International Scholarly Research Notices http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Efficacy of Two Irrigants Used with Self-Adjusting File System on Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study Tue, 23 Sep 2014 05:58:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/289164/ Mechanical instrumentation of root canals produces a smear layer that adversely affects the root canal seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of MTAD and citric acid solutions used with self-adjusting file (SAF) system on smear layer. Twenty-three single-rooted human teeth were used for the study. Canals were instrumented manually up to a number 20 K file size. SAF was used to prepare the root canals. The following groups were studied: Group 1: MTAD + 5.25% NaOCl, Group 2: 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and Group 3: Control (5.25% NaOCl). All roots were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds was evaluated using a five-score evaluation system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In the coronal third, Group 2 exhibited the best results and was statistically different froms the other groups . There was not a significant difference among the three thirds of groups according to in-group comparisons . The solutions used in Group 1 and 2 could effectively remove smear layer in most of the specimens. However, citric acid was more effective than MTAD in the three thirds of the canal. Özgür Genç Şen, Sadullah Kaya, Özgür Er, and Tayfun Alaçam Copyright © 2014 Özgür Genç Şen et al. All rights reserved. Inherited or Behavior? What Causal Beliefs about Obesity Are Associated with Weight Perceptions and Decisions to Lose Weight in a US Sample? Tue, 23 Sep 2014 05:56:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/632940/ Objectives. To identify the extent to which (1) beliefs about obesity and obesity-related behaviors distinguish individuals based on weight perception (WP) and (2) beliefs about obesity predict perceived health status and WP and how these in turn predict decisions to try to lose weight. Method. 7456 noninstitutionalized US adults (, ; 61.2% female; 75.9% White) completed the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multinomial logistic regressions and structural equation modeling were used to accomplish study objectives. Results. Age, gender, information-seeking, health status, belief that obesity is inherited, and knowledge of fruits and vegetables recommendations distinguished participants based on WP. Beliefs about obesity predicted health status, WP, and trying to lose weight in the general model. The models varied based on gender, race/ethnicity, education, and weight misperception. Conclusion. This study supports the role of beliefs about obesity, WP, and health perceptions in individuals’ decisions and actions regarding weight management. This study increases our understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, education, and weight misperceptions differences in decisions to lose weight. This knowledge may lead to targeted interventions, rather than “one size fits all” interventions, to promote health and prevent obesity. Sasha A. Fleary and Reynolette Ettienne Copyright © 2014 Sasha A. Fleary and Reynolette Ettienne. All rights reserved. On Study of Immune Response to Tumor Cells in Prey-Predator System Mon, 22 Sep 2014 08:17:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/346597/ This paper aims to develop the mathematical model that explores the immune response to a tumor system as a prey-predator system. A deterministic model defining the dynamics of tumor growth progression and regression has been analyzed. Our analysis indicates the tumor recurring and dormancy on the cellular level in combination with resting and hunting cells. The model considered in the present study is a generalization of El-Gohary (2008) by introducing the Michaelis-Menten function. This function describes the stimulation process of the resting cells by the tumor cells in the presence of tumor specific antigens. Local and global stability analysis have been performed along with the numerical simulation to support our findings. Gurpreet Kaur and Naseem Ahmad Copyright © 2014 Gurpreet Kaur and Naseem Ahmad. All rights reserved. Factor VIII-Related Antigen Detects Phenotypic Change of Sinusoidal to Vascular Endothelium in Hepatic Fibrosis of Elderly Cadavers Mon, 22 Sep 2014 08:13:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/839560/ In advanced stages of hepatic fibrosis, the liver sinusoidal endothelium transforms to vascular endothelium with accompanying expression of factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIRAg), a phenotypic marker of vascular endothelial cells. Liver fibrosis has been shown to be associated with aging and was found to be prevalent in elderly cadavers. Using immunohistochemistry, we studied FVIIIRAg expression in the livers of elderly cadavers with progressive stages of fibrosis. The vascular endothelium of portal tracts and central veins was stained for FVIIIRAg, providing an internal positive control. The incidence of FVIIIRAg expression was low in the sinusoids of livers that showed minimal fibrosis or perisinusoidal fibrosis but was increased in livers with advanced fibrosis (i.e., septa formation, bridging fibrosis, and cirrhosis). FVIIIRAg positive sinusoidal endothelial cells were distributed in loose aggregates in the periportal, periseptal, and midlobular parenchyma and were found less frequently in the centrilobular area. FVIIIRAg immune deposits appeared patchy and discontinuous along the sinusoidal lining, likely representing focalized transformation of sinusoidal to vascular endothelium. There was a discrete localization of FVIIIRAg immunoreactivity in the foci of severe parenchymal fibrosis. Conclusion. FVIIIRAg is a reliable marker for detecting the transformation of sinusoidal to vascular endothelium in advanced liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers. Ki M. Mak, Priya Sehgal, and Cynthia K. Harris Copyright © 2014 Ki M. Mak et al. All rights reserved. Incidence, Pattern, and Severity of Acute Respiratory Infections among Infants and Toddlers of a Peri-Urban Area of Delhi: A 12-Month Prospective Study Sun, 21 Sep 2014 08:48:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/165152/ Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in spite of being the single most important under-five morbidity have not been studied adequately in peri-urban settings in India. We conducted this study prospectively on a cohort of 106 children in a peri-urban area of Delhi. The overall 2-week prevalence of all types of ARI was 34.3%. Annual combined incidence of all types of ARI was 7.9 episodes/100 child-weeks; while that for no pneumonia, cough, and cold, pneumonia, and otitis media was 7.1, 0.85, and 0.09 epi/100 ch-wks, respectively. Incidence of ARI was higher in infancy (9.4 epi/100 ch-wks) as compared to toddlers (7.0 epi/100 ch-wks). Pneumonia incidence was higher among boys (0.9 epi/100 ch-wks as compared to 0.6 for girls) and the highest in infants under 2 months of age (1.09 epi/100 ch-wks; < 0.01). Incidence of severe pneumonia was roughly one-tenth that of pneumonia. Incidence of both ARI and pneumonia peaked in spring and autumn. Mothers of infants, zespecially those under 2 months of age, need to be made aware of ARI/pneumonia and IEC campaigns may be aired more intensively keeping their peak season in mind. Sneha P. Walke, Ranjan Das, Anita Shankar Acharya, and Harish K. Pemde Copyright © 2014 Sneha P. Walke et al. All rights reserved. Distribution of Major and Trace Elements in a Tropical Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia Sun, 21 Sep 2014 06:46:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/870187/ This paper reports the metals content in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish of Batang Ai Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia. The samples were acid digested and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry analysis for Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, Fe, Sn, Al, Ca, As, Se, and Hg. The total Hg content was analysed on the mercury analyser. Results showed that metals in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish are distinguishable, with sediment and biota samples more susceptible to metal accumulation. The distributions of heavy metals in water specifically Se, Sn, and As could have associated with the input of fish feed, boating, and construction activities. The accumulation of heavy metals in sediment, macroalgae, and aquatic plant on the other hand might be largely influenced by the redox conditions in the aquatic environment. According to the contamination factor and the geoaccumulation index, sediment in Batang Ai Reservoir possesses low risk of contamination. The average metal contents in sediment and river water are consistently lower than the literature values reported and well below the limit of various guidelines. For fishes, trace element Hg was detected; however, the concentration was below the permissible level suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Siong Fong Sim, Teck Yee Ling, Lee Nyanti, Terri Zhuan Ean Lee, Nurul Aida Lu Mohd Irwan Lu, and Tomy Bakeh Copyright © 2014 Siong Fong Sim et al. All rights reserved. CBCT Evaluation of Bony Nasal Pyramid Dimensions in Iranian Population: A Comparative Study with Ethnic Groups Thu, 18 Sep 2014 12:41:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/819378/ Background. The aim of the present study was to have normative data of nasal bone thickness for use before reconstructive surgery and nasal augmentation through radiography analysis. Methods and Materials. In this descriptive-analytical study, 74 patients were selected from people referred to Radiology Department of Isfahan University for CBCT examination in 2012. Patients with a history of nasal surgery or facial trauma and known congenital anomaly were excluded from the study. Height of nasal bone and width of pyriform aperture and nasal bone thickness in lateral and medial osteotomy line were measured. All these measurements were repeated by two radiologists; finally one sample -test was performed. Results. The mean thickness of nasal bone on the lateral osteotomy line was 1.92 ± 0.29 mm in females and 1.73 ± 0.32 mm in males ( value = 0.39). The mean thickness of medial osteotomy line was 1.63 ± 0.47 mm in females and 1.94 ± 0.19 mm in males ( value = 0.31). The mean length of nasal bone was 23.5 ± 3.34 mm in females and 25.7 ± 2.96 mm in males ( value = 0.11). The mean width of pyriform aperture was 23.77 ± 2.58 mm in females and 25.67 ± 1.79 mm in males ( value = 0.25). Conclusions. The dimensions of nasal pyramid are known to be significant in choosing suitable osteotome size for reducing surgery side effect. Our results can be used for preoperative estimation of nasal bone dimension of people undergoing reconstructive surgery and augmentation. Asieh Zamani Naser and Mariyya Panahi Boroujeni Copyright © 2014 Asieh Zamani Naser and Mariyya Panahi Boroujeni. All rights reserved. Obstetric Scar Endometriosis: Retrospective Study on 19 Cases and Review of the Literature Thu, 18 Sep 2014 09:14:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/417042/ Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. This disease is one of the most common gynecologic disorders in reproductive age women. It generally occurs in pelvic cavity. But extrapelvic location has been defined (such as extremities, central nervous system, lungs, pleurae, liver, umbilicus, pericardium, urinary tract, intestines, and surgical scar tissue). Scar endometriosis is a rare disease and defined as presence of endometriotic lesions on the abdominal (such as cesarean section and hysterectomy) or vaginal (episiotomy) excision line. It is difficult to diagnose due to the extreme variability in presentation. The symptoms are nonspecific, typically involving pain, swelling at the incision site at the time of menstruation. Excision and histopathologic examination are necessary for diagnosis. We present a case series of obstetric scar endometriosis and review of the literature. Mustafa Kaplanoglu, Dilek Kaya Kaplanoğlu, Ceren Dincer Ata, and Selim Buyukkurt Copyright © 2014 Mustafa Kaplanoglu et al. All rights reserved. Asymptomatic Malaria and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:23:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/303269/ Introduction. Asymptomatic malaria is prevalent in highly endemic areas of Africa and is new challenge for malaria prevention and control strategies. Objective. To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria and associated risk factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2013, on 385 school children selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films were examined for detection, identification, and quantification of malaria parasites. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was 6.8% (). The majority of parasitemic study participants had low parasite density 65.5% (17/26). Level of grade, age, bed net usage, and frequent exposure to malaria infection were associated with risk of asymptomatic malaria. Conclusion. Asymptomatic malaria was low in this study area and is associated with level of grade, age, bed net usage, and frequent exposure to malaria infection. Ligabaw Worku, Demekech Damtie, Mengistu Endris, Sisay Getie, and Mulugeta Aemero Copyright © 2014 Ligabaw Worku et al. All rights reserved. ECG Beats Classification Using Mixture of Features Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:11:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/178436/ Classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals plays an important role in clinical diagnosis of heart disease. This paper proposes the design of an efficient system for classification of the normal beat (N), ventricular ectopic beat (V), supraventricular ectopic beat (S), fusion beat (F), and unknown beat (Q) using a mixture of features. In this paper, two different feature extraction methods are proposed for classification of ECG beats: (i) S-transform based features along with temporal features and (ii) mixture of ST and WT based features along with temporal features. The extracted feature set is independently classified using multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). The performances are evaluated on several normal and abnormal ECG signals from 44 recordings of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. In this work, the performances of three feature extraction techniques with MLP-NN classifier are compared using five classes of ECG beat recommended by AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation) standards. The average sensitivity performances of the proposed feature extraction technique for N, S, F, V, and Q are 95.70%, 78.05%, 49.60%, 89.68%, and 33.89%, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed feature extraction techniques show better performances compared to other existing features extraction techniques. Manab Kumar Das and Samit Ari Copyright © 2014 Manab Kumar Das and Samit Ari. All rights reserved. Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:01:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/934510/ This study examined the characteristics of vertebral artery hypoplasia in 346 arteries of adult black Kenyans. The circumference was measured on haematoxylin/eosin stained microscopic sections of the distal one-third of the intracranial vertebral arteries using scion image analyser. Internal diameter was calculated in millimetre. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Vertebral artery hypoplasia (diameter < 2.0 mm) occurred in 100 (28.9%) arteries. Sixty of these (17.3%) were on the left and 40 (11.6%) on the right. Sixty (17.3%) were in females while 40 (11.6%) were in males. The side and gender differences were statistically significant at confidence interval of 95%. Frequency of vertebral artery hypoplasia was higher than in most other populations studied. The condition differs from that in other populations because it is more common on the left side and in females. We recommend ultrasound, angio-CT, or angio-MRI evaluation of vertebral arterial system before diagnostic or interventional procedures on posterior circulation. Julius Ogeng’o, Beda Olabu, Rankeet Sinkeet, Nafula M. Ogeng’o, and Hemedi Elbusaid Copyright © 2014 Julius Ogeng’o et al. All rights reserved. Superoptimal Rate of Convergence in Nonparametric Estimation for Functional Valued Processes Tue, 16 Sep 2014 06:00:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/264217/ We consider the nonparametric estimation of the generalised regression function for continuous time processes with irregular paths when the regressor takes values in a semimetric space. We establish the mean-square convergence of our estimator with the same superoptimal rate as when the regressor is real valued. Christophe Chesneau and Bertrand Maillot Copyright © 2014 Christophe Chesneau and Bertrand Maillot. All rights reserved. Correlates and Predictors of Increasing Waist Circumference in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study Mon, 15 Sep 2014 06:47:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/318569/ Type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) has become a disease of public health concern worldwide. Obesity and elevated blood pressure have been shown to be comorbidities of type 2 DM. In this cross-sectional study in Tamale, Ghana, we determined the prevalence of abdominal obesity among type 2 DM patients. Furthermore, we examined the demographic, clinical, and anthropometric predictors of increasing waist circumference in this population. Three hundred type 2 DM patients attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana, were recruited for the study. Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumferences were measured appropriately. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were taken from the personal health record files of patients. Demographic data were obtained. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression models were employed to identify predictors of increasing WC. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 77.0% and was significantly higher in women than in men. A positive correlation was observed between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and WC (, ), female gender (, ), and age (, ). A high prevalence of abdominal obesity was observed. Predictors of increasing WC were gender, age, FPG, and WHR. Victor Mogre, Robert Abedandi, and Zenabankara S. Salifu Copyright © 2014 Victor Mogre et al. All rights reserved. Entrapment of -Amylase in Agar Beads for Biocatalysis of Macromolecular Substrate Mon, 15 Sep 2014 05:58:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/936129/ Attempts have been made to optimize immobilization parameters, catalytic property, and stability of immobilized α-amylase in agar. The work compares natural entrapment efficiency of agar with the ionotropically cross-linked agar hydrogel, with the advantage of easy scale-up and cost and time effectiveness. Beads prepared with 3% (w/v) agar and 75 mM calcium chloride and hardened for 20 minutes were selected for further studies on the basis of entrapment efficiency (80%) and physical stability. Following entrapment, pH and temperature optima of enzyme were shifted from 6 to 6.5 and 50 to 55°C, respectively. Michaelis constant () for both free and entrapped enzymes remained the same (0.83%) suggesting no change in substrate affinity. However, of entrapped enzyme decreased ~37.5-fold. The midpoint of thermal inactivation for entrapped enzyme increased by 8 ± 1°C implying its higher thermal stability. The entrapped enzyme in calcium agar bead had an Ea value of 27.49 kcal/mol compared to 17.6 kcal/mol for free enzyme indicating increased stability on entrapment. Half-life of enzyme increased ~2.2 times after entrapment in calcium agar at 60°C indicating stabilization of enzyme. The reusability of beads was size dependent. Beads with diameter <710 μm were stable and could be reused for 6 cycles with ~22% loss in activity. Manu Sharma, Vinay Sharma, and Dipak K. Majumdar Copyright © 2014 Manu Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Proteomic Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophages of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Sewage Affluent of India Sun, 14 Sep 2014 07:58:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/265298/ Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes a variety of diseases, including bovine mastitis, which has severe economic consequences. Standard antibiotic treatment results in selection of resistant strains, leading to need for an alternative treatment such as bacteriophage therapy. Present study describes isolation and characterization of a staphylococcal phage from sewage samples. S. aureus isolates obtained from microbial type culture collection (MTCC), Chandigarh, India, were used to screen staphylococcal phages. A phage designated as ΦMSP was isolated from sewage samples by soft agar overlay method. It produced clear plaques on tryptone soya agar overlaid with S. aureus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the phage had an icosahedral symmetry. It had 5 major proteins and possessed a peptidoglycan hydrolase corresponding to 70 kDa. ΦMSP infection induced 26 proteins to be uniquely expressed in S. aureus. This phage can be proposed as a candidate phage to treat staphylococcal infections. Kamalpreet Kaur Sangha, B. V. Sunil Kumar, Ravi Kant Agrawal, Dipak Deka, and Ramneek Verma Copyright © 2014 Kamalpreet Kaur Sangha et al. All rights reserved. Construction and Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting System for Domestic Use in a Remote and Rural Area of Khulna, Bangladesh Sun, 14 Sep 2014 06:02:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/751952/ Scarcity of pure drinking water during the dry season (November–March) is a major problem in Bangladesh, which needs to be addressed. This crisis has been further aggravated due to surging populations. Rainwater can provide some of the cleanest naturally occurring water and can hold a great potential in dealing with the current challenge of acute arsenic poisoning as well as physical water scarcity in many parts of Bangladesh. In this connection, rainwater harvesting (RWH) system has been constructed in a very remote and rural village in Khulna, Bangladesh, for a 4-membered household. It consists of a concrete catchment of 40 m2 area, a supporting and collection system made of PVC pipes, and two locally available plastic storage tanks having capacity of 2000 L each. The study also investigates the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, which include measurement of pH, alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), iron, chloride, nitrate, and turbidity, using standard methods. The results showed that not only the quality of harvested rainwater is good but also the amount of water is enough for a 4-membered household to meet its domestic use throughout the year. Biplob Kumar Biswas and Bablu Hira Mandal Copyright © 2014 Biplob Kumar Biswas and Bablu Hira Mandal. All rights reserved. Ion Slip Effect on Viscoelastic Fluid Flow past an Impulsively Started Infinite Vertical Plate Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemical Reaction Thu, 11 Sep 2014 08:26:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/481308/ This paper presents the study of convective heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible MHD viscoelastic fluid past an infinite vertical plate immersed in a porous medium with chemical reaction and ion slip effects. Highly nondimensional governing equations are solved analytically by perturbation scheme. The analytical expressions for velocity, shearing stress, temperature, concentration, rate of heat transfer, and mass transfer are obtained. Also, graphical representations have been carried out for velocity field and shearing stress to investigate the effects of viscoelasticity and the effects of ion slip on the fluid flow in combination with other physical parameters involved in the solution. Rita Choudhury and Paban Dhar Copyright © 2014 Rita Choudhury and Paban Dhar. All rights reserved. False-Positive Clostridium difficile in Negative-Control Reactions Peak and Then Decrease with Repetitive Refrigeration of Immunoassay Thu, 11 Sep 2014 07:20:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/128120/ Aberrant false-positive reactions in negative-controls during ELISA testing for Clostridium difficile indicated the potential for false-diagnoses. Experiments with 96-well products showed a maximum peak of false-positive immunoassay reactions with the provided negative-control reagents after 5 refrigeration-to-room temperature cycles (), decreasing thereafter with additional refrigeration cycles. Because repetitive refrigeration causes a peak of false-positives, the use of single negative-controls per ELISA run might be insufficient to monitor aberrant preanalytical false-positives if immunoassays are subject to repetitive refrigeration. Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Henry R. Stämpfli, and Yung-Fu Chang Copyright © 2014 Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “A Biochemical Evaluation on Inflammatory Markers after Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy” Wed, 10 Sep 2014 15:53:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/919801/ Petros Sountoulides and Athanasios Bantis Copyright © 2014 Petros Sountoulides and Athanasios Bantis. All rights reserved. Comparative Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Cuscuta australis against Acetaminophen Intoxication in Wistar Rats Wed, 10 Sep 2014 07:39:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/730516/ This study investigates the comparative hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanol extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 replicates: Group 1 which served as control received water. Group 2 was orally administered 835 mg/kg body wt. of paracetamol on day 8. Groups 3 and 4 were orally administered ethanolic extracts of the seed of Cuscuta australis in doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Group 2 on the 8th day. Groups 5 and 6 received similar oral doses of Cuscuta australis stem extracts for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Groups 3 and 4. Group 2 rats showed severe periportal hepatic necrosis, significantly elevated serum hepatic injury markers, markedly increased lipid peroxidation, and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities. Remarkably, Cuscuta australis (seed and stem) extract pretreatments in Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6, most especially, the stem extract pretreatment in Groups 5 and 6, improved better the hepatic histoarchitecture, the hepatocellular, and the oxidative stress injury markers in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusively, ethanol extractions of Cuscuta australis stem appear to protect the liver from acetaminophen intoxication better than the seed counterpart. Rachael O. Folarin, Jamiu O. Omirinde, Ronald Bejide, Tajudeen O. Isola, Levi I. Usende, and Afisu Basiru Copyright © 2014 Rachael O. Folarin et al. All rights reserved. Exact Solutions for the Integrable Sixth-Order Drinfeld-Sokolov-Satsuma-Hirota System by the Analytical Methods Tue, 09 Sep 2014 11:31:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/840689/ We establish exact solutions including periodic wave and solitary wave solutions for the integrable sixth-order Drinfeld-Sokolov-Satsuma-Hirota system. We employ this system by using a generalized -expansion and the generalized tanh-coth methods. These methods are developed for searching exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. It is shown that these methods, with the help of symbolic computation, provide a straightforward and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations. Jalil Manafian Heris and Mehrdad Lakestani Copyright © 2014 Jalil Manafian Heris and Mehrdad Lakestani. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Tualang Honey against Oxidative Stress and Anxiety-Like Behaviour in Stressed Ovariectomized Rats Tue, 09 Sep 2014 05:44:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/521065/ The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and anxiolytic-like effect of Tualang honey in stressed ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into; (i) nonstressed sham-operated control rats, (ii) sham-operated control rats exposed to stress, (iii) nonstressed OVX rats, (iv) OVX rats exposed to stress, (v) OVX rats exposed to stress and treated with 17 β-oestradiol (E2) (20 g daily, sc), and (vi) OVX rats exposed to stress and treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight, orally). The open field test was used to evaluate the anxiety-like behaviour and ELISA kits were used to measure oxidant/antioxidant status of the brain homogenates. The result showed that anxiety-like behavior was significantly increased in stressed OVX compared to other groups, and administering either E2 or Tualang honey significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour in stressed OVX rats. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) were significantly decreased while the levels/activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly increased in the brain homogenates of treated stressed OVX groups compared to untreated stressed OVX. In conclusion, Tualang honey has protective effects against brain oxidative stress and may be useful alternative anxiolytic agent especially for postmenopausal women. Badriya Al-Rahbi, Rahimah Zakaria, Zahiruddin Othman, Asma’ Hassan, and Asma Hayati Ahmad Copyright © 2014 Badriya Al-Rahbi et al. All rights reserved. Ensemble Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous Artificial Neural Networks for Short-Term Wind Speed and Power Forecasting Mon, 08 Sep 2014 07:56:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/972580/ Short-term wind speed and wind power forecasts (for a 72 h period) are obtained using a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous artificial neural network (ANN) methodology which incorporates either numerical weather prediction or high-resolution computational fluid dynamics wind field information as an exogenous input. An ensemble approach is used to combine the predictions from many candidate ANNs in order to provide improved forecasts for wind speed and power, along with the associated uncertainties in these forecasts. More specifically, the ensemble ANN is used to quantify the uncertainties arising from the network weight initialization and from the unknown structure of the ANN. All members forming the ensemble of neural networks were trained using an efficient particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results of the proposed methodology are validated using wind speed and wind power data obtained from an operational wind farm located in Northern China. The assessment demonstrates that this methodology for wind speed and power forecasting generally provides an improvement in predictive skills when compared to the practice of using an “optimal” weight vector from a single ANN while providing additional information in the form of prediction uncertainty bounds. Zhongxian Men, Eugene Yee, Fue-Sang Lien, Zhiling Yang, and Yongqian Liu Copyright © 2014 All rights reserved. Purification and Characterization of Haloalkaline, Organic Solvent Stable Xylanase from Newly Isolated Halophilic Bacterium-OKH Mon, 08 Sep 2014 07:41:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/198251/ A novel, alkali-tolerant halophilic bacterium-OKH with an ability to produce extracellular halophilic, alkali-tolerant, organic solvent stable, and moderately thermostable xylanase was isolated from salt salterns of Mithapur region, Gujarat, India. Identification of the bacterium was done based upon biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence. Maximum xylanase production was achieved at pH 9.0 and 37°C temperature in the medium containing 15% NaCl and 1% (w/v) corn cobs. Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw also induce xylanase production when used as carbon source. The enzyme was active over a range of 0–25% sodium chloride examined in culture broth. The optimum xylanase activity was observed at 5% sodium chloride. Xylanase was purified with 25.81%-fold purification and 17.1% yield. Kinetic properties such as Km and Vmax were 4.2 mg/mL and 0.31 μmol/min/mL, respectively. The enzyme was stable at pH 6.0 and 50°C with 60% activity after 8 hours of incubation. Enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ but strongly inhibited by heavy metals such as Hg2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Xylanase was found to be stable in organic solvents like glutaraldehyde and isopropanol. The purified enzyme hydrolysed lignocellulosic substrates. Xylanase, purified from the halophilic bacterium-OKH, has potential biotechnological applications. Gaurav Sanghvi, Mehul Jivrajani, Nirav Patel, Heta Jivrajani, Govinal Badiger Bhaskara, and Shivani Patel Copyright © 2014 Gaurav Sanghvi et al. All rights reserved. Notable Stabilization of α-Chymotrypsin by the Protic Ionic Additive, [ch][dhp]: Calorimetric Evidence for a Fine Enthalpy/Entropy Balance Sun, 07 Sep 2014 11:27:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/834189/ An impact of 0.5 to 3 M choline dihydrogen phosphate, [ch][dhp], the biotechnologically relevant ionic substance, on the thermal stability of a model globular protein, α-chymotrypsin (α-CT), has been studied exploiting the highly sensitive differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. The notable overall stabilizing effect of  K regarding the thermal transition (melting) temperature, , has been detected. For this kind of series, for the first time, the calorimetric melting enthalpy and transition entropy parameters have been determined simultaneously throughout. The first analysis indicated a two-phase impact implying (a) the initial, dramatic drop in both and , obviously connected to specific, direct interaction between the [ch][dhp] components and α-CT’s charged groups (within 0 to 1 mol/L [ch][dhp]), leading to the essential rearrangement of the interfacial hydrogen-bonded (HB) network; and (b) the follow-up (within 1 to 3.0 mol/L [ch][dhp]), modest changes in and lack of changes in , seemingly connected with a subsequent steady strengthening of already reformed HB network, respectively. These changes, presumably, are primarily facilitated by Coulombic interactions between the [dhp] anions and solvent-exposed positively charged amino groups of α-CT. Sophio Uchaneishvili, Maya Makharadze, Mikhael Shushanyan, Rudi van Eldik, and Dimitri E. Khoshtariya Copyright © 2014 Sophio Uchaneishvili et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study between Karydakis Flap Reconstruction and Double Z-Plasty in Patients with Sacrococcygeal Pilonidal Disease Sun, 07 Sep 2014 11:26:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/523015/ The most difficult problems that follow surgery for pilonidal disease are persistent unhealed midline wound and recurrence. Various innovations were proposed to deal with these problems. The adipocutaneous flap of Karydakis was devised to shift the natal cleft, while Z-plasty involves fasciocutaneous flap. The present prospective randomized trial was conducted on 50 cases of symptomatic or recurrent pilonidal sinuses divided randomly into two equal groups undergoing Karydakis procedure and Z-plasty. The duration of hospitalization for Karydakis procedure was found significantly lesser than that for double Z-plasty (). Similar observations are obtained for duration of wound healing (), work off period (), and the duration of presence of significant pain postoperatively (). The overall complications were more in double Z-plasty. Recurrence developed in 32% of the cases in double Z-plasty group comparable to no recurrence seen in Karydakis procedure. Thus, Karydakis flap was found superior to double Z-plasty having less seroma formation, no local hematoma, and no flap necrosis. Statistically, this comparison was highly significant (). Karydakis flap has some added advantages over double Z-plasty technique like keeping scar away from the midline and flattening of the natal cleft, thus reducing local recurrence rates. Ankit Kayal, Akhlak Hussain, Anil Choudhary, and Ashok Meghwal Copyright © 2014 Ankit Kayal et al. All rights reserved. Single Dose of Levofloxacin versus Three Dosages for Prophylaxis in Prostate Biopsy Wed, 03 Sep 2014 13:08:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/875670/ Transrectal ultrasound-guided core prostate biopsy is a key event in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, transient side events such as local pain, haematuria, haematospermia, dysuria, and rectal bleeding are reported in a large number of patients. Antimicrobial agents lower the incidence of postbiopsy infectious complications. The timing and duration of the regimen and the route of administration remain controversial. We developed a standard prophylactic regimen, in which safety and efficiency were maximized, while costs and variability were minimized. Accordingly we prospectively evaluated 425 consecutive patients, who underwent outpatient transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy after a single dose versus three doses of levofloxacin. Edgar Linden-Castro, Marcela Pelayo-Nieto, Alejandro Alias-Melgar, and Fernando Carreño-de la Rosa Copyright © 2014 Edgar Linden-Castro et al. All rights reserved. MHD Flow of the Micropolar Fluid between Eccentrically Rotating Disks Wed, 03 Sep 2014 07:22:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/317075/ This analytical investigation examines the magnetohydrodynamic flow problem of an incompressible micropolar fluid between the two eccentrically placed disks. Employing suitable transformations, the flow governing partial differential equations is reduced to ordinary differential equations. An exact solution representing the different flow characteristic of micropolar fluid has been derived by solving the ordinary differential equations. Analysis of the flow characteristics of the micropolar fluid has been done graphically by varying the Reynolds number and the Hartmann number. This analysis has been carried out for the weak and strong interactions. Neetu Srivastava Copyright © 2014 Neetu Srivastava. All rights reserved. Quantitative Analysis of Resorcinol from Marketed Hair Tonic Using Liquid Chromatographic Technique Tue, 02 Sep 2014 13:49:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/632591/ Quantitative estimation of resorcinol from marketed pharmaceutical formulation has been reported in this study. Resorcinol as a pharmaceutical ingredient has a broad spectrum of application but its application is limited due to its toxic side effects. Method for the accurate estimation of resorcinol is therefore essential. In the current study we have developed a chromatographic technique for its estimation from a marketed hair tonic meant for the treatment of several dermatological diseases of the scalp. A stainless steel column 25 cm in length and 4 mm internal diameter packed with octadecylsilane (5 m) was used for this purpose. The mobile phase was a mixture of phosphate buffer of pH 2.8 and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 0.6 mLmin−1 and the detection wavelength was 280 nm. The method was found to be linear between concentration range 10.28 gmL−1 to 71.96 gmL−1 with r2 value 0.999. The accuracy of the method and the intraday and interday precession study presents the applicability of the method for the estimation of resorcinol from any pharmaceutical and cosmetic product containing resorcinol. Amit Kumar De, Partha Pratim Chowdhury, and Shyamaprasad Chattapadhyay Copyright © 2014 Amit Kumar De et al. All rights reserved. Detection and Assay of Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) in Alkaline Borate Buffer with UV/Visible Spectrophotometry Tue, 02 Sep 2014 06:47:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/453085/ The detection and assay of vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) was accomplished under aqueous conditions using sodium borate buffering at pH 7.52 conditions. The absorbance spectrum of riboflavin was determined at different pH values utilizing several buffers. The buffer at pH at 7.52 is followed by accurate and sensitive assay of riboflavin by spectrophotometer at 440 nm wavelength. Where indicated an origin solution (stock) was employed by dissolving sufficient vitamin to make a stock solution of molar concentrations. Measurements of various aqueous solutions containing riboflavin were accomplished that included aqueous test samples, vitamin capsules/tablets, and water vitamin mixtures. A standard curve extended from molar to molar (a 154 folds spread in concentration). The equation of the line was = 12545 (intercept at origin) with Pearson correlation of 1.000 (). Concentration of riboflavin assayed ranged from gram per liter (0.30 ppm) to 0.0463 gram per liter (46.35 ppm). The B vitamin riboflavin can be assayed by UV/VIS spectrophotometer at 440 nm in aqueous media and using sodium borate buffer at pH 7.52. The assay can reach as low as 0.30 parts per million with high levels of accuracy and sensitivity. Ronald Bartzatt and Tasloach Wol Copyright © 2014 Ronald Bartzatt and Tasloach Wol. All rights reserved.