International Scholarly Research Notices http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Clinical Evaluation of Etched Enamel Discoloration following Immediate and Delayed Exposure to Colored Agents Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:09:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/416572/ Introduction. The aim was to evaluate etched enamel discoloration following immediate and delayed exposure to colored agents. Method & Material. 64 premolars were divided into four groups. Buccal surface of the teeth was divided into two halves and baseline color values were measured. One half was covered and the other half was etched and dried. In first and second groups, the patients did not eat any colored agents for the next 24 hours. Both halves were colorimetered after 48 hours and 1 month, respectively. In third and fourth groups, the process was similar, but the patients drank cola and avoid eating any other colored agents and the teeth were colorimetered after 48 hours and 1 month, respectively. Color change values of each half were calculated according to CIE lab system. Sign test was used to compare values of etched and unetched halves. was set as significant. Results. A significant difference was observed in groups III and IV regarding comparison of of the etched and control enamel (). Conclusion. Exposure of etched enamel to colored agents in the first 24 hours after etching can affect its color which remains at least for one month. Neda Eslami, Mohammad Basafa, Arezoo Jahanbin, Alireza Borouzi Niat, Soroush Basafa, and Elham Banihashemi Copyright © 2014 Neda Eslami et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth Wed, 23 Jul 2014 06:53:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/134931/ Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0–15%) during conditioning or (0–25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. Hussien M. Daffalla, Mohammed Mahgoub Hassan, Magdoleen G. Osman, Amani Hamad Eltayeb, Yassin Ibrahim Dagash, and Migdam E. Abdel Gani Copyright © 2014 Hussien M. Daffalla et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacological and Ethnomedicinal Overview of Heritiera fomes: Future Prospects Tue, 22 Jul 2014 05:45:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/938543/ Mangrove plants are specialized woody plants growing in the swamps of tidal-coastal areas and river deltas of tropical and subtropical parts of the world. They have been utilized for medicinal and other purposes by the coastal people over the years. Heritiera fomes Buch. Ham. (family: Sterculiaceae) commonly known as Sundari (Bengali) is a preeminent mangrove plant occurring in the Sundarbans forest located in the southern part of Bangladesh and adjoining West Bengal province of India. The plant has applications in traditional folk medicine as evidenced by its extensive use for treating diabetes, hepatic disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, goiter, and skin diseases by the local people and traditional health practitioners. A number of investigations indicated that the plant possesses significant antioxidant, antinociceptive, antihyperglycemic, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Phytochemical analyses have revealed the presence of important chemical constituents like saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, phytosterols, and reducing sugars. The present study is aimed at compiling information on phytochemical, biological, pharmacological, and ethnobotanical properties of this important medicinal plant, with a view to critically assess the legitimacy of the use of this plant in the aforementioned disorders as well as providing directions for further research. Imran Mahmud, Md Khirul Islam, Sanjib Saha, Apurba Kumar Barman, Md Mustafizur Rahman, Md Anisuzzman, Taufiq Rahman, Abdullah Al-Nahain, Rownak Jahan, and Mohammed Rahmatullah Copyright © 2014 Imran Mahmud et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic of Plant Composition and Regeneration following Windthrow in a Temperate Beech Forest Tue, 22 Jul 2014 05:44:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/421457/ The effects of soil pedoturbation (i.e., pit and mound microtopography, PM) on development of herbaceous plant species and woody species regeneration were examined in a temperate beech forest (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in northern Iran. We recorded the vegetation in 20 pairs of disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots and established a chronosequence of PM ages to study the effect of time since microsite formation on cover percent of herbaceous plants and woody regeneration status. According to our findings, Carex acutiformis L., Sambucus ebulus L., Brachypodium pinnatum L., and Cyclamen coum L. are found only in the PM microsites, whereas the Equisetum ramosissimum L. is recorded only under closed canopy. The coverage percent of Rubus caesius L. increased in PM microsites compared to closed canopy intensively. In addition, Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is detected in PM microsite, whereas the Acer cappadocicum B. and Prunus persica L. species were recorded only under closed canopy. We found significant differences in understory species diversity between different ages of PM, and disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots. Our study supports that the PM complex will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species. Sakineh Mollaei Darabi, Yahya Kooch, and Seyed Mohsen Hosseini Copyright © 2014 Sakineh Mollaei Darabi et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test Mon, 21 Jul 2014 07:23:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/632672/ The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin—a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase in chromosomal aberrations was noted in dimethoate treated Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly reduced dimethoate-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in meristematic cells, and these effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the meristematic cells of Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects. Waseem Ahmad, Sibhghatulla Shaikh, Nazia Nazam, and Mohammad Iqbal Lone Copyright © 2014 Waseem Ahmad et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Idempotent Elements of the Endomorphism Semiring of a Finite Chain Mon, 21 Jul 2014 06:19:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/975494/ International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2014 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India Sun, 20 Jul 2014 07:18:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/679073/ Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper. P. Nongdam and Leimapokpam Tikendra Copyright © 2014 P. Nongdam and Leimapokpam Tikendra. All rights reserved. Neuropsychology in Multidisciplinary Stroke Care: Clinical Feasibility of the NINDS-CSN Vascular Cognitive Impairment Harmonization Standards Sun, 20 Jul 2014 06:30:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/216024/ As a significant number of stroke victims exhibit cognitive impairment, neuropsychological assessments can enhance poststroke management by identifying pertinent cognitive sequelae and providing salient care recommendations. However, due to operational differences between traditional neuropsychology and stroke services, neuropsychological assessments often remain underutilized in stroke care. We developed a novel care model that incorporated neuropsychological testing into a comprehensive stroke program using the modified vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) half-hour assessment protocol proposed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke—Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN). The test batteries were administered during the patients’ acute admissions and then again upon follow-up in the multidisciplinary stroke clinic. Patient and provider satisfaction was then evaluated. Surveys revealed high provider satisfaction with improved clinic efficacy, improved data turnaround time, and with value neuropsychology services added to the comprehensive stroke program. Results from the 18-item industry standard Press-Ganey surveys showed all scores above 4.4/5.0 for patient satisfaction. This clinic garnered high provider and patient satisfaction after the first year. The (modified) NINDS-CSN VCI assessment protocol demonstrated clinical feasibility, suggestive of an efficient method of providing focused neuropsychological services in a clinical setting that otherwise prohibits traditional, comprehensive cognitive assessments. Dong Y. Han, Amelia J. Anderson, Jana E. Jones, Bruce P. Hermann, and Justin A. Sattin Copyright © 2014 Dong Y. Han et al. All rights reserved. Locking Compression Plate in Distal Femoral Intra-Articular Fractures: Our Experience Thu, 17 Jul 2014 06:38:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/372916/ Background. Intra-articular fractures of distal femur present a huge surgical challenge. The aim of this study is to evaluate functional outcome, fracture healing, and the complications of distal femoral intra-articular fractures using locking compression plates. Material and Methods. We reviewed 46 distal femoral fractures treated with distal femoral locking compression plates between 2009 to 2012. There were 36 men and 10 women with mean age of 35 years (range 20–72). More than half of the patients were of type C3 (AO classification) and had been caused by high energy trauma with associated injuries. Results. 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 44 patients, the mean follow-up period was 25 months (range 18–36). The mean time for radiological union was 12 weeks (range 10–18) except 2 patients which had gone for nonunion. At the latest follow up ROM is noted in 32 patients, 90–120 in 10 patients, and 70–90 in 2 patients. 38 patients (86%) had good/excellent outcome. Conclusion. Use of standard lateral approach for simple intra-articular distal femoral fractures (C1) and transarticular/minimally invasive techniques for complex intra-articular fractures (C2/C3) results in improved exposure of the knee joint and better union rates with low incidence of bone grafting. G. N. Kiran Kumar, Gaurav Sharma, Kamran Farooque, Vijay Sharma, Ratnav Ratan, Sanjay Yadav, and Devendra Lakhotia Copyright © 2014 G. N. Kiran Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma Thu, 17 Jul 2014 06:30:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/407142/ Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident melasma were included in the study. 82% Lactic acid peel was applied on the face for 12 weeks in each patient. Patients were evaluated clinically and photographically at various intervals and in follow-up till 24 weeks. Assessment of patient satisfaction and side effects were also noted. All the subjects completed the study. Application of this peel for 12 weeks significantly decreased the melasma area severity index score and also melasma severity scale score. Patient and physician analogue scales also showed the improvement by the treatment. Regarding the adverse effects, burning sensation was the only side effect noted in our study. In conclusion, 82% lactic acid peel is well tolerated and can be used for the treatment of melasma. Rashmi Singh, Sapna Goyal, Qazi Rais Ahmed, Narendra Gupta, and Sujata Singh Copyright © 2014 Rashmi Singh et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Site Disturbances from Harvesting and Logging on Soil Physical Properties and Pinus kesiya Tree Growth Wed, 16 Jul 2014 07:31:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/323626/ A study was conducted to determine the impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on soil physical properties and tree growth and the effectiveness of tillage in maintaining or enhancing site productivity for intensively managed Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon sites in Dedza, Malawi. The results indicate that about fifty-two percent of the area of compacted plots was affected by the vehicular traffic. Seventy percent of the trees were planted on microsites with some degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density at 0–20 cm depth increased from 0.45 to 0.66 Mg m−3 in the most compacted portions of traffic lanes. Soil strength in traffic lanes increased at all 60 cm depth but never exceeded 1200 kPa. Volumetric soil water content in compacted traffic lanes was greater than that in noncompacted soil. Total soil porosity decreased 13.8% to 16.1% with compaction, while available water holding capacity increased. The study revealed no detrimental effects on tree height and diameter from soil disturbance or compaction throughout the three growing season. At the ages of two and three, a tree volume index was actually greater for trees planted on traffic lanes than those on nondisturbed soil. Edward Missanjo and Gift Kamanga-Thole Copyright © 2014 Edward Missanjo and Gift Kamanga-Thole. All rights reserved. Nitrite as Direct S-Nitrosylating Agent of Kir2.1 Channels Wed, 16 Jul 2014 05:53:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/517126/ Nitrite, a physiological nitric oxide (NO) storage form and an alternative way for NO generation, affects numerous biological processes through NO-dependent and independent pathways, including the S-nitrosylation of thiol-containing proteins. Mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to analyse in the rat heart (as prototype of mammalian heart) whether nitrite affects S-nitrosylation of cardiac proteins and the potential targets for S-nitrosylation. Rat hearts, perfused according to Langendorff, were exposed to nitrite. By Biotin Switch Method, we showed that nitrite treatment increased the degree of S-nitrosylation of a broad range of membrane proteins. Further analysis, conducted on subfractioned proteins, allowed us to identify a high level of nitrosylation in a small range of plasmalemmal proteins characterized by using an anti-Kir2.1 rabbit polyclonal antibody. We also verified that this effect of nitrite is preserved in the presence of the NO scavenger PTIO (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide). Our results suggest, for the first time, that nitrite represents a direct S-nitrosylating agent in cardiac tissues and that inward-rectifier potassium ion channels (Kir2.1) are one of the targets. These observations are of relevance since they support the growing evidence that nitrite is not only a NO reserve but also a direct modulator of important functional cardiac proteins. Gabriella Montesanti, Maria Laura Parisella, Giusi Garofalo, and Daniela Pellegrino Copyright © 2014 Gabriella Montesanti et al. All rights reserved. HRV Analysis: A Clinical and Diagnostic Tool in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tue, 15 Jul 2014 08:35:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/673232/ This study’s aim is to analyze heart rate dynamics in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measures of heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is a simple and noninvasive measure of autonomic impulses. 38 adults were divided into two equal groups based on respiratory function: COPD and normal. HRV was monitored in the supine position for 30 minutes. After tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis was used for the statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at . Principal component analysis identified two components representing 99.5% of total variance. Furthermore, it is suggested that the chaos forward parameter (CFP) which applies all three “chaotic globals” is the most influential, although others are statistically more significant. The COPD subjects exhibited a decrease in the CFP. COPD can be termed a dynamical condition, decreasing the chaotic response. The perceived benefits of such analysis include quantitative assessment and suitable pharmacological intervention in the respiratory condition, especially of other related dynamical diseases such as cardiac failure. Aline Fernanda Barbosa Bernardo, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei, and David M. Garner Copyright © 2014 Aline Fernanda Barbosa Bernardo et al. All rights reserved. Imaging and Markers as Novel Diagnostic Tools in Detecting Insignificant Prostate Cancer: A Critical Overview Tue, 15 Jul 2014 06:46:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/243080/ Recent therapeutic advances for managing low-risk prostate cancer include the active surveillance and focal treatment. However, locating a tumor and detecting its volume by adequate sampling is still problematic. Development of predictive biomarkers guiding individual therapeutic choices remains an ongoing challenge. At the same time, prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging is gaining increasing importance for prostate diagnostics. The high morphological resolution of T2-weighted imaging and functional MRI methods may increase the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostics. Also, recent studies founded an ability of novel biomarkers to identify clinically insignificant prostate cancer, risk of progression, and association with poor differentiation and, therefore, with clinical significance. Probably, the above mentioned methods would improve tumor characterization in terms of its volume, aggressiveness, and focality. In this review, we attempted to evaluate the applications of novel imaging techniques and biomarkers in assessing the significance of the prostate cancer. Sergey Reva, Alexander Nosov, Roman Novikov, and Sergey Petrov Copyright © 2014 Sergey Reva et al. All rights reserved. Phytochemical Profiling of Leaf, Stem, and Tuber Parts of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Using GC-MS Mon, 14 Jul 2014 06:24:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/567409/ Objective. To explore the possible bioactive compounds in the methanolic extracts of leaf, stem, and tuber parts of the medicinal climber, Solena amplexicaulis, using GC-MS. Methods. GC-MS analysis of the plant extracts were performed by using GC-MS-5975C [Agilent] and mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the data in the library of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Results. Thirty-five compounds were determined to be present in the parts studied. The active principles with their retention time, molecular formula, molecular weight, peak area, structure, category of the compounds, and activities were predicted. The most prevailing compounds were phytol (38.24%) in leaf, 4-(4-ethoxyphenyl) but-3-en-2-one (56.90%) in stem, and 9,17-octadecadienal, (Z)- (21.77%) in tuber. Conclusion. This study revealed that the species S. amplexicaulis is a good source of many bioactive compounds like terpenes, triazines, esters, alkanes, alcohols, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, amides, and so forth. That justifies the traditional usage of this species. Karthika Krishnamoorthy and Paulsamy Subramaniam Copyright © 2014 Karthika Krishnamoorthy and Paulsamy Subramaniam. All rights reserved. Determination of Magnesium Valproate and Its Process Related Impurities by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Mon, 14 Jul 2014 06:21:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/412704/ A selective ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the determination of magnesium valproate and its process related impurities has been developed. The method includes reversed-phase Acquity BEH C18 column with 100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d. and 1.7 µ particle size. The mobile phase consists of acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate with pH = 3.0 at 45 : 55 isocratic elution. The flow rate was set at 0.3 mL/min and UV detection was performed at 215 nm. A system suitability test (SST) was developed to govern the quality of the separation. The developed method has been validated further with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, and robustness. Different batches of samples were examined using this method; the method proved to be successful when applied to analyze a marketed magnesium valproate formulation. Rakshit Thakkar, Hitesh Saravaia, Madhavi Patel, and Anamik Shah Copyright © 2014 Rakshit Thakkar et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between First and Second Trimester Uterine Artery Doppler Velocimetry and Placental Bed Histopathology Sun, 13 Jul 2014 06:27:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/890534/ Aim. To evaluate the relationship between uterine artery Doppler indices and placental bed histopathology independent of clinical outcome. Materials and Methods. Uterine artery measurements were performed to 510 pregnant women who had come for routine antenatal care in 11–14th and 20–24th weeks. Placental bed biopsies from 141 cases were taken during cesarean section. Physiological changes and abnormal placental histology findings were investigated and compared with Doppler findings. Results. 116 biopsies were accepted as adequate biopsy and included in the study. Physiological changes were seen in 100 biopsies. Statistically significant higher PI and RI values in second trimester and higher notch rate in both trimesters were detected in the abnormal placental histology group (). Conclusion. Strong relationship between uterine artery Doppler indices and preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation has been shown in previous studies. In our study, we concluded that there is significant relationship between Doppler findings and placental bed histopathology independent of clinical course. Murat Akbaş, Cihat Şen, and Zerrin Calay Copyright © 2014 Murat Akbaş et al. All rights reserved. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] to Tillage, Nutrient, and Weed Management Practices in Dura Area, Northern Ethiopia Sun, 13 Jul 2014 06:24:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/439718/ The low average grain yield (0.7 ton ha−1) of tef in Ethiopia is mainly attributed to low soil fertility, and inappropriate tillage and weeds control practices. Despite this, limited scientific information has been documented so far on their interaction effects on tef crop productivity in northern Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess the separate and interaction effects of tillage, fertilizer, and weed control practices on tef yield and yield components in the conditions of northern Ethiopia. A two-year study (2008-2009) was conducted using split-split-plot design with three replications. In the main plot, three tillage treatments: conventional tillage (6 times tillage passes) (T1), four times tillage passes (T2), and reduced tillage (single tillage pass at sowing) (T3) were applied. The fertilizer treatments in the subplots were: no fertilizer (F1); 23 kg N ha−1 (F2); 23 kg N ha−1 and 10 kg P ha−1 (F3); 23 kg N ha−1 and 2.5 ton manure ha−1 (F4); and 2.5 ton manure ha−1 (F5). The sub-subplot weed control treatments included farmer weed control practice or hand weeding (W1); 2,4 D at 0.75 kg ha−1 at five-leaf stage; 2,4 D at 0.75 kg ha−1 at six-leaf stage; 2,4 D at 1.5 kg ha−1 at five-leaf stage; and 2,4 D at 1.5 kg ha−1 at six-leaf stage. This study showed that the separate and interaction effects of tillage, fertilizer, and weed control practices significantly affected tef crop yield and yield components in both crop seasons. T2 increased tef yield by >42% over the other tillage and F3 increased yield by >21% over the other fertilizer treatments. Grain yield increased by >23% due to W1. This study thus suggested that promising treatments such as T2, F3, and W1 should be demonstrated at on-farm fields in order to evaluate their performance at farmers’ conditions. Gebreyesus Brhane Tesfahunegn Copyright © 2014 Gebreyesus Brhane Tesfahunegn. All rights reserved. The Dynamic Interactions between Salmonella and the Microbiota, within the Challenging Niche of the Gastrointestinal Tract Thu, 10 Jul 2014 08:32:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/846049/ Understanding how Salmonella species establish successful infections remains a foremost research priority. This gastrointestinal pathogen not only faces the hostile defenses of the host’s immune system, but also faces fierce competition from the large and diverse community of microbiota for space and nutrients. Salmonella have solved these challenges ingeniously. To jump-start growth, Salmonella steal hydrogen produced by the gastrointestinal microbiota. Type 3 effector proteins are subsequently secreted by Salmonella to trigger potent inflammatory responses, which generate the alternative terminal electron acceptors tetrathionate and nitrate. Salmonella exclusively utilize these electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration, permitting metabolic access to abundant substrates such as ethanolamine to power growth blooms. Chemotaxis and flagella-mediated motility enable the identification of nutritionally beneficial niches. The resulting growth blooms also promote horizontal gene transfer amongst the resident microbes. Within the gastrointestinal tract there are opportunities for chemical signaling between host cells, the microbiota, and Salmonella. Host produced catecholamines and bacterial autoinducers form components of this chemical dialogue leading to dynamic interactions. Thus, Salmonella have developed remarkable strategies to initially shield against host defenses and to transiently compete against the intestinal microbiota leading to successful infections. However, the immunocompetent host is subsequently able to reestablish control and clear the infection. C. M. Anjam Khan Copyright © 2014 C. M. Anjam Khan. All rights reserved. Status of Day Care Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Developing Countries Thu, 10 Jul 2014 06:00:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/502786/ The practice of laparoscopic appendectomy as an ambulatory surgery is uncommon even in apex institutes, more so in developing countries, despite proven feasibility. To promote this practice in the developing countries like ours, we attempted to find the safety and cost effectiveness in such institutions which have limited resources. Thirty cases of symptomatic appendicitis were tried for same day discharge after laparoscopic appendectomies. The results were encouraging with 87% patients discharged on the same day and 13% on the next day in the early morning. Among the next day discharged cases, only 03% stayed for medical reasons (nausea, vomiting, and pain) while 10% stayed as their attendants declined to leave (social reasons), even though they were medically eligible for discharge from the hospital. There were no significant postoperative complications except tolerable pain in all patients and mild to moderate nausea/vomiting in 80%. There was no readmission. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.20 hrs. At the time of discharge all patients were highly satisfied. We concluded that routine same day discharge is safe and feasible after appendectomies in developing countries, with social decline as the main hurdle which can be improved by proper communication. Akhlak Hussain, Sarabjit Singh, Kuldip Singh Ahi, and Mohinder Singh Copyright © 2014 Akhlak Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Implant Maintenance: A Clinical Update Wed, 09 Jul 2014 06:04:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/908534/ Introduction. The differences in the supporting structure of the implant make them more susceptible to inflammation and bone loss when plaque accumulates as compared to the teeth. Therefore, a comprehensive maintenance protocol should be followed to ensure the longevity of the implant. Material and Method. A research to provide scientific evidence supporting the feasibility of various implant care methods was carried out using various online resources to retrieve relevant studies published since 1985. Results. The electronic search yielded 708 titles, out of which a total of 42 articles were considered appropriate and finally included for the preparation of this review article. Discussion. A typical maintenance visit for patients with dental implants should last 1 hour and should be scheduled every 3 months to evaluate any changes in their oral and general history. It is essential to have a proper instrument selection to prevent damage to the implant surface and trauma to the peri-implant tissues. Conclusion. As the number of patients opting for dental implants is increasing, it becomes increasingly essential to know the differences between natural teeth and implant care and accept the challenges of maintaining these restorations. Minkle Gulati, Vivek Govila, Vishal Anand, and Bhargavi Anand Copyright © 2014 Minkle Gulati et al. All rights reserved. Osteopontin and Osteoprotegerin as Potential Biomarkers in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm before and after Treatment Wed, 09 Jul 2014 06:04:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/461239/ Aim. Although osteopontin (OPN) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), no association of these two biomarkers with AAA surgical or endovascular treatment has been reported. Material and Methods. Seventy-four AAA patients were prospectively selected for open or endovascular repair. All aneurysms were classified (Types A–E) according to aneurysmal extent in CT imaging (EUROSTAR criteria). All patients had preoperative serum OPN and OPG values measurements and 1 week after the procedure. Preoperative and postoperative values were compared with a control group of twenty patients (inguinal hernia repair). Results. Preoperative OPN values in patients with any type of aneurysm were higher than in the control group, while OPG values showed no difference. Postoperative OPN values in AAA patients were higher than in the control group. OPN values increased after open surgery and after EVAR. OPG values increased after open surgery but not after EVAR. There was no difference in OPN/OPG values between EVAR and open surgery postoperatively. Conclusions. OPN values are associated with aneurysm presence but not with aneurysm extent. OPG values are not associated either with aneurysm presence or with aneurysm extent. OPN values increase after AAA repair, independently of the type of repair. Konstantinos Filis, Vasilios Martinakis, George Galyfos, Fragiska Sigala, Dimitris Theodorou, Ioanna Andreadou, and Georgios Zografos Copyright © 2014 Konstantinos Filis et al. All rights reserved. Success Rates of Ankaferd Blood Stopper and Ferric Sulfate as Pulpotomy Agents in Primary Molars Tue, 08 Jul 2014 06:20:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/819605/ Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic findings of treatments using a new hemostatic agent (Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS)), as compared to ferric sulfate (FS), when used as a pulpotomy medicament in primary teeth. Materials and Methods. The primary molars (70) were selected from 35 children aged 4 to 6 years. The teeth were randomized into two groups for pulpotomy with the ABS () and the FS () agents. The patients were recalled for clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month intervals. Results. At the 3- and 6-month clinical and radiographic evaluations, total success rates of 100% were observed in each group. In ABS and FS groups, the clinical success rates, however, reduced to 90.9% and 93.9% at the 9-month examination and 84,8% and 90.9% at the 12-month examination, respectively. Similarly, the teeth in the ABS and FS groups had radiographic success rates of 90.9% and 93.9% at 9 months and 84.8% and 87.8% at 12 moths, respectively. Conclusion. Although the findings indicated that ABS agents may be useful agents for pulpotomy medicament, further long-term and comprehensive histological investigations of ABS treatments are necessary. Kenan Cantekin and Hüsniye Gümüş Copyright © 2014 Kenan Cantekin and Hüsniye Gümüş. All rights reserved. The Incidence of Impacted Maxillary Canines in a Kosovar Population Tue, 08 Jul 2014 06:07:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/370531/ Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of impacted maxillary canines in a Kosovar population. Materials and Methods. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the records of 8101 patients treated in the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo between August 2001 and February 2004. The chi-squared test was used to examine potential differences in the distribution of impacted maxillary canines stratified by gender, age, location (left or right), and position. was accepted as statistically significant. Results. It was found that the incidence of impacted maxillary canines was 1.62%. Of the 131 impacted maxillary canines, 101 were in female patients and 30 were in male patients, a statistically significant difference. Ages were in the range of 9 to >20 years, with a mean age of  years. Of these subjects, 99 (75.57%) had unilaterally impacted maxillary canines, while 32 (24.43%) had bilateral impactions, a statistically significant difference (). Impacted canines in 92 subjects (70.2%) were palatally placed, and 18 (13.7%) were labially placed. This difference was also statistically significant (). Conclusion. The incidence of impacted maxillary canines in the sample Kosovar population was 1.62%, which is comparable to the findings from previous studies. Ali Gashi, Blerim Kamberi, Resmije Ademi-Abdyli, Ferijale Perjuci, and Arjeta Sahatçiu-Gashi Copyright © 2014 Ali Gashi et al. All rights reserved. Second Order Duality in Multiobjective Fractional Programming with Square Root Term under Generalized Univex Function Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:09:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/541524/ Three approaches of second order mixed type duality are introduced for a nondifferentiable multiobjective fractional programming problem in which the numerator and denominator of objective function contain square root of positive semidefinite quadratic form. Also, the necessary and sufficient conditions of efficient solution for fractional programming are established and a parameterization technique is used to establish duality results under generalized second order -univexity assumption. Arun Kumar Tripathy Copyright © 2014 Arun Kumar Tripathy. All rights reserved. Disease Modifying Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis Mon, 07 Jul 2014 05:52:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/307064/ Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration. It is the commonest cause of permanent disability in young adults. Environmental and genetic factors have been suggested in its etiology. Currently available disease modifying drugs are only effective in controlling inflammation but not prevention of neurodegeneration or accumulation of disability. Search for an effective neuroprotective therapy is at the forefront of multiple sclerosis research. U. E. Williams, S. K. Oparah, and E. E. Philip-Ephraim Copyright © 2014 U. E. Williams et al. All rights reserved. Dorsally Placed Buccal Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty in Treatment of Long Urethral Strictures Using One-Stage Transperineal Approach Sun, 06 Jul 2014 05:53:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/792982/ Objectives. To evaluate the results of one-stage buccal mucosal urethroplasty in treatment of long urethral strictures. Methods. This retrospective study was carried out on 117 patients with long urethral strictures who underwent one-stage transperineal urethroplasty with dorsally placed buccal mucosal grafts (BMG). Success was defined as no need for any intervention during the follow-up period. Results. Among 117 patients with mean age of years, the strictures were located in penile urethra in 46 patients (39.32%), bulbar urethra in 33 (28.20%) and were panurethral in 38 (32.48%). The etiology of the urethral stricture was sexually transmitted disease (STD) in 17 (14.53%), lichen sclerosus in 15 (12.82%), trauma in 15 (12.82%), catheterization in 13 (11.11%), transurethral resection (TUR) in 6 (5.13%), and unknown in 51 (43.59%). The mean length of strictures was centimeters. During the mean followup of months success rate was 93.94% in bulbar strictures, 97.83% in penile strictures, and 84.21% in panurethral strictures (P value: 0.061). Conclusions. The success rate of transperineal urethroplasty with dorsally placed buccal mucosal grafts is equal in different sites of strictures with different etiologies. So reconstruction of long urethral strictures may be safely and effectively performed at a simple single operative procedure using this method of urethroplasty. Kamyar Tavakkoli Tabassi and Alireza Ghoreifi Copyright © 2014 Kamyar Tavakkoli Tabassi and Alireza Ghoreifi. All rights reserved. Variation in the Prevalence of Domestic Violence between Neighboring Areas Sun, 06 Jul 2014 05:52:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/721951/ Domestic violence against women is an important health issue, but few studies have focused on city of residence and ethnic differences. To estimate the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence and certain related factors, with a specific focus on city of residence and ethnicity, we studied 1820 married women attending public health centers in 4 large cities in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Islamic Republic of Iran. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. The prevalence of some forms of lifetime domestic violence against women was 47.3%. The prevalence of physical, psychological, and any form of lifetime violence was the highest in Dezful (25.7%, 54.8%, and 57.7%, resp.). For sexual violence, the highest prevalence was reported in Ahvaz (17.7%). The highest prevalence of physical and sexual violence during any point of life was reported by Arab women (25.1% and 16.7%). The experience of all forms of violence was significantly associated with city of residence. Results of regression logistic analysis revealed that all of the forms of violence except psychological violence were statistically significantly associated with ethnicity (). Sedigheh Nouhjah and Seyed Mahmood Latifi Copyright © 2014 Sedigheh Nouhjah and Seyed Mahmood Latifi. All rights reserved. Determining Information on Cardiology Disease Risk Factors of Disease in Women Thu, 03 Jul 2014 06:50:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/276121/ In an attempt to decrease the rate of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, first cardiovascular risk factors should be controlled. This study was carried out to reveal the level of knowledge about cardiovascular disease risk factors in women who presented to a primary healthcare center in Erzurum, Turkey, and the prevalence of such risk factors. Our study is a descriptive one and its data were collected between February and April 2013. The study included 168 women who presented to Filiz Dolunay Family Healthcare Center and who met the criteria and agreed to participate in the study. It was found that 22.6% of the women did not exercise at all above normal range, 53.6% of them had weights above normal, 23.8% smoked, and 22% had hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cholesterol, or excess fat around their waist. It was concluded that, although women were knowledgeable, they did not put this into practice in their lives. Hasret Yalçınöz Baysal, Sonay Bilgin, Işın Cantekin, and Gökhan Bilgin Copyright © 2014 Hasret Yalçınöz Baysal et al. All rights reserved. Identification of pBC218/pBC210 Genes of Bacillus cereus G9241 in Five Florida Soils Using qPCR Thu, 03 Jul 2014 06:23:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/197234/ The distribution of the virulent plasmid pBC210 of B. cereus that carries several B. anthracis genes and has been implicated in lethal anthrax-like pulmonary disease is unknown. We screened our collection of 103 B. cereus isolates and 256 soil samples using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that targeted three open reading frames putatively unique to pBC210. When tested with DNA from 2 B. cereus strains carrying pBC210, and 64 Gram-positive and 55 Gram-negative bacterial species, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity. None of the DNA from the B. cereus isolates yielded positive amplicons but DNA extracted from five soils collected in Florida gave positive results for all three target sequences of pBC210. While screening confirms that pBC210 is uncommon in B. cereus, this study is the first to report that pBC210 is present in Florida soils. This study improves our knowledge of the distribution of pBC210 in soils and, of public health importance, the potential threat of B. cereus isolates carrying the toxin-carrying plasmid. We demonstrated that sequences of pBC210 can be found in a larger geographical area than previously thought and that finding more B. cereus carrying the virulent plasmid is a possibility in the future. Vicki Ann Luna, Kimmy Nguyen, and Damian H. Gilling Copyright © 2014 Vicki Ann Luna et al. All rights reserved.