International Scholarly Research Notices The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effects of Curved Wavefronts on Conductor-Backed Reflection-Only Free-Space Material Characterization Techniques Wed, 15 Jul 2015 10:58:40 +0000 A true plane wave is often not physically realizable in a laboratory environment. Therefore, wavefront curvature introduces a form of systematic error into Free-space material characterization methods. Free-space material characterization is important to the determination of the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of conductor-backed and in situ materials. This paper performs an error analysis of the impact on wavefront curvature on a Free-space method called the two-thickness method. This paper compares the extracted electric and magnetic permeability computed with a plane wave versus a line source for a low-loss dielectric and magnetic radar absorbing material. These steps are conducted for TE and TM plane waves and electric and magnetic line sources. Raenita A. Fenner and Edward J. Rothwell Copyright © 2015 Raenita A. Fenner and Edward J. Rothwell. All rights reserved. Effect of Nano-Tricalcium Phosphate and Nanohydroxyapatite on the Staining Susceptibility of Bleached Enamel Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:52:27 +0000 Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of nano-tricalcium phosphate (n-TCP) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HAP) on prevention of restaining of enamel after dental bleaching. Methods. Forty bovine incisors were bleached with 20% carbamide peroxide for two weeks. Afterward, they were divided into five groups based on remineralization solution: no treatment (control), 10% n-TCP, 5% n-TCP, 10% n-HAP, and 5% n-HAP. Each group was daily immersed for 10 minutes in the restaining solution (tea) and for 3 minutes in the remineralization agent, respectively. This protocol was repeated for five days. Subsequently, three digital photographs (baseline, after bleaching, and after restaining) were analyzed by Adobe Photoshop software. The obtained , , , and parameters were compared using ANOVA and Wilcoxon and Bonferroni tests. Results. After bleaching, there were significant changes in tooth colors () while, after restaining and immersion in remineralization solutions, there were no significant differences in , , and values of different groups (). However, of 10% TCP was significantly lower than the control () while there were no significant differences between the other groups (). Conclusion. 10% n-TCP could significantly maintain the resultant color and reconstruct the enamel structure after bleaching. Mohammad Bagher Rezvani, Mohammad Atai, Mohammad Reza Rouhollahi, Kosar Malekhoseini, Hamideh Rezai, and Faeze Hamze Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Bagher Rezvani et al. All rights reserved. Outcome-Based Quality Control by a Dental Reference Profile of a Population-Based Study (SHIP-0) Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:19:15 +0000 Objectives. The aim was to develop an instrument for quality control in dental practices. We compared the number of teeth of subjects of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0) with those from patients of dental practices. Methods. Patients from seven dental practices were randomly sampled by age strata and gender for a period of two years. Dental status derived from patient files was transformed into practice profiles using age-specific number of teeth as a parameter. Practice profiles were compared with a nomogram, which was based on the age-specific number of teeth of 3,990 SHIP-0 participants regularly visiting the dentist. Further, negative binomial regression models were evaluated to model associations between the number of teeth with age and dental practices, including interactions. Results. The practice profiles ranged between the 45th and 95th quantile curves of the reference population SHIP-0. The rate ratios (RR) for the number of missing teeth ranged from 0.37 to 0.67 between the different dental practices, indicating lower risk for higher numbers of missing teeth in comparison to SHIP-0. Conclusions. This study showed considerable differences between dental practices and the reference population of SHIP-0 regarding the pattern of tooth loss and confirms the value of nomograms to compare age-specific numbers of teeth between patients of dental practices and a population-based-study as a tool for quality control. For further analyses, the socioeconomic status of patients and relevant risk factors will be used to adjust for structural differences in order to improve the validity of the comparisons. Stefanie Samietz, Andreas Söhnel, Christian Schwahn, Birte Holtfreter, Torsten Mundt, Peter Meisel, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Thomas Kocher, and Reiner Biffar Copyright © 2015 Stefanie Samietz et al. All rights reserved. Design, Repeatability, and Comparison to Literature Data of a New Noninvasive Device Called “Rotameter” to Measure Rotational Knee Laxity Sun, 28 Jun 2015 14:42:39 +0000 The present paper deals with the design, the repeatability, and the comparison to literature data of a new measuring device called “Rotameter” to characterize the rotational knee laxity or the tibia-femoral rotation (TFR). The initial prototype P1 of the Rotameter is shortly introduced and then modified according to trials carried out on a prosthetic leg and on five healthy volunteers, leading therefore to an improved prototype P2. A comparison of results obtained from P1 and P2 with the same male subject shows the enhancements of P2. Intertester and intratester repeatability of this new device were shown and it was observed that rotational laxities of left and right knees are the same for a healthy subject. Moreover, a literature review showed that measurements with P2 presented lower TFR values than other noninvasive devices. The measured TFR versus torque characteristic was quite similar to other invasive devices, which are more difficult to use and harmful to the patient. Hence, our prototype P2 proved to be an easy-to-use and suitable device for quantifying rotational knee laxity. A forthcoming study will validate the Rotameter thanks to an approach based on computed tomography in order to evaluate its precision. Simon Neumann, Stefan Maas, Danièle Waldmann, Pierre-Louis Ricci, Arno Zürbes, Pierre-Jean Arnoux, and Jens Kelm Copyright © 2015 Simon Neumann et al. All rights reserved. High Risk Stage 2 and Stage 3 Colon Cancer, Predictors of Recurrence and Effect of Adjuvant Therapy in a Nonselected Population Sun, 21 Jun 2015 12:44:37 +0000 Patients with stage 2 and stage 3 colon cancer often are treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. However, patients seen in daily practice have more comorbidity than those enrolled in clinical trials. This study aims to evaluate prognostic factors for recurrence and to ascertain the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy on recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients in a nonselected population. Furthermore, the impact of relative dose intensity (RDI) of adjuvant therapy on RFS is examined. Chart review was performed for 243 consecutive patients diagnosed and treated at a single center for stage 2 and stage 3 colon cancer from 2002 to 2008. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 66 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 5.84 years and median RFS was 5.37 years. For stage 2 disease, patients treated with or without adjuvant therapy had a median RFS of 5.49 and 5.73, respectively ( = ns). For stage 3 disease, median RFS rates were 5.08 and 1.19, respectively (). Overall RDI of oxaliplatin based chemotherapy higher than median was associated with increased RFS (). In conclusion, adjuvant therapy did not significantly increase recurrence-free survival. This could be the result of comorbidity in patients. Relative dose intensity of oxaliplatin based therapy is associated with RFS. Elmer E. van Eeghen, Sandra D. Bakker, Aart van Bochove, and Ruud J. L. F. Loffeld Copyright © 2015 Elmer E. van Eeghen et al. All rights reserved. A Kinetic Model of Whole-Body Glucose Metabolism with Reference to the Domestic Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) Mon, 08 Jun 2015 13:35:50 +0000 A new two-pool model to describe glucose kinetics in the steady state is presented. The pools are plasma glucose, Q1, and tissue glucose, Q2 (both µmol). The flows (all µmol/min) into the plasma pool (Pool 1) are absorbed glucose entry from dietary sources, labelled glucose infusion, and hepatic glucose production. There is one flow out of Pool 1, glucose uptake by the tissues. Inflows to the tissues pool (Pool 2) are from plasma and glycogenolysis. Outflows from Pool 2 are to plasma, glucose oxidation, and glycogenesis and other metabolism. Application of the model was illustrated using experimental data derived from healthy adult Labrador Retrievers in the fasted and fed (repeated meal feeding) states. In general, model derived estimates of glucose kinetics were representative of normal glucose metabolism, where rates of glucose production and uptake are similar and act to maintain blood glucose concentrations. Furthermore, estimates of within tissue glucose cycling indicated glycogenolysis in fasting and glycogenesis when fed. In the fasted state, model outputs were consistent with those reported in the canine literature derived using a single pool model. Leslie L. McKnight, Anna K. Shoveller, Secundino Lopez, and James France Copyright © 2015 Leslie L. McKnight et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Study on the Therapeutic Benefit on Lactoferrin in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy” Sun, 31 May 2015 16:45:52 +0000 Tarek M. Moastafa, Alaa El-Din Elsayed El-Sissy, Gehan K. El-Saeed, and Mai Salah El-Din Koura Copyright © 2015 Tarek M. Moastafa et al. All rights reserved. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles Sun, 31 May 2015 08:10:33 +0000 This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, length of surge pipe, diameter of surge pipe, and volume of reservoir are obtained from optimization. The simulation results show that the air spring suspension equivalent system can produce responses very close to the passive suspension system. Haider J. Abid, Jie Chen, and Ameen A. Nassar Copyright © 2015 Haider J. Abid et al. All rights reserved. Incidence and Predictors of Tuberculosis among HIV Positive Children at University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Follow-Up Study Tue, 26 May 2015 08:31:23 +0000 Background. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of tuberculosis and its predictors among HIV positive children. Methods. A six-year retrospective follow-up study was conducted among HIV infected children aged less than 15 years. Life table was used to estimate the cumulative probability of tuberculosis free survival. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of tuberculosis. Results. A total of 271 HIV positive children were followed for six years and produced 1100.50 person-years of observation. During the follow-up period 52 new TB cases occurred. The overall incidence density of TB was 4.9 per 100 PY. Inappropriate vaccination [AHR: 8.03 (95% CI; 4.61–13.97)], ambulatory functional status [AHR: 1.99 (95% CI; 1.04–3.81)], and having baseline anemia [AHR: 2.23 (95% CI; 1.19–4.15)] were important predictors of time to TB occurrence. Conclusion. TB incidence rate was high. Early diagnosis and treatment of anemia and strengthening immunization program would reduce the risk of TB occurrence. Sualiha Gebeyaw Ayalaw, Kefyalew Addis Alene, and Akilew Awoke Adane Copyright © 2015 Sualiha Gebeyaw Ayalaw et al. All rights reserved. Effect of In Vitro Testing Parameters on Ceftazidime-Avibactam Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Tue, 19 May 2015 11:23:33 +0000 Effects of varying in vitro susceptibility testing parameters of the broth microdilution assay on ceftazidime-avibactam MICs were determined and compared to meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam for 9 Enterobacteriaceae and 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The effect of varying incubation conditions (ambient air or 5% CO2), pH of medium, medium composition (cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton Broth with and without laked horse blood and Haemophilus Test Medium), cation content of the medium, and inoculum density were tested. Most variations had no effect on ceftazidime-avibactam MIC values (no more than a 2-fold change). However, acidic pH or high inoculum resulted in 4- to 16-fold changes in MIC, which was similar to those observed for meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam under these conditions. Overall, this study shows that slight variations in testing parameters during routine MIC testing will likely have no significant effect on ceftazidime-avibactam MIC values. Tiffany R. Keepers, Marcela Gomez, Donald Biek, Ian Critchley, and Kevin M. Krause Copyright © 2015 Tiffany R. Keepers et al. All rights reserved. Experience with Clinically Diagnosed Down Syndrome Children Admitted with Diarrhea in an Urban Hospital in Bangladesh Thu, 07 May 2015 09:54:46 +0000 There is lack of information in the medical literature on clinically diagnosed Down syndrome children presenting with diarrhea. Our aim was to describe our experience with Down syndrome patients admitted with diarrhea by evaluating the factors associated with Down syndrome presenting with diarrheal illness. In this retrospective chart analysis, we enrolled all the diarrheal children aged 0–59 months admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr, b), from March 2011 to February 2013. Down syndrome children with diarrhea constituted cases and randomly selected threefold diarrheal children without Down syndrome constituted controls. Among 8422 enrolled children 32 and 96 were the cases and the controls, respectively. Median age (months) of the cases and the controls was comparable (7.6 (4.0, 15.0) versus 9.0 (5.0, 16.8); ). The cases more often presented with severe acute malnutrition, developmental delay, congenital heart disease, hypothyroidism, sepsis, hypocalcemia, developed hospital acquired infection (HAI) during hospitalization, and required prolonged stay at hospital compared to the controls (for all ). Thus, diarrheal children with clinically diagnosed Down syndrome should be investigated for these simple clinical parameters for their prompt management that may prevent HAI and prolonged hospital stay. Rina Das, Anupam Sarker, Haimanti Saha, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahid, K. M. Shahunja, and Mohammod Jobayer Chisti Copyright © 2015 Rina Das et al. All rights reserved. Development of Simultaneous Derivative Spectrophotometric and HPLC Methods for Determination of 17-Beta-Estradiol and Drospirenone in Combined Dosage Form Mon, 27 Apr 2015 07:45:55 +0000 Simple, rapid spectrophotometric, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the concurrent analysis of 17-beta-estradiol (ESR) and drospirenone (DRS). The spectrophotometric method was based on the determination of first derivative spectra and determined ESR and DRS using the zero-crossing technique at 208 and 282 nm, respectively, in methanol. The linear range was 0.5–32.0 µg·mL−1 for DRS and 0.5–8.0 µg·mL−1 for EST. The limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.14 µg·mL−1 and 0.10 µg·mL−1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 0.42 µg·mL−1 and 0.29 µg·mL−1 for ESR and DRS, respectively. The chromatographic method was based on the separation of both analytes on a C18 column with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (70 : 30, v/v). Detection was performed with a UV-photodiode array detector at 279 nm. The linear range was 0.08–2.5 µg·mL−1 for DRS and 0.23–7.5 µg·mL−1 for EST. LOD values were 0.05 µg·mL−1 and 0.02 µg·mL−1 and LOQ values were 0.15 µg·mL−1 and 0.05 µg·mL−1 for ESR and DRS, respectively. These recommended methods have been applied for the simultaneous determination of ESR and DRS in their tablets. Zeynep Aydoğmuş, Ece Merve Yılmaz, Sevgi Yörüsün, and Samet Akpınar Copyright © 2015 Zeynep Aydoğmuş et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Liver Mitochondrial Respiration and Proton Leak in Low and High RFI Steers from Two Lineages of RFI Angus Bulls Thu, 23 Apr 2015 08:39:57 +0000 The objective of this research is to evaluate liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption and proton leak kinetics in progeny from two lineages of Angus bulls with high and low residual feed intake (RFI). Two Angus bulls were selected based on results from a genetic test for RFI and were used as sires. Eight offspring at 10-11 months of age from each sire were housed in individual pens for 70–105 days following a diet adaptation period of 14 days. Progeny of the low RFI sire had 0.57 kg/d () lower average RFI than progeny of the high RFI sire. There was no difference in dry matter intake between low and high RFI steers, but low RFI steers gained more body weight () and tended to have higher average daily gains (). State 3 and State 4 respiration, RCR, and proton leak did not differ between high and low RFI steers (, , , and , resp.). Therefore, the increase in bodyweight gain which distinguished the low RFI steers from the high RFI steers may be associated with other metabolic mechanisms that are not associated with liver mitochondrial respiration and proton leak kinetics. G. Acetoze, K. L. Weber, J. J. Ramsey, and H. A. Rossow Copyright © 2015 G. Acetoze et al. All rights reserved. Electronically Tunable Differential Integrator: Linear Voltage Controlled Quadrature Oscillator Sun, 19 Apr 2015 08:14:53 +0000 A new electronically tunable differential integrator (ETDI) and its extension to voltage controlled quadrature oscillator (VCQO) design with linear tuning law are proposed; the active building block is a composite current feedback amplifier with recent multiplication mode current conveyor (MMCC) element. Recently utilization of two different kinds of active devices to form a composite building block is being considered since it yields a superior functional element suitable for improved quality circuit design. The integrator time constant and the oscillation frequency are tunable by the control voltage of the MMCC block. Analysis indicates negligible phase error for the integrator and low active -sensitivity relative to the device parasitic capacitances. Satisfactory experimental verifications on electronic tunability of some wave shaping applications by the integrator and a double-integrator feedback loop (DIFL) based sinusoid oscillator with linear variation range of 60 KHz~1.8 MHz at low THD of 2.1% are verified by both simulation and hardware tests. Rabindranath Nandi, Sandhya Pattanayak, Palaniandavar Venkateswaran, and Sagarika Das Copyright © 2015 Rabindranath Nandi et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobin Variants by HPLC Method: Common Problems with Suggested Solutions Thu, 16 Apr 2015 13:04:37 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2015 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Examining Provincial HPV Vaccination Schemes in Canada: Should We Standardise the Grade of Vaccination or the Number of Doses? Sun, 12 Apr 2015 07:41:27 +0000 Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection, which is linked to several cancers and genital warts. Depending on the Canadian province, the quadrivalent vaccine is given to girls in grades 4 through 10 with either a two- or three-dose schedule. We use a mathematical model to address the following research questions: (1) Does the grade at which the girls are vaccinated significantly affect the outcome of the program? (2) What coverage rate must the provinces reach in order to reduce the impact of HPV on the Canadian population? (3) What are the implications of vaccinating with two versus three doses? The model suggests the grade of vaccination and the number of doses do not make a significant difference to the outcome of the public vaccination program. The most significant factor is the coverage rate of children and adults. We recommend that provinces vaccinate as early as possible to avoid vaccine failure due to previous infection. We also recommend that the main focus of the program should be on obtaining a large enough coverage rate for children and/or adults in order to achieve the desired outcome with either two or three doses of the vaccine. Carley Rogers and Robert J. Smith? Copyright © 2015 Carley Rogers and Robert J. Smith?. All rights reserved. Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Rate and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV in Dubti Hospital, Afar Regional State, East Ethiopia Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:57:28 +0000 Introduction. Antiretroviral Therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic manageable disease; it requires near perfect adherence rates (as high as 95%). In this study, we assessed antiretroviral treatment adherence rate and associated factors among people living with HIV in Dubti Hospital. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted within February 1–30, 2014. All HIV-infected patients above the age of 18 years who took first line Antiretroviral Therapy were eligible for inclusion of the study. Adherence Scale was used for labeling patients as adherent or nonadherent. All HIV-infected patients record data were collected from the medical records, entered, and analyzed using Epi Info 7 and SPSS Version 20. Multivariable analysis was used to identify the relative effect of explanatory variables on low adherence rate. Results. A total of 370 patients aged 18 years and above, who started ART, were included in this study. The self-reported adherence rate of the patient on ART was 81.1%. Independent predictors of adherence were treatment duration. Conclusion. Adherence rate was associated with time to ART. That is, the longer they were on ART, the lesser they adhered. Bekele Belayihun and Rahma Negus Copyright © 2015 Bekele Belayihun and Rahma Negus. All rights reserved. Oral Metformin Treatment Counteracts Adipoinsular Axis Dysfunction in Hypothalamic Obese Rats Sun, 05 Apr 2015 15:58:34 +0000 Rats neonatally treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) are deeply dysfunctional in adulthood. We explored the effect of an oral low dose of metformin treatment in male MSG rats on adipoinsular axis and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) dysfunctions, in both basal (nonfasting) and endotoxemia conditions. MSG rats, treated or not treated with metformin (30 days prior to experimentation), and control litter-mates (CTR) were studied at 90 days of age. Peripheral concentrations of glucose, lipids, and hormones were determined in basal and post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment conditions. Food intake and body weight (BW) were recorded and VAT mass and leptin mRNA levels were evaluated. Data indicated that MSG rats were lighter and displayed hypercorticosteronemia, hypophagia, adipoinsular axis hyperactivity, and enhanced VAT mass associated with an increased leptin gene expression. Interestingly, metformin-treated MSG rats corrected BW catch-up and counteracted VAT (mass and leptin mRNA level) and adipoinsular axis (basal and post-LPS) dysfunctions. Thus metformin treatment in MSG rats is able to correct several VAT and metabolic-endocrine dysfunctions. Our study suggests that a low-dose metformintherapy is effective to correct, at least in part, adipoinsular axis dysfunction in hypertrophic obese phenotypes, such as that of the human Cushing syndrome. Daniel Castrogiovanni, Luisina Ongaro, Guillermina Zuburía, Andrés Giovambattista, and Eduardo Spinedi Copyright © 2015 Daniel Castrogiovanni et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Fluoride Mediated Dentine Sensitivity Relief through Functionalised Tricalcium Phosphate Activity Thu, 02 Apr 2015 14:32:48 +0000 Background. To assess the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing fluoride and functionalised tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) in reducing dentine sensitivity. Methods. A 10-week parallel blind randomised control trial was conducted. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups and instructed to brush twice daily: A: Colgate Cavity Protection (1000 ppmF-MFP); B: Sensodyne Total Care (1000 ppmF-NaF + 19300 ppmK+-KNO3); C: Clinpro Tooth Crème (950 ppmF-NaF + fTCP); and D: Clinpro Tooth Crème (brushing + additional topical application). Seventy-one patients were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks for cold, tactile, and hypertonic sensitivity using the NRS-11 pain rating scale. A combined modalities sensitivity score (CMS) was calculated. Results. At 6 weeks, patients reported the following reduction in CMS: A (20%); B (30%); C (42%); D (52%). At 10 weeks, patients reported the following reduction in CMS: A (18%), B (40%), C (24%), and D (54%). The only CMS comparisons to show a significant difference () were between Groups A and D (6 and 10 weeks). Conclusions. Addition of fTCP to a dentifrice enhances the ability of dentifrice fluoride in reducing dentine sensitivity. Using Clinpro Tooth Crème twice daily for brushing can be as effective to reduce dentine sensitivity as twice daily brushing using Sensodyne Total Care. However, additional nightly topical application of fTCP, in addition to twice daily brushing, showed an enhanced reduction in dentine sensitivity. Steven J. Naoum, Andrea Lenard, F. Elizabeth Martin, and Ayman Ellakwa Copyright © 2015 Steven J. Naoum et al. All rights reserved. Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Alcoholism in One versus Two Parents and the Implications for Child Attachment and Self-Regulation in Infancy through Adolescence Sun, 29 Mar 2015 08:21:44 +0000 This study’s purpose was to determine whether the influence of combined parental disorders can cause greater frequency in the occurrence of insecure child attachment and dysfunctions in self-regulation as opposed to the influence of one parent having a disorder. The research design is a quantitative meta-analysis that combined effects from 10 studies to establish differences in the frequency of occurrence for insecure child attachment and dysfunctions in self-regulation through an examination of Cohen’s d. Global analysis of Cohen’s effect (d) indicated that children being reared by two disordered parents had higher frequency in occurrence of insecure attachment and self-regulation dysfunction than those children reared by only one disordered parent. By addressing the issues surrounding the child population where both parents are disordered, children would have a better chance at healthy development by way of interventions that minimize the occurrence of child psychopathology and foster improvements in the social and overall human condition. Brenda Ridgeway Copyright © 2015 Brenda Ridgeway. All rights reserved. Retracted: Nontraumatic Lesions of the Clavicle in a Paediatric Population: Incidence and Management Wed, 25 Mar 2015 09:11:33 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2015 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Simulation-Based Rule Generation Considering Readability Tue, 24 Mar 2015 10:14:29 +0000 Rule generation method is proposed for an aircraft control problem in an airport. Designing appropriate rules for motion coordination of taxiing aircraft in the airport is important, which is conducted by ground control. However, previous studies did not consider readability of rules, which is important because it should be operated and maintained by humans. Therefore, in this study, using the indicator of readability, we propose a method of rule generation based on parallel algorithm discovery and orchestration (PADO). By applying our proposed method to the aircraft control problem, the proposed algorithm can generate more readable and more robust rules and is found to be superior to previous methods. H. Yahagi, S. Shimizu, T. Ogata, T. Hara, and J. Ota Copyright © 2015 H. Yahagi et al. All rights reserved. The Asymptotics of Recovery Probability in the Dual Renewal Risk Model with Constant Interest and Debit Force Sun, 22 Mar 2015 13:44:41 +0000 The asymptotic behavior of the recovery probability for the dual renewal risk model with constant interest and debit force is studied. By means the idea of Markov Skeleton method, we studied the times that the random premium incomes happened and transformed the continuous time model into a discrete time model. By investigating the fluctuations of this discrete time model, we obtained the asymptotic behavior when the random premium income belongs to a kind of heavy-tailed distributions. Hao Wang and Lin Xu Copyright © 2015 Hao Wang and Lin Xu. All rights reserved. Retracted: Obesity as a Consequence of Gut Bacteria and Diet Interactions Thu, 12 Mar 2015 08:02:32 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2015 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. IMPATT Diodes Based on , , and Oriented GaAs: A Comparative Study to Search the Best Orientation for Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Windows Tue, 10 Mar 2015 13:31:03 +0000 The authors have carried out the large-signal (L-S) simulation of double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diodes based on , , and oriented GaAs. A nonsinusoidal voltage excited (NSVE) L-S simulation technique is used to investigate both the static and L-S performance of the above-mentioned devices designed to operate at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) atmospheric window frequencies, such as 35, 94, 140, and 220 GHz. Results show that oriented GaAs diodes are capable of delivering maximum RF power with highest DC to RF conversion efficiency up to 94 GHz; however, the L-S performance of oriented GaAs diodes exceeds their other counterparts while the frequency of operation increases above 94 GHz. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for the future experimentalists to choose the GaAs substrate of appropriate orientation to fabricate DDR GaAs IMPATT diodes at mm-wave frequencies. Bhadrani Banerjee, Anvita Tripathi, Adrija Das, Kumari Alka Singh, Aritra Acharyya, and J. P. Banerjee Copyright © 2015 Bhadrani Banerjee et al. All rights reserved. A Genetic Multimutation Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder Fits Disparate Twin Concordance Data from the USA and Canada Wed, 04 Mar 2015 10:18:39 +0000 Whether autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is caused by genetics, environmental factors, or a combination of both is still being debated today. To help resolve this issue, a genetic multimutation model of ASD development was applied to a wide variety of age-of-onset data from the USA and Canada, and the model is shown to fit all the data. Included in this analysis is new, updated data from the Interactive Autism Network (IAN) of the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. We find that the age-of-onset distribution for males and females is identical, suggesting that ASD may be an autosomal disorder. The ASD monozygote concordance rate in twin data predicted by the genetic multimutation model is shown to be compatible with the observed rates. If ASD is caused entirely by genetics, then the ASD concordance rate of a cohort of monozygote twins should approach 100% as the youngest pair of twins in the cohort passes 10 years of age, a prediction that constitutes a critical test of the genetic hypothesis. Thus, by measuring the ASD concordance rate as a cohort of monozygote twins age, the hypothesis that this disorder is caused entirely by genetic mutations can be tested. Ivan Kramer, Paul H. Lipkin, Alison R. Marvin, and Paul A. Law Copyright © 2015 Ivan Kramer et al. All rights reserved. Validation of Health Extension Workers Job Motivation Scale in Gamo-Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 24 Feb 2015 08:13:45 +0000 Introduction. Well-trained and highly motivated community health workers are critical for delivery of community-based health care services. Understanding what motivates especially community health care providers for better community health requires the use of psychometrically reliable and valid scale. This study was conducted to validate job motivation scale in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 150 health care posts in Gamo Gofa Zone, from February 01, 2013, to March 01, 2013. A total of 301 participants responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics and job motivation. Exploratory factor analysis with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser Normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for job motivation. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as criterion of extraction. Items with item factor loadings less than 0.4 and double loaded items were dropped. Alpha and exploratory factor analyses were examined to test reliability and validity of the scale. Results. During exploratory factor analysis eight factors emerged from the three dimensions of job motivation scale, namely, educational career, workload, financial incentive, supervisor encouragement, community recognition, access to infrastructure, living condition, and better achievement in work. The factor loadings of the items in each dimension ranged from 0.58 to 0.83. Crobach’s alpha of the scales ranged from 0.79 to 0.90. To check validities of the scales developed in this study, the previous studies conducted to develop job motivation scale were used. Conclusion. Although the present scale has the potential to measure the job motivation of health extension workers and it is low in cost and easy to administer and analyze, it should be field-tested at different settings. Shikur Mohammed, Marelign Tilahun, Mesfin Kote, Mohamedaman Mama, and Dessalegn Tamiru Copyright © 2015 Shikur Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Associated with Micro- and Nanoparticle Radiopacifiers: Physicochemical Properties and Bioactivity Mon, 23 Feb 2015 09:49:52 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two formulations of calcium silicate-based cements containing additives (CSCM) or resin (CSCR), associated with radiopacifying agents zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and niobium oxide (Nb2O5) as micro- and nanoparticles; calcium tungstate (CaWO4); and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3). MTA Angelus was used as control. Methods. Surface features and bioactivity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and the chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS-X). Results. CSCM and CSCR presented larger particle sizes than MTA. Hydroxyapatite deposits were found on the surface of some materials, especially when associated with the radiopacifier with ZrO2 nanoparticles. All the cements presented calcium, silicon, and aluminum in their composition. Conclusion. Both calcium silicate-based cements presented composition and bioactivity similar to MTA when associated with the radiopacifiers evaluated. Roberta Bosso-Martelo, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Raqueli Viapiana, Fábio Luis Camargo Vilella Berbert, Maria Inês Basso Bernardi, and Mario Tanomaru-Filho Copyright © 2015 Roberta Bosso-Martelo et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Mobility-Enhancing Nursing Intervention in Patients with MS and Stroke: Randomised Controlled Trial Tue, 17 Feb 2015 06:35:26 +0000 Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) or stroke causes functional impairment which can have a major impact on patients’ life. Objectives. This RCT investigated the effect of a new nursing intervention (Mobility Enhancing Nursing Intervention—MFP) designed to improve rehabilitation outcomes. Method. The study took place in a rehabilitation clinic in Switzerland. One hundred forty participants diagnosed with MS, stroke, and brain injuries were randomly assigned to control group (CG = standard care) or intervention group (IG). The IG combined standard care with 30 days of MFB. MFP placed patients on a mattress on the floor and used tactile-kinaesthetic stimulation to increase spatial orientation and independency. Outcomes were functionality (Extended Barthel Index, EBI), quality of life (WHOQoL), and fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I). Results. There was a significant main effect of the intervention on functionality (EBI-diff/day mean = 0.30, versus mean = 0.16, ). There was also a significant main effect on QoL (WHOQoL-diff mean = 13.8, versus mean = 5.4, ). No significant effect was observed on fall-related self-efficacy. Conclusions. The positive effect of MFP on rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life suggests that this specialized nursing intervention could become an effective part of rehabilitation programs. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of St. Gallen (KEK-SG Nr. 09/021) and registered at NCT02198599. Lorenz Imhof, Susanne Suter-Riederer, and Jürg Kesselring Copyright © 2015 Lorenz Imhof et al. All rights reserved. Soil Fertility, Phosphorus Fractions, and Maize Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure and Single Superphosphate Tue, 10 Feb 2015 12:34:51 +0000 A field experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008 on a slightly acidic alfisol. Poultry manure (PM) was applied at 0, 5 t ha−1, 10 t ha−1, 15 t ha−1, and 20 t ha−1 in combination with SSP at 0, 15 kg P ha−1, 30 kg P ha−1, 45 kg P ha−1, and 60 kg P ha−1, which was replicated three times. The pH and organic C were significantly increased by the application of PM alone while available P was highly increased by the sole application of SSP. Plant tissue P was significantly increased with the application of 30 kg P ha−1 while the largest grain yield was obtained when PM at 20 t ha−1 was combined with SSP at 60 kg P ha−1. The buildup of organic P was observed when PM was applied at 15 t ha−1 while the combination of the two treatments increased residual P and Fe-P. However, P occlusion was effectively reduced with the sole application of PM. Organic P and residual P however had a strong positive relationship with the grain yield. Comparing the sole and combined application of the treatments, the combined application was more effective for most of the parameters observed. A. O. Ojo, M. T. Adetunji, K. A. Okeleye, and C. O. Adejuyigbe Copyright © 2015 A. O. Ojo et al. All rights reserved.