International Scholarly Research Notices The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Combined Influence of Hall Current and Soret Effect on Chemically Reacting Magnetomicropolar Fluid Flow from Radiative Rotating Vertical Surface with Variable Suction in Slip-Flow Regime Thu, 30 Oct 2014 12:12:08 +0000 An analysis study is presented to study the effects of Hall current and Soret effect on unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection of a micropolar fluid in a rotating frame of reference with slip-flow regime. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to the porous surface which absorbs the micropolar fluid with variable suction velocity. The effects of heat absorption, chemical reaction, and thermal radiation are discussed and for this Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in energy equation. The entire system rotates with uniform angular velocity Ω about an axis normal to the plate. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are solved by perturbation techniques. In order to get physical insight, the numerical results of translational velocity, microrotation, fluid temperature, and species concentration for different physical parameters entering into the analysis are discussed and explained graphically. Also, the results of the skin-friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are discussed with the help of figures for various values of flow pertinent flow parameters. Preeti Jain Copyright © 2014 Preeti Jain. All rights reserved. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. to Auto Pollution Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:33:19 +0000 Auto pollution is the by-product of our mechanized mobility, which adversely affects both plant and human life. However, plants growing in the urban locations provide a great respite to us from the brunt of auto pollution by absorbing the pollutants at their foliar surface. Foliar surface configuration and biochemical changes in plant species, namely, Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. grown at roadside (polluted site 1, Talkatora; polluted site 2, Charbagh) in Lucknow city and in the garden of the university campus, which has been taken as reference site, were investigated. It was observed that air pollution caused by auto exhaust showed marked alterations in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phaeophytin), and relative water content was reduced while antioxidative enzymes like catalase and peroxidase were found to be enhanced. The changes in the foliar configuration reveal marked alteration in epidermal traits, with decreased number of stomata, stomatal indices, and epidermal cells per unit area, while length and breadth of stomata and epidermal cells were found to be increased in leaves samples wich can be used as biomarkers of auto pollution. Vijeta Verma and Neelam Chandra Copyright © 2014 Vijeta Verma and Neelam Chandra. All rights reserved. Serological and Histological Examination of a Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Mouse Model Created via the Administration of Monosodium Glutamate Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:28:51 +0000 The administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to mice induces hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the metabolic features of MSG-treated mice and the histological changes that occur in their livers and adipose tissue. MSG mice were prepared by subcutaneously injecting MSG into newborn C57BL/6J male mice. The control mice were subcutaneously injected with saline. Another group of mice was fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD). Compared with the control mice, the MSG mice had higher serum levels of insulin and cholesterol than the control mice, whereas the opposite was true for the MCD mice. Microvesicular steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were detected in both the MSG and MCD mouse livers. Enlarged adipocytes and crown-like structures were observed in the epididymal fat of the MSG mice, whereas neither of these features was seen in the MCD mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed increased frequencies of monocytes and M1 macrophages in the livers and epididymal fat tissue of the MSG mice, respectively. The MSG mice exhibited the characteristic liver histopathology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as metabolic syndrome-like features, which suggested that MSG mice are a better model of human NASH than MCD mice. Atsuko Takai, Kentaro Kikuchi, Yusuke Kajiyama, Anna Sugiura, Masatsugu Negishi, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Hanae Yamada, Kotaro Matsumoto, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Masumi Hara, and Hiroshi Miyakawa Copyright © 2014 Atsuko Takai et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Modulation Techniques (Manchester Code, NRZ or RZ) on the Operation of Hybrid WDM/TDM Passive Optical Networks Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:26:12 +0000 In this paper, the performance and feasibility of a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM/TDM PON) system with 128 optical network units (ONUs) is analysed. In this system, triple play services (video, voice and data) are successfully communicated through a distance of up to 28 km. Moreover, we analysed and compared the performance of various modulation formats for different distances in the proposed hybrid WDM/TDM PON. NRZ rectangular emerged as the most appropriate modulation format for triple play transmission in the proposed hybrid PON. Kumbirayi Nyachionjeka and Wellington Makondo Copyright © 2014 Kumbirayi Nyachionjeka and Wellington Makondo. All rights reserved. Exploring the Impact of Prostitution on HIV/AIDS Transmission Thu, 30 Oct 2014 09:13:46 +0000 HIV/AIDS has been somehow linked to prostitution for decades now. A mathematical model is presented to assess the link between prostitution and HIV transmission. The epidemic thresholds known as the reproduction numbers and equilibria for the model are determined and stabilities analyzed. Analysis of the reproduction numbers suggests that HIV/AIDS control using antiretroviral therapy is more effective in the absence of prostitution. Numerical simulations further show high levels of HIV/AIDS when percentage of prostitutes in the community is high. Results from this study suggest that effectively controlling HIV/AIDS requires strategies that address both prostitution and HIV/AIDS transmission. Addressing HIV/AIDS through condom use and antiretroviral therapy may not be enough to stem HIV/AIDS in the community as some drug/alcohol misusing prostitutes may not be able to negotiate for safe sex while they are in drunken stupor. Furthermore, prostitutes are likely to get infected by different HIV strains some of which may be resistant to the antiretroviral therapy regimen in use. C. P. Bhunu, A. N. Mhlanga, and S. Mushayabasa Copyright © 2014 C. P. Bhunu et al. All rights reserved. A GPU-Based Gibbs Sampler for a Unidimensional IRT Model Thu, 30 Oct 2014 08:10:37 +0000 Item response theory (IRT) is a popular approach used for addressing large-scale statistical problems in psychometrics as well as in other fields. The fully Bayesian approach for estimating IRT models is usually memory and computationally expensive due to the large number of iterations. This limits the use of the procedure in many applications. In an effort to overcome such restraint, previous studies focused on utilizing the message passing interface (MPI) in a distributed memory-based Linux cluster to achieve certain speedups. However, given the high data dependencies in a single Markov chain for IRT models, the communication overhead rapidly grows as the number of cluster nodes increases. This makes it difficult to further improve the performance under such a parallel framework. This study aims to tackle the problem using massive core-based graphic processing units (GPU), which is practical, cost-effective, and convenient in actual applications. The performance comparisons among serial CPU, MPI, and compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programs demonstrate that the CUDA GPU approach has many advantages over the CPU-based approach and therefore is preferred. Yanyan Sheng, William S. Welling, and Michelle M. Zhu Copyright © 2014 Yanyan Sheng et al. All rights reserved. Functional Evaluation in High Energy (Schatzker Type V and Type VI) Tibial Plateau Fractures Treated by Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Thu, 30 Oct 2014 08:09:43 +0000 Objective. To review functional outcome in high energy tibial plateau fractures treated by plating. Design. Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods. Sixty-five patients with Schatzker type V and type VI tibial plateau fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation using plates were included in the study. The functional evaluation of the patients was carried out with Oxford knee scoring. Results. Fifty-four cases (83%) had Oxford knee score between 40 and 48. Seven (10.7%) had score between 30 and 39, three (4.6%) had score between 20 and 29, and one patient (1.5%) had a score of 18. Delayed union was seen in two cases and nonunion was seen in one case. The superficial wound infection was noticed in (9.2%) patients which was resolved with regular dressings and oral antibiotics. Three (4.6%) patients had developed deep wound infection and one among them had developed osteomyelitis. Conclusion. Open reduction and internal fixation in high energy tibial plateau fractures can provide good functional results in appropriately selected cases. Kavin Khatri, Devendra Lakhotia, Vijay Sharma, G. N. Kiran Kumar, Gaurav Sharma, and Kamran Farooque Copyright © 2014 Kavin Khatri et al. All rights reserved. Edge Preserved Speckle Noise Reduction Using Integrated Fuzzy Filters Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:56:21 +0000 Echocardiographic images are inherent with speckle noise which makes visual reading and analysis quite difficult. The multiplicative speckle noise masks finer details, necessary for diagnosis of abnormalities. A novel speckle reduction technique based on integration of geometric, wiener, and fuzzy filters is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The denoising applications of fuzzy filters are studied and analyzed along with 26 denoising techniques. It is observed that geometric filter retains noise and, to address this issue, wiener filter is embedded into the geometric filter during iteration process. The performance of geometric-wiener filter is further enhanced using fuzzy filters and the proposed despeckling techniques are called integrated fuzzy filters. Fuzzy filters based on moving average and median value are employed in the integrated fuzzy filters. The performances of integrated fuzzy filters are tested on echocardiographic images and synthetic images in terms of image quality metrics. It is observed that the performance parameters are highest in case of integrated fuzzy filters in comparison to fuzzy and geometric-fuzzy filters. The clinical validation reveals that the output images obtained using geometric-wiener, integrated fuzzy, nonlocal means, and details preserving anisotropic diffusion filters are acceptable. The necessary finer details are retained in the denoised echocardiographic images. Nagashettappa Biradar, M. L. Dewal, and Manoj Kumar Rohit Copyright © 2014 Nagashettappa Biradar et al. All rights reserved. Biochemical Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles in Wistar Rats Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:54:56 +0000 Background. Silver nanoparticles have found wider and increasing biomedical applications due to their broad antimicrobial characteristics. However, toxicity of nanoparticles is a subject of continued controversy, thus necessitating further studies in this direction. Objectives. This study investigated the biochemical effects of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Forty male rats were randomly distributed into eight experimental groups of five. Group A served as the control and received distilled water. Groups B to H were orally exposed to varying concentrations of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 100, 1000, and 5000 mg/kg daily for 7, 14, and 21 days alternately. Following cessation of treatments, rats were sacrificed and the blood and other vital organs were collected and prepared as specimens for biochemical analysis. Results. Administration of AgNPs to rats did not produce significant loss in feed intake and body weight. However, rat exposure to AgNPs caused significant alterations to levels of serum and tissue AST, ALT, and ALP. At the 100 mg/kg AgNPs exposure, rat serum and tissue AST and ALT levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In contrast, AgNPs administration elevated (P < 0.05) ALP levels in rat serum and tissues. Conclusion. We show evidence that AgNPs administration to Wistar rats altered some biochemical parameters. Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi and Ifeoluwa Adewumi Copyright © 2014 Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi and Ifeoluwa Adewumi. All rights reserved. Miniopen Repair of Ruptured Achilles Tendon in Diabetic Patients Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:41:05 +0000 Background. Acute degenerative Achilles tendons ruptures may be managed either operatively or nonoperatively with the superiority of the operative treatment in reducing the risk of rerupture. Acute rupture of Achilles tendon is commonly seen in diabetic patients. Open techniques for Achilles tendon repair have been associated with significant complications as deep infection and wound-related problems. Patients and Methods. Thirteen type II diabetic patients with acute degenerative rupture of the Achilles tendon were managed by miniopen repair augmented by peroneus brevis tendon. Results. All repairs healed successfully. The patients were able to return to preinjury level of activity after a mean of 5 months. The mean ATRS score improved from 15.1 preoperatively to 74.8 postoperatively. The mean Leppilahti ankle score was 59.6. Three patients suffered from superficial wound infection which was successfully managed. However, no patients suffered any major complications such as DVT, deep infection, or reruptures during the period of the study. Conclusion. Repair of acute degenerative tear of the Achilles tendon with peroneus brevis tendon augmentation could be successfully performed through a miniopen technique with minimization of wound complications in diabetic patients. Abdelsalam Eid Copyright © 2014 Abdelsalam Eid. All rights reserved. Microwave Studies of Environmental Friendly Ferroelectrics Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:30:14 +0000 The structural and microwave studies of lead-free barium niobates ceramics prepared by the high temperatures solid state reaction technique are reported. The structural parameters such as the lattice constants, average crystallite size (D), texture coefficients (TC), dislocation density, and microstrain have been determined using X-ray diffraction data. Surface morphological studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The strong absorption bands at ~816 cm−1, 641 cm−1, and 482 cm−1 are associated with the coupling mode between Nb–O stretching modes observed in FTIR studies. The electromagnetic transmittance, absorption, studies of barium niobates in the X band frequency range frequencies using waveguide reflectometer technique are reported. S. N. Mathad and Vijaya Puri Copyright © 2014 S. N. Mathad and Vijaya Puri. All rights reserved. In Vitro and In Vivo Biochemical Evaluations of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia kola Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:12:33 +0000 Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) leaves have received limited scientific attention despite their traditionally acclaimed medicinal properties. The scavenging ability of the methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of G. kola was assayed for hydroxyl radical (OH•), superoxide anion (), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+), and lipid peroxidation (LP) activity in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were also evaluated. Group I animals were given oral doses of water, whereas Group II and Group III animals received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) MLE, respectively, for 14 days. Plasma glucose, magnesium, -glutamyltransferase (GGT/GT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), LP, and liver histopathological appearance were also assessed. The extract scavenged OH•, , DPPH, and ABTS•+ and inhibited LP in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Furthermore, oral administration of the extract showed no adverse effects on hepatic and renal function tests. Increased hepatic GSH and nonsignificant changes in LP, GPx and SOD activities, and liver histology were observed. These results suggest that G. kola leaves have antioxidant activities which may have application in traditional medicine. Jelili A. Badmus, Olaniyi T. Adedosu, Emmanuel G. Adeleke, Kehinde H. Akinboro, Bayonle I. Odeyemi, Bolanle I. Ayoola, and Donavon C. Hiss Copyright © 2014 Jelili A. Badmus et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding Food, and Waterborne Outbreak after Massive Diarrhea Outbreak in Yazd Province, Iran, Summer 2013 Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:10:46 +0000 Objective. This Study was conducted after a diarrhea outbreak that occurred in Yazd Province, Iran. The aim of the study was to compare knowledge, attitude, practice, and other risk factors of the affected communities regarding diarrhea outbreak (the cities of Zarch, Meybod, and Ardakan) to nonaffected communities (the cities of Yazd and Taft). Methods. A knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey study was conducted from August to September 2013 enrolling 505 subjects who were referred to health centers anonymously during the epidemic. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics such as gender, education level, source of health information obtaining; (b) 12 questions on knowledge (Min = 0, Max = 36); (c) 10 questions on attitude (Min = 0, Max = 50); and (d) nine questions on practice (Min = 0, Max = 27). Results. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice was 28.17 (SD = 4.58), 37.07 (SD = 4.39), and 21.31 (SD = 3.81), respectively. Practice on food- and waterborne outbreaks was significantly higher in females and in nonaffected communities . Conclusions. Nonaffected communities had a considerably better practice score. With the increase in the score of knowledge about food- and waterborne outbreaks, the score of practice increased slightly. Zahra Cheraghi, Batul Okhovat, Amin Doosti Irani, Mojgan Talaei, Elham Ahmadnezhad, Mohammad Mehdi Gooya, Mahmood Soroush, Hossein Masoumi Asl, and Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni Copyright © 2014 Zahra Cheraghi et al. All rights reserved. Social Determinants of Infectious Diseases in South Asia Thu, 30 Oct 2014 06:58:52 +0000 South Asian countries have developed infectious disease control programs such as routine immunization, vaccination, and the provision of essential drugs which are operating nationwide in cooperation with many local and foreign NGOs. Most South Asian countries have a relatively low prevalence of HIV/AIDS until now, but issues like poverty, food insecurity, illiteracy, poor sanitation, and social stigma around AIDS are widespread and are creating formidable challenges to prevention of further spread of this epidemic. Besides that, resurgence of tuberculosis along with the emergence of the drug resistant (MDR-TB and XDRTB) strains and the coepidemic of TB and HIV are posing ever-growing threats to the underdeveloped healthcare infrastructure. The countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition where the disease burden is gradually shifting to noncommunicable diseases, but the infectious diseases still account for almost half of the total disease burden. Despite this huge burden of infectious diseases in South Asia, which is second only to Africa, there is yet any study on the social determinants of infectious diseases in a local context. This paper examines various issues surrounding the social determinants of infectious diseases in South Asian countries with a special reference to HIV and tuberculosis. And, by doing so, it attempts to provide a framework for formulating more efficient prevention and intervention strategies for the future. Ghose Bishwajit, Seydou Ide, and Sharmistha Ghosh Copyright © 2014 Ghose Bishwajit et al. All rights reserved. Development and Statistical Optimisation of Buspirone Hydrochloride Buccoadhesive Films Thu, 30 Oct 2014 06:57:26 +0000 The aim of the present study was to prepare unidirectional buccal films of buspirone hydrochloride by solvent casting technique. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K15M) and Eudragit RL-100 were used as polymers in different proportion. Polyethylene glycol 400 and sodium lauryl sulphate were used as plasticizer and permeation enhancer, respectively, in different concentration. In the formulation, total amount of polymer (X1) and percentage of HPMC K15M (X2) were kept as independent variables. Afterwards, statistically optimized process was carried out and two optimized formulations (OF1 and OF2) were developed. The observed results of optimized formulation were showed a greater degree of percentage of similarity with predicted values. The stability studies showed that there was no significant change found in physicochemical properties, in-vitro release, and ex-vivo diffusion studies. Upendra Nagaich, Vandana Chaudhary, and Jaya Nagaich Copyright © 2014 Upendra Nagaich et al. All rights reserved. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. Nabnit Panigrahi, Mahendra Kumar Mohanty, Sruti Ranjan Mishra, and Ramesh Chandra Mohanty Copyright © 2014 Nabnit Panigrahi et al. All rights reserved. Alterations of Blood Pressure and ECG following Two-Week Consumption of Berberis integerrima Fruit Extract Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In light of the popularity and also the various nutritional and medicinal properties of Berberis integerrima, this study was conducted to assess the influence of its aqueous extract on hemodynamic and electrocardiogram (ECG) indices of rat. Animals were divided to control (CTL), B50, B100, and B200 groups that orally received tap water, aqueous extracts of B. integerrima fruit 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, for two weeks and on day 15, data were recorded. Different doses of barberry fruit extract had no significant effect on blood pressure, heart rate, RR interval, P duration, and Q wave amplitude of electrocardiogram. Extract administration was associated with an incremental trend in PR interval that was not statistically significant. Higher doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) of extract significantly increased the QRS interval ( versus CTL and B50 groups) but decreased the QTc interval ( versus CTL group and versus B50 group), the JT interval, and TpTe interval ( versus CTL and B50 groups). The results suggest that high doses of barberry extract definitely prolong the depolarization phase and shorten the repolarization phase of ventricular muscle and hence induce alteration in heart electrical conductivity. Siyavash Joukar and Naser Mahdavi Copyright © 2014 Siyavash Joukar and Naser Mahdavi. All rights reserved. An Efficient and Facile Synthesis of 1,2,4-Aryl Triazoles and 4-Thiazolidinones Bearing 6-Fluorochroman Nucleus Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A new generation of chroman bearing heterocyclic five membered ring such as 1,2,4-triazoles and thiazolidinones was designed and synthesized. New chroman based nucleus 5-(6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-4-aryl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 6-fluorochroman-N-(4-oxo-2-arylthiazolidinin-3-yl) chroman-2-carboxamides were synthesized. Aryl triazole compounds 4a–4j were synthesized from 6-fluorochroman-2-carbohydrazide 2 on reaction with base in methanol and CS2 followed by reaction with substituted aniline. Thiazolidinone compounds 5a–5j were synthesized from 6-fluorochroman-2-carbohydrazide 2 on reaction with substituted aryl aldehyde and thioglycolic acid. Piyush B. Vekariya, Jalpa R. Pandya, and Hitendra S. Joshi Copyright © 2014 Piyush B. Vekariya et al. All rights reserved. Study of Glove Perforation during Hip Replacement Arthroplasty: Its Frequency, Location, and Timing Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the location, timing, and frequency of glove perforation during hip replacement arthroplasty. Methods. Gloves worn by surgical team members in 19 primary hip replacement arthroplasties were assessed. The study was of a single gloving system. All the used gloves were collected at the end of the surgery and assessed visually and by using water inflation technique. Relevant data were collected at the time of surgery. Results. A total of one hundred and ninety-one surgical gloves were evaluated. Twenty-three glove perforations were noted in nineteen of the operations. Of these perforations 14 belonged to gloves worn by surgeon and first assistant (60.1%). Glove perforation in thumb, index finger, and palm was more common. More perforation occurred in the gloves worn in nondominant hand (52%) but was insignificant. Conclusion. Glove perforation in surgeries such as total hip arthroplasty is not uncommon. In this study of single gloving system glove perforation rate was 12.04%, whereas literature reports of glove perforation rate as low as 3.3% in elective orthopedic surgeries with double gloving system. As such emphasis should be given to wear double pair of gloves wherever this practice is uncommon. Li Xiao Tao and Deepak Kumar Basnet Copyright © 2014 Li Xiao Tao and Deepak Kumar Basnet. All rights reserved. Congenital Aniridia: Clinic, Genetics, Therapeutics, and Prognosis Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Congenital aniridia is a rare condition related to a deficiency in the PAX6 gene expression, which may occur as a result of a family inheritance or a sporadic occurrence. Additionally, this condition may occur as an isolated ocular phenotype or in association with a systemic syndrome. The most common abnormality is iris hypoplasia; however, a panocular disease which also affects the cornea, anterior chamber of the eye, lens, and the posterior segment with presence of optic nerve and foveal hypoplasia is also evident. The development of keratopathy, glaucoma, and cataract is frequent and its presence has implications in the patient’s visual acuity. Managing aniridia is challenging since the focus is on treating the previously mentioned disorders, and the outcomes are often disappointing. In this paper, we shall review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical characteristics of patients with aniridia. We shall also make a review of the therapeutic options for the several conditions affecting this syndrome and consider the genetics and prognostic factors. Pedro Calvão-Pires, R. Santos-Silva, F. Falcão-Reis, and A. Rocha-Sousa Copyright © 2014 Pedro Calvão-Pires et al. All rights reserved. Study of Protoscolicidal Effects of Hypertonic Glucose on Protoscolices of Hydatid Cyst at Different Concentrations and Exposure Times Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Surgical operation is the treatment of choice for hydatid cyst. To date, many protoscolicidal substances have been used for inactivation of hydatid cyst contents but most of these compounds may produce several side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protoscolicidal effects of hypertonic glucose on protoscolices of hydatid cyst at different concentrations and exposure times. Protoscolices were obtained aseptically from the livers of slaughtered sheep at Qazvin abattoir, Iran. Protoscolices were exposed to different concentrations of hypertonic glucose (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) at different times (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min). Viability of protoscolices was evaluated by 0.1% eosin and the movement of protoscolices flame cells. The highest protoscolicidal effect (100%) of hypertonic glucose was obtained at concentrations 40% and 50% following 40 and 20 min exposure times, respectively. Some protoscolicidal agents show a variety of dangerous complications such as biliary tract fibrosis and liver necrosis; however, hypertonic glucose especially at a concentration of 40% may demonstrate less side effects compared with glucose 50%. Further in vivo investigations are suggested. Mojtaba Shahnazi, Fatemeh Badakhsh, Abbas Azadmehr, Mehrzad Saraei, Mahmood Alipour, Maryam Shahnazi, and Mehri Jamshidi Copyright © 2014 Mojtaba Shahnazi et al. All rights reserved. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Weighted Linear Regression Model with Fuzzy Entropy under Linear Restrictions Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In fuzzy set theory, it is well known that a triangular fuzzy number can be uniquely determined through its position and entropies. In the present communication, we extend this concept on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number for its one-to-one correspondence with its position and entropies. Using the concept of fuzzy entropy the estimators of the intuitionistic fuzzy regression coefficients have been estimated in the unrestricted regression model. An intuitionistic fuzzy weighted linear regression (IFWLR) model with some restrictions in the form of prior information has been considered. Further, the estimators of regression coefficients have been obtained with the help of fuzzy entropy for the restricted/unrestricted IFWLR model by assigning some weights in the distance function. Gaurav Kumar and Rakesh Kumar Bajaj Copyright © 2014 Gaurav Kumar and Rakesh Kumar Bajaj. All rights reserved. Andrographolide Exerts Chondroprotective Activity in Equine Cartilage Explant and Suppresses Interleukin-1β-Induced MMP-2 Expression in Equine Chondrocyte Culture Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Cartilage erosion in degenerative joint diseases leads to lameness in affected horses. It has been reported that andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata inhibited cartilage matrix-degrading enzymes. This study aimed to explore whether this compound protects equine cartilage degradation in the explant culture model and to determine its effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression, a matrix-degrading enzyme, in equine chondrocyte culture. Equine articular cartilage explant culture was induced by 25 ng/mL interleukin-1β, a key inducer of cartilage degeneration, in cultures with or without andrographolide ranging from 10 to 50 μM. After 3–21 days, they were analyzed for the markers of cartilage degradation. It was found that interleukin-1β increased the release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronan from the explants into the culture media consistently with the decrease in uronic acid and collagen content in the cartilage explants. These catabolic effects were inhibited when cotreated with interleukin-1β and andrographolide. In primary equine chondrocytes, andrographolide suppressed interleukin-1β-induced MMP-2 mRNA expression and MMP-2 activity in the culture medium. These results confirmed the in vitro potent chondroprotective activities of this compound which were performed in cartilage explants and on a cellular level. These may indicate the application of andrographolide for therapeutic use in equine degenerative joint diseases. Siriwan Tangyuenyong, Nawarat Viriyakhasem, Siriporn Peansukmanee, Prachya Kongtawelert, and Siriwan Ongchai Copyright © 2014 Siriwan Tangyuenyong et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Oligomer Metal Complexes Derived from Bisamic Acid of Pyromellitic Dianhydride and 4-Bromoaniline Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Novel oligomer metal complexes (2a–f) of the ligand 2,5-bis((4-bromophenyl)carbamoyl) terephthalic acid (1) were prepared using transition metal salts and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The geometry of oligomer metal complexes was carried out by electronic spectral analysis and magnetic measurement studies. Polymeric properties have also been carried out. Ligand was synthesized using pyromellitic dianhydride and 4-bromoaniline. It was duly characterized. All novel synthesized compounds 1 and 2a–f were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results showed significantly higher antibacterial and antifungal activity of oligomer metal complexes compared to the ligand. Yogesh S. Patel Copyright © 2014 Yogesh S. Patel. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on the Strength Characteristics and Water Permeability of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Results of an investigation conducted to study the effect of fibre hybridization on the strength characteristics such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, and water permeability of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) are presented. Steel fibres of different lengths, that is, 12.5 mm, 25 mm, and 50 mm, having constant diameter of 0.6 mm, were systematically combined in different mix proportions to obtain mono, binary, and ternary combinations at each of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% fibre volume fraction. A concrete mix containing no fibres was also cast for reference purpose. A total number of 1440 cube specimens of size  mm were tested, 480 each for compressive strength, split tensile strength, and water permeability at 7, 28, 90, and 120 days of curing. It has been observed from the results of this investigation that a fibre combination of 33% 12.5 mm + 33% 25 mm + 33% 50 mm long fibres can be adjudged as the most appropriate combination to be employed in hybrid steel fibre reinforced concrete (HySFRC) for optimum performance in terms of compressive strength, split tensile strength and water permeability requirements taken together. M. P. Singh, S. P. Singh, and A. P. Singh Copyright © 2014 M. P. Singh et al. All rights reserved. Target Therapy in Hematological Malignances: New Monoclonal Antibodies Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Apart from radio- and chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) represent a new, more selective tool in the treatment of hematological malignancies. MoAbs bind with the specific antigens of the tumors. This interaction is a basis for targeted therapies which exhibit few side effects and significant antitumor activity. This review provides an overview of the functional characteristics of MoAbs, with some examples of their clinical application. The promising results in the treatment of hematological malignancies have led to the more frequent usage of MoAbs in the therapy. Development of MoAbs is a subject of extensive research. They are a promising method of cancer treatment in the future. Monika Podhorecka, Justyna Markowicz, Agnieszka Szymczyk, and Johannes Pawlowski Copyright © 2014 Monika Podhorecka et al. All rights reserved. Healthcare Supported by Data Mule Networks in Remote Communities of the Amazon Region Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper investigates the feasibility of using boats as data mule nodes, carrying medical ultrasound videos from remote and isolated communities in the Amazon region in Brazil, to the main city of that area. The videos will be used by physicians to perform remote analysis and follow-up routine of prenatal examinations of pregnant women. Two open source simulators (the ONE and NS-2) were used to evaluate the results obtained utilizing a CoDPON (continuous displacement plan oriented network). The simulations took into account the connection times between the network nodes (boats) and the number of nodes on each boat route. Mauro Margalho Coutinho, Alon Efrat, Thienne Johnson, Andrea Richa, and Mengxue Liu Copyright © 2014 Mauro Margalho Coutinho et al. All rights reserved. Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Atorvastatin Calcium, Metformin Hydrochloride, and Glimepiride in Bulk and Combined Tablet Dosage Form Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A simple, rapid, and precise RP-HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of atorvastatin calcium, metformin hydrochloride, and glimepiride in bulk and its pharmaceutical formulations has been developed and validated. These drugs were separated by using Grace Smart Altima C-8 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5-μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile : phosphate buffer (60 : 40 (v/v), pH 3.0) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, injection volume 25 µL, and detection at 235 nm. Metformin, atorvastatin, and glimepiride were eluted with retention times of 2.57 min, 7.06 min, and 9.39 min, respectively. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity, and sensitivity in accordance with ICH (Q2B) guidelines. The results of all the validation parameters were found to be within the acceptable limits. The calibration plots were linear over the concentration ranges from 10 to 150 µg/mL, 20 to 200 µg/mL, and 10 to 150 µg/mL for atorvastatin, metformin, and glimepiride, respectively. The accuracy and precision were found to be between 98.2%–105% and ≤2% for three drugs. Developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the drugs in tablet dosage form and recovery was found to be >98% for three drugs. The degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with drug peaks. Devi Ramesh and Mohammad Habibuddin Copyright © 2014 Devi Ramesh and Mohammad Habibuddin. All rights reserved. The Neuroepithelium Disruption Could Generate Autoantibodies against AQP4 and Cause Neuromyelitis Optica and Hydrocephalus Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Neuromyelitis optica is an inflammatory disease characterized by neuritis and myelitis of the optic nerve. Its physiopathology is connected with the aquaporin-4 water channel, since antibodies against aquaporin-4 have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of neuromyelitis optica patients. The seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibodies is used for the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease. On the other hand, aquaporin-4 is expressed in astrocyte feet in the brain-blood barrier and subventricular zones of the brain ventricles. Aquaporin-4 expression is high in cerebrospinal fluid in hydrocephalus. Furthermore, neuroepithelial denudation precedes noncommunicating hydrocephalus and this neuroepithelial disruption could allow aquaporin-4 to reach anomalous brain areas where it is unrecognized and induce the generation of aquaporin-4 antibodies which could cause the neuromyelitis optica and certain types of hydrocephalus. Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz, Ibrahim González-Marrero, Agustín Castañeyra-Ruiz, Juan M. González-Toledo, María Castañeyra-Ruiz, Francisco J. Perez-Molto, Emilia M. Carmona-Calero, and Agustín Castañeyra-Perdomo Copyright © 2014 Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz et al. All rights reserved. Malnutrition Markers and Serum Ghrelin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. The aim of study was to investigate the changes levels of serum ghrelin in HD patients and its relationship to some malnutrition markers compared with healthy controls. Methods. Forty-five patients on hemodialysis and forty healthy controls were studied. Biochemical parameters and serum ghrelin levels were measured. Both daily dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) assessments were performed for evaluation of nutritional status. Results. Ghrelin concentrations were significantly reduced in patients undergoing hemodialysis when compared to healthy controls ( (1.1–18.5) pg/mL versus (2.4–18.3) pg/mL; ). BMI and serum albumin in HD patients were markedly reduced compared to controls. The patients with an insufficient intake of energy and protein demonstrated slightly lower levels of serum ghrelin. A negative correlation between serum ghrelin concentration with age (, ), BUN (, ), and serum creatinine (, ) was observed in HD patients. Conclusions. The findings suggest that decreased ghrelin levels in HD patients might be associated with anorexia. Further studies are needed to determine changes in serum ghrelin levels during dialysis and to clarify whether the decrease in ghrelin levels contributes to the malnutrition that is common in these patients. Farzaneh Montazerifar, Mansour Karajibani, Farnia Gorgij, and Ommolbanin Akbari Copyright © 2014 Farzaneh Montazerifar et al. All rights reserved.