilation, according to American Heart Association (AHA) 2010 resuscitation guidelines. Methods. The study included 72 participants of both genders. All the participants received CPR training according to AHA 2010 resuscitation guidelines. One week later, an assessment of their CPR was carried out. Moreover, the weight and height of the participants were measured in order to calculate their BMI. Results. Our analysis showed no significant association between gender and the CC depth () as well as between gender and ventilation (). Females were significantly faster than males in CC (). Regarding BMI, participants with a BMI less than the mean BMI of the study sample tended to perform CC with the correct depth () and to finish CC faster than those with a BMI more than the mean (). On the other hand, no significant association was found between BMI and ventilation (). Conclusion. CPR can be influenced by factors such as gender and BMI, as such the individual rescuer and CPR training programs should take these into account in order to maximize victims’ outcome. Ahmad Jaafar, Mohammad Abdulwahab, and Eman Al-Hashemi Copyright © 2015 Ahmad Jaafar et al. All rights reserved. Improved Iterative Decoding of Network-Channel Codes for Multiple-Access Relay Channel Mon, 09 Nov 2015 10:32:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/493767/ Cooperative communication using relay nodes is one of the most effective means of exploiting space diversity for low cost nodes in wireless network. In cooperative communication, users, besides communicating their own information, also relay the information of other users. In this paper we investigate a scheme where cooperation is achieved using a common relay node which performs network coding to provide space diversity for two information nodes transmitting to a base station. We propose a scheme which uses Reed-Solomon error correcting code for encoding the information bit at the user nodes and convolutional code as network code, instead of XOR based network coding. Based on this encoder, we propose iterative soft decoding of joint network-channel code by treating it as a concatenated Reed-Solomon convolutional code. Simulation results show significant improvement in performance compared to existing scheme based on compound codes. Saikat Majumder and Shrish Verma Copyright © 2015 Saikat Majumder and Shrish Verma. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Pulsatile Newtonian Blood Flow through a Multiple Stenosed Artery Sun, 08 Nov 2015 13:56:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/628605/ An appropriate nonlinear blood flow model under the influence of periodic body acceleration through a multiple stenosed artery is investigated with the help of finite difference method. The arterial segment is simulated by a cylindrical tube filled with a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid described by the Navier-Stokes equation. The nonlinear equation is solved numerically with the proper boundary conditions and pressure gradient that arise from the normal functioning of the heart. Results are discussed in comparison with the existing models. Satyasaran Changdar and Soumen De Copyright © 2015 Satyasaran Changdar and Soumen De. All rights reserved. Electrochemical Characterization and Determination of Phenol and Chlorophenols by Voltammetry at Single Wall Carbon Nanotube/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode Sun, 01 Nov 2015 07:21:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/459246/ Screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) has been modified with single wall carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) composites for the determination of phenol and chlorophenols (phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). The effect of the modifiers on the electrode characteristics was evaluated and the responses were optimized for the voltammetric determination of phenol and chlorophenols. The parameters affecting the responses such as pH, scan rate, and stability were studied. The analytical performance of the SWCNT/PEDOT/SPCE using cyclic voltammetry was tested and found to be impressive. Under these conditions, the designed electrode showed a good performance for the voltammetric measurements of the phenolic compounds. The modified SPCE, when it is compared with other enzymatic and nonenzymatic sensors, showed a wider dynamic range for the detection of the phenolic compounds. The modified SPCE was used for the quantification of phenol in water samples. The results suggest that the method is quite useful for analyzing and monitoring phenols and chlorophenols. Negussie Negash, Hailemichael Alemu, and Merid Tessema Copyright © 2015 Negussie Negash et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Tachykinin Receptor 3′ Gene Polymorphism rs3733631 in Rosacea Wed, 30 Sep 2015 13:11:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/469402/ Background. Rosacea is a chronic skin disease, possibly following the neurogenic skin inflammation model. Neurokinin B, involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, frequently coexisting with subsequent onset of rosacea, is an endogenous ligand of the tachykinin receptor 3 (TACR3). Methods. 128 rosacea patients and 121 matched controls were genotyped for rs3733631 by PCR-RFLP and analyzed by chi-square test. Results. We observed statistically significant predominance of the C/G or G/G genotype () and of the G allele () in the papulopustular (PP) form of rosacea and statistically marginal significance of the C/G or G/G genotype in erythematotelangiectatic (ET) rosacea (). Significantly higher frequency of the C/G or G/G genotype and G allele in PP rosacea ( and , resp.) was ascertained within male patients. Conclusion. TACR3 rs3733631 G allele possibly predisposes the evolution of the initial phase of rosacea to the PP and not the ET form in male patients. Anthony Karpouzis, Paschalis Avgeridis, Gregory Tripsianis, Elisavet Gatzidou, Niki Kourmouli, and Stavroula Veletza Copyright © 2015 Anthony Karpouzis et al. All rights reserved. Sensitivity Analysis and Validation for Numerical Simulation of Water Infiltration into Unsaturated Soil Mon, 28 Sep 2015 12:36:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/824721/ A FORTRAN code for liquid water flow in unsaturated soil under the isothermal condition was developed to simulate water infiltration into Yolo light clay. The governing equation, that is, Richards’ equation, was approximated by the finite-difference method. A normalized sensitivity coefficient was used in the sensitivity analysis of Richards’ equation. Normalized sensitivity coefficient was calculated using one-at-a-time (OAT) method and elementary effects (EE) method based on hydraulic functions for matric suction and hydraulic conductivity. Results from EE method provided additional insight into model input parameters, such as input parameter linearity and oscillating sign effect. Boundary volumetric water content ( (upper bound)) and saturated volumetric water content () were consistently found to be the most sensitive parameters corresponding to positive and negative relations, as given by the hydraulic functions. In addition, although initial volumetric water content ( (initial cond)) and time-step size (Δt), respectively, possessed a great amount of sensitivity coefficient and uncertainty value, they did not exhibit significant influence on model output as demonstrated by spatial discretization size (Δz). The input multiplication of parameters sensitivity coefficient and uncertainty value was found to affect the outcome of model simulation, in which parameter with the highest value was found to be Δz. Eng Giap Goh and Kosuke Noborio Copyright © 2015 Eng Giap Goh and Kosuke Noborio. All rights reserved. Enamel and Dentin Surface Finishing Influence on the Roughness and Microshear Bond Strength of a Lithium Silicate Glass-Ceramic for Laminate Veneers Mon, 07 Sep 2015 11:11:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/243615/ Objectives. This study evaluated the influence of cavity surface finishing with diamond burs of different grit mounted on high-speed turbine and ultrasound on the roughness and microshear bond strength (MBS) of a lithium silicate glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Methods. Enamel and dentin specimens were divided into seven groups, according to the type of surface finishing: 1200-grit sandpaper (control), two different brands of medium-grit and fine-grit diamond burs in a high-speed turbine; medium-grit and fine-grit CVD (chemical vapor deposition) tips in an ultrasonic device. Roughness parameters () and MSBS to a glass-ceramic () were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test ( = 5%). Results. Control group showed lower mean roughness readings and groups that used medium-grit diamond burs showed the highest mean roughness values. Regarding MSBS, there was no statistical difference when comparing the groups gritted with the same brand of medium- and fine-grit burs and tips. Conclusions. Cavity surface finishing influenced the roughness parameters and MSBS of a glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Medium-grit diamond burs in high-speed turbine showed the highest mean roughness values. Fine-grit CVD tips in ultrasound presented the highest MSBS values for both enamel and dentin. Carla Castiglia Gonzaga, Ruth Peggy Bravo, Thiago Vinícius Pavelski, Paula Pontes Garcia, Gisele Maria Correr, Denise Piotto Leonardi, Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha, and Adilson Yoshio Furuse Copyright © 2015 Carla Castiglia Gonzaga et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Discoloration Removal by Polishing Resin Composites Submitted to Staining in Different Drink Solutions Thu, 20 Aug 2015 14:20:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/853975/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the discoloration effects of water, cola-based soft drink, coffee, and wine on resin composites used in restorative dentistry and the possibility of removing the stain with chair side manual polishing. The A2 shade of three materials was tested. Disc specimens were prepared. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the baseline CIE-Lab color parameters of each material () 24 hours after sample preparation. Samples were then immersed in a cola-based soft drink, coffee, or wine for 1 hour every day, for 30 days. For the remaining hours, the specimens were stored in distilled water. In the control group, the specimens were immersed in water for the whole period. The color differences () were calculated after 7 and 30 days of storage, and after polishing with coarse Sof-Lex discs, and analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures and Tukey’s HSD test (). Luna presented higher values followed by Durafill and Herculite . For the drink solutions, values were higher for wine followed by coffee and for cola-based soft drink and water which were statistically similar. For time, values were higher for 30 days and then for 7 days and after polishing . The results indicate that color stability is material dependent. The types of drinks that patients consume also influence the color stability of restorative materials. Denis Roberto Falcão Spina, João Ricardo Almeida Grossi, Rafael Schlögel Cunali, Flares Baratto Filho, Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha, Carla Castiglia Gonzaga, and Gisele Maria Correr Copyright © 2015 Denis Roberto Falcão Spina et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge and Practice on Prevention of Respiratory Health Problems among Traffic Police in Kathmandu, Nepal Thu, 13 Aug 2015 13:32:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/716257/ Introduction. Traffic police in Kathmandu are continuously exposed to air pollution and are at an increased health risk. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice regarding prevention of respiratory problems among traffic police in Kathmandu. Methods. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted among the traffic police () working in six areas of the Kathmandu Metropolis from July to August 2013. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all the participants. Results. The mean age (±SD) of the respondents was 28.8 ± 4.3 years. More than half of the respondents had 6–10 years of work experience, the mean (±SD) years of experience being 7.9 (±3.6). The level of knowledge regarding the prevention of respiratory problems was better than the level of practice among the respondents. Education of the participants did not affect the level of practice of the respondents while there was association between working experience and level of practice (). Conclusion. Since the preventive practice is poor, the government should come up with plans such as distribution of antipollution masks to improve the level of practice among traffic police to prevent respiratory problems. Ambika Aryal Bhandari, Roshani Gautam, and Shiva Bhandari Copyright © 2015 Ambika Aryal Bhandari et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: A Survey of Home Delivery and Newborn Care Practices among Women in a Suburban Area of Western Nigeria Tue, 11 Aug 2015 06:32:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/689596/ International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2015 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Black Plane Solutions and Localized Gravitational Energy Thu, 06 Aug 2015 11:53:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/109329/ We explore the issue of gravitational energy localization for static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, and Møller prescriptions, to the metric representing this category of solutions and determine the energy distribution for each. We find that the three prescriptions offer identical energy distributions, suggesting their utility for this type of model. Paul Halpern and Jennifer Roberts Copyright © 2015 Paul Halpern and Jennifer Roberts. All rights reserved. Effects of Curved Wavefronts on Conductor-Backed Reflection-Only Free-Space Material Characterization Techniques Wed, 15 Jul 2015 10:58:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/657254/ A true plane wave is often not physically realizable in a laboratory environment. Therefore, wavefront curvature introduces a form of systematic error into Free-space material characterization methods. Free-space material characterization is important to the determination of the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of conductor-backed and in situ materials. This paper performs an error analysis of the impact on wavefront curvature on a Free-space method called the two-thickness method. This paper compares the extracted electric and magnetic permeability computed with a plane wave versus a line source for a low-loss dielectric and magnetic radar absorbing material. These steps are conducted for TE and TM plane waves and electric and magnetic line sources. Raenita A. Fenner and Edward J. Rothwell Copyright © 2015 Raenita A. Fenner and Edward J. Rothwell. All rights reserved. Effect of Nano-Tricalcium Phosphate and Nanohydroxyapatite on the Staining Susceptibility of Bleached Enamel Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:52:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/935264/ Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of nano-tricalcium phosphate (n-TCP) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HAP) on prevention of restaining of enamel after dental bleaching. Methods. Forty bovine incisors were bleached with 20% carbamide peroxide for two weeks. Afterward, they were divided into five groups based on remineralization solution: no treatment (control), 10% n-TCP, 5% n-TCP, 10% n-HAP, and 5% n-HAP. Each group was daily immersed for 10 minutes in the restaining solution (tea) and for 3 minutes in the remineralization agent, respectively. This protocol was repeated for five days. Subsequently, three digital photographs (baseline, after bleaching, and after restaining) were analyzed by Adobe Photoshop software. The obtained , , , and parameters were compared using ANOVA and Wilcoxon and Bonferroni tests. Results. After bleaching, there were significant changes in tooth colors () while, after restaining and immersion in remineralization solutions, there were no significant differences in , , and values of different groups (). However, of 10% TCP was significantly lower than the control () while there were no significant differences between the other groups (). Conclusion. 10% n-TCP could significantly maintain the resultant color and reconstruct the enamel structure after bleaching. Mohammad Bagher Rezvani, Mohammad Atai, Mohammad Reza Rouhollahi, Kosar Malekhoseini, Hamideh Rezai, and Faeze Hamze Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Bagher Rezvani et al. All rights reserved. Outcome-Based Quality Control by a Dental Reference Profile of a Population-Based Study (SHIP-0) Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:19:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/794769/ Objectives. The aim was to develop an instrument for quality control in dental practices. We compared the number of teeth of subjects of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0) with those from patients of dental practices. Methods. Patients from seven dental practices were randomly sampled by age strata and gender for a period of two years. Dental status derived from patient files was transformed into practice profiles using age-specific number of teeth as a parameter. Practice profiles were compared with a nomogram, which was based on the age-specific number of teeth of 3,990 SHIP-0 participants regularly visiting the dentist. Further, negative binomial regression models were evaluated to model associations between the number of teeth with age and dental practices, including interactions. Results. The practice profiles ranged between the 45th and 95th quantile curves of the reference population SHIP-0. The rate ratios (RR) for the number of missing teeth ranged from 0.37 to 0.67 between the different dental practices, indicating lower risk for higher numbers of missing teeth in comparison to SHIP-0. Conclusions. This study showed considerable differences between dental practices and the reference population of SHIP-0 regarding the pattern of tooth loss and confirms the value of nomograms to compare age-specific numbers of teeth between patients of dental practices and a population-based-study as a tool for quality control. For further analyses, the socioeconomic status of patients and relevant risk factors will be used to adjust for structural differences in order to improve the validity of the comparisons. Stefanie Samietz, Andreas Söhnel, Christian Schwahn, Birte Holtfreter, Torsten Mundt, Peter Meisel, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Thomas Kocher, and Reiner Biffar Copyright © 2015 Stefanie Samietz et al. All rights reserved. Design, Repeatability, and Comparison to Literature Data of a New Noninvasive Device Called “Rotameter” to Measure Rotational Knee Laxity Sun, 28 Jun 2015 14:42:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/439095/ The present paper deals with the design, the repeatability, and the comparison to literature data of a new measuring device called “Rotameter” to characterize the rotational knee laxity or the tibia-femoral rotation (TFR). The initial prototype P1 of the Rotameter is shortly introduced and then modified according to trials carried out on a prosthetic leg and on five healthy volunteers, leading therefore to an improved prototype P2. A comparison of results obtained from P1 and P2 with the same male subject shows the enhancements of P2. Intertester and intratester repeatability of this new device were shown and it was observed that rotational laxities of left and right knees are the same for a healthy subject. Moreover, a literature review showed that measurements with P2 presented lower TFR values than other noninvasive devices. The measured TFR versus torque characteristic was quite similar to other invasive devices, which are more difficult to use and harmful to the patient. Hence, our prototype P2 proved to be an easy-to-use and suitable device for quantifying rotational knee laxity. A forthcoming study will validate the Rotameter thanks to an approach based on computed tomography in order to evaluate its precision. Simon Neumann, Stefan Maas, Danièle Waldmann, Pierre-Louis Ricci, Arno Zürbes, Pierre-Jean Arnoux, and Jens Kelm Copyright © 2015 Simon Neumann et al. All rights reserved.