International Scholarly Research Notices The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effect of In Vitro Testing Parameters on Ceftazidime-Avibactam Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Tue, 19 May 2015 11:23:33 +0000 Effects of varying in vitro susceptibility testing parameters of the broth microdilution assay on ceftazidime-avibactam MICs were determined and compared to meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam for 9 Enterobacteriaceae and 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The effect of varying incubation conditions (ambient air or 5% CO2), pH of medium, medium composition (cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton Broth with and without laked horse blood and Haemophilus Test Medium), cation content of the medium, and inoculum density were tested. Most variations had no effect on ceftazidime-avibactam MIC values (no more than a 2-fold change). However, acidic pH or high inoculum resulted in 4- to 16-fold changes in MIC, which was similar to those observed for meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam under these conditions. Overall, this study shows that slight variations in testing parameters during routine MIC testing will likely have no significant effect on ceftazidime-avibactam MIC values. Tiffany R. Keepers, Marcela Gomez, Donald Biek, Ian Critchley, and Kevin M. Krause Copyright © 2015 Tiffany R. Keepers et al. All rights reserved. Experience with Clinically Diagnosed Down Syndrome Children Admitted with Diarrhea in an Urban Hospital in Bangladesh Thu, 07 May 2015 09:54:46 +0000 There is lack of information in the medical literature on clinically diagnosed Down syndrome children presenting with diarrhea. Our aim was to describe our experience with Down syndrome patients admitted with diarrhea by evaluating the factors associated with Down syndrome presenting with diarrheal illness. In this retrospective chart analysis, we enrolled all the diarrheal children aged 0–59 months admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr, b), from March 2011 to February 2013. Down syndrome children with diarrhea constituted cases and randomly selected threefold diarrheal children without Down syndrome constituted controls. Among 8422 enrolled children 32 and 96 were the cases and the controls, respectively. Median age (months) of the cases and the controls was comparable (7.6 (4.0, 15.0) versus 9.0 (5.0, 16.8); ). The cases more often presented with severe acute malnutrition, developmental delay, congenital heart disease, hypothyroidism, sepsis, hypocalcemia, developed hospital acquired infection (HAI) during hospitalization, and required prolonged stay at hospital compared to the controls (for all ). Thus, diarrheal children with clinically diagnosed Down syndrome should be investigated for these simple clinical parameters for their prompt management that may prevent HAI and prolonged hospital stay. Rina Das, Anupam Sarker, Haimanti Saha, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahid, K. M. Shahunja, and Mohammod Jobayer Chisti Copyright © 2015 Rina Das et al. All rights reserved. Development of Simultaneous Derivative Spectrophotometric and HPLC Methods for Determination of 17-Beta-Estradiol and Drospirenone in Combined Dosage Form Mon, 27 Apr 2015 07:45:55 +0000 Simple, rapid spectrophotometric, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the concurrent analysis of 17-beta-estradiol (ESR) and drospirenone (DRS). The spectrophotometric method was based on the determination of first derivative spectra and determined ESR and DRS using the zero-crossing technique at 208 and 282 nm, respectively, in methanol. The linear range was 0.5–32.0 µg·mL−1 for DRS and 0.5–8.0 µg·mL−1 for EST. The limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.14 µg·mL−1 and 0.10 µg·mL−1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 0.42 µg·mL−1 and 0.29 µg·mL−1 for ESR and DRS, respectively. The chromatographic method was based on the separation of both analytes on a C18 column with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (70 : 30, v/v). Detection was performed with a UV-photodiode array detector at 279 nm. The linear range was 0.08–2.5 µg·mL−1 for DRS and 0.23–7.5 µg·mL−1 for EST. LOD values were 0.05 µg·mL−1 and 0.02 µg·mL−1 and LOQ values were 0.15 µg·mL−1 and 0.05 µg·mL−1 for ESR and DRS, respectively. These recommended methods have been applied for the simultaneous determination of ESR and DRS in their tablets. Zeynep Aydoğmuş, Ece Merve Yılmaz, Sevgi Yörüsün, and Samet Akpınar Copyright © 2015 Zeynep Aydoğmuş et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Liver Mitochondrial Respiration and Proton Leak in Low and High RFI Steers from Two Lineages of RFI Angus Bulls Thu, 23 Apr 2015 08:39:57 +0000 The objective of this research is to evaluate liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption and proton leak kinetics in progeny from two lineages of Angus bulls with high and low residual feed intake (RFI). Two Angus bulls were selected based on results from a genetic test for RFI and were used as sires. Eight offspring at 10-11 months of age from each sire were housed in individual pens for 70–105 days following a diet adaptation period of 14 days. Progeny of the low RFI sire had 0.57 kg/d () lower average RFI than progeny of the high RFI sire. There was no difference in dry matter intake between low and high RFI steers, but low RFI steers gained more body weight () and tended to have higher average daily gains (). State 3 and State 4 respiration, RCR, and proton leak did not differ between high and low RFI steers (, , , and , resp.). Therefore, the increase in bodyweight gain which distinguished the low RFI steers from the high RFI steers may be associated with other metabolic mechanisms that are not associated with liver mitochondrial respiration and proton leak kinetics. G. Acetoze, K. L. Weber, J. J. Ramsey, and H. A. Rossow Copyright © 2015 G. Acetoze et al. All rights reserved. Electronically Tunable Differential Integrator: Linear Voltage Controlled Quadrature Oscillator Sun, 19 Apr 2015 08:14:53 +0000 A new electronically tunable differential integrator (ETDI) and its extension to voltage controlled quadrature oscillator (VCQO) design with linear tuning law are proposed; the active building block is a composite current feedback amplifier with recent multiplication mode current conveyor (MMCC) element. Recently utilization of two different kinds of active devices to form a composite building block is being considered since it yields a superior functional element suitable for improved quality circuit design. The integrator time constant and the oscillation frequency are tunable by the control voltage of the MMCC block. Analysis indicates negligible phase error for the integrator and low active -sensitivity relative to the device parasitic capacitances. Satisfactory experimental verifications on electronic tunability of some wave shaping applications by the integrator and a double-integrator feedback loop (DIFL) based sinusoid oscillator with linear variation range of 60 KHz~1.8 MHz at low THD of 2.1% are verified by both simulation and hardware tests. Rabindranath Nandi, Sandhya Pattanayak, Palaniandavar Venkateswaran, and Sagarika Das Copyright © 2015 Rabindranath Nandi et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobin Variants by HPLC Method: Common Problems with Suggested Solutions Thu, 16 Apr 2015 13:04:37 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2015 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Examining Provincial HPV Vaccination Schemes in Canada: Should We Standardise the Grade of Vaccination or the Number of Doses? Sun, 12 Apr 2015 07:41:27 +0000 Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection, which is linked to several cancers and genital warts. Depending on the Canadian province, the quadrivalent vaccine is given to girls in grades 4 through 10 with either a two- or three-dose schedule. We use a mathematical model to address the following research questions: (1) Does the grade at which the girls are vaccinated significantly affect the outcome of the program? (2) What coverage rate must the provinces reach in order to reduce the impact of HPV on the Canadian population? (3) What are the implications of vaccinating with two versus three doses? The model suggests the grade of vaccination and the number of doses do not make a significant difference to the outcome of the public vaccination program. The most significant factor is the coverage rate of children and adults. We recommend that provinces vaccinate as early as possible to avoid vaccine failure due to previous infection. We also recommend that the main focus of the program should be on obtaining a large enough coverage rate for children and/or adults in order to achieve the desired outcome with either two or three doses of the vaccine. Carley Rogers and Robert J. Smith? Copyright © 2015 Carley Rogers and Robert J. Smith?. All rights reserved. Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Rate and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV in Dubti Hospital, Afar Regional State, East Ethiopia Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:57:28 +0000 Introduction. Antiretroviral Therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic manageable disease; it requires near perfect adherence rates (as high as 95%). In this study, we assessed antiretroviral treatment adherence rate and associated factors among people living with HIV in Dubti Hospital. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted within February 1–30, 2014. All HIV-infected patients above the age of 18 years who took first line Antiretroviral Therapy were eligible for inclusion of the study. Adherence Scale was used for labeling patients as adherent or nonadherent. All HIV-infected patients record data were collected from the medical records, entered, and analyzed using Epi Info 7 and SPSS Version 20. Multivariable analysis was used to identify the relative effect of explanatory variables on low adherence rate. Results. A total of 370 patients aged 18 years and above, who started ART, were included in this study. The self-reported adherence rate of the patient on ART was 81.1%. Independent predictors of adherence were treatment duration. Conclusion. Adherence rate was associated with time to ART. That is, the longer they were on ART, the lesser they adhered. Bekele Belayihun and Rahma Negus Copyright © 2015 Bekele Belayihun and Rahma Negus. All rights reserved. Oral Metformin Treatment Counteracts Adipoinsular Axis Dysfunction in Hypothalamic Obese Rats Sun, 05 Apr 2015 15:58:34 +0000 Rats neonatally treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) are deeply dysfunctional in adulthood. We explored the effect of an oral low dose of metformin treatment in male MSG rats on adipoinsular axis and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) dysfunctions, in both basal (nonfasting) and endotoxemia conditions. MSG rats, treated or not treated with metformin (30 days prior to experimentation), and control litter-mates (CTR) were studied at 90 days of age. Peripheral concentrations of glucose, lipids, and hormones were determined in basal and post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment conditions. Food intake and body weight (BW) were recorded and VAT mass and leptin mRNA levels were evaluated. Data indicated that MSG rats were lighter and displayed hypercorticosteronemia, hypophagia, adipoinsular axis hyperactivity, and enhanced VAT mass associated with an increased leptin gene expression. Interestingly, metformin-treated MSG rats corrected BW catch-up and counteracted VAT (mass and leptin mRNA level) and adipoinsular axis (basal and post-LPS) dysfunctions. Thus metformin treatment in MSG rats is able to correct several VAT and metabolic-endocrine dysfunctions. Our study suggests that a low-dose metformintherapy is effective to correct, at least in part, adipoinsular axis dysfunction in hypertrophic obese phenotypes, such as that of the human Cushing syndrome. Daniel Castrogiovanni, Luisina Ongaro, Guillermina Zuburía, Andrés Giovambattista, and Eduardo Spinedi Copyright © 2015 Daniel Castrogiovanni et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Fluoride Mediated Dentine Sensitivity Relief through Functionalised Tricalcium Phosphate Activity Thu, 02 Apr 2015 14:32:48 +0000 Background. To assess the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing fluoride and functionalised tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) in reducing dentine sensitivity. Methods. A 10-week parallel blind randomised control trial was conducted. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups and instructed to brush twice daily: A: Colgate Cavity Protection (1000 ppmF-MFP); B: Sensodyne Total Care (1000 ppmF-NaF + 19300 ppmK+-KNO3); C: Clinpro Tooth Crème (950 ppmF-NaF + fTCP); and D: Clinpro Tooth Crème (brushing + additional topical application). Seventy-one patients were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks for cold, tactile, and hypertonic sensitivity using the NRS-11 pain rating scale. A combined modalities sensitivity score (CMS) was calculated. Results. At 6 weeks, patients reported the following reduction in CMS: A (20%); B (30%); C (42%); D (52%). At 10 weeks, patients reported the following reduction in CMS: A (18%), B (40%), C (24%), and D (54%). The only CMS comparisons to show a significant difference () were between Groups A and D (6 and 10 weeks). Conclusions. Addition of fTCP to a dentifrice enhances the ability of dentifrice fluoride in reducing dentine sensitivity. Using Clinpro Tooth Crème twice daily for brushing can be as effective to reduce dentine sensitivity as twice daily brushing using Sensodyne Total Care. However, additional nightly topical application of fTCP, in addition to twice daily brushing, showed an enhanced reduction in dentine sensitivity. Steven J. Naoum, Andrea Lenard, F. Elizabeth Martin, and Ayman Ellakwa Copyright © 2015 Steven J. Naoum et al. All rights reserved. Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Alcoholism in One versus Two Parents and the Implications for Child Attachment and Self-Regulation in Infancy through Adolescence Sun, 29 Mar 2015 08:21:44 +0000 This study’s purpose was to determine whether the influence of combined parental disorders can cause greater frequency in the occurrence of insecure child attachment and dysfunctions in self-regulation as opposed to the influence of one parent having a disorder. The research design is a quantitative meta-analysis that combined effects from 10 studies to establish differences in the frequency of occurrence for insecure child attachment and dysfunctions in self-regulation through an examination of Cohen’s d. Global analysis of Cohen’s effect (d) indicated that children being reared by two disordered parents had higher frequency in occurrence of insecure attachment and self-regulation dysfunction than those children reared by only one disordered parent. By addressing the issues surrounding the child population where both parents are disordered, children would have a better chance at healthy development by way of interventions that minimize the occurrence of child psychopathology and foster improvements in the social and overall human condition. Brenda Ridgeway Copyright © 2015 Brenda Ridgeway. All rights reserved. Retracted: Nontraumatic Lesions of the Clavicle in a Paediatric Population: Incidence and Management Wed, 25 Mar 2015 09:11:33 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2015 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. Simulation-Based Rule Generation Considering Readability Tue, 24 Mar 2015 10:14:29 +0000 Rule generation method is proposed for an aircraft control problem in an airport. Designing appropriate rules for motion coordination of taxiing aircraft in the airport is important, which is conducted by ground control. However, previous studies did not consider readability of rules, which is important because it should be operated and maintained by humans. Therefore, in this study, using the indicator of readability, we propose a method of rule generation based on parallel algorithm discovery and orchestration (PADO). By applying our proposed method to the aircraft control problem, the proposed algorithm can generate more readable and more robust rules and is found to be superior to previous methods. H. Yahagi, S. Shimizu, T. Ogata, T. Hara, and J. Ota Copyright © 2015 H. Yahagi et al. All rights reserved. The Asymptotics of Recovery Probability in the Dual Renewal Risk Model with Constant Interest and Debit Force Sun, 22 Mar 2015 13:44:41 +0000 The asymptotic behavior of the recovery probability for the dual renewal risk model with constant interest and debit force is studied. By means the idea of Markov Skeleton method, we studied the times that the random premium incomes happened and transformed the continuous time model into a discrete time model. By investigating the fluctuations of this discrete time model, we obtained the asymptotic behavior when the random premium income belongs to a kind of heavy-tailed distributions. Hao Wang and Lin Xu Copyright © 2015 Hao Wang and Lin Xu. All rights reserved. Retracted: Obesity as a Consequence of Gut Bacteria and Diet Interactions Thu, 12 Mar 2015 08:02:32 +0000 International Scholarly Research Notices Copyright © 2015 International Scholarly Research Notices. All rights reserved. IMPATT Diodes Based on , , and Oriented GaAs: A Comparative Study to Search the Best Orientation for Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Windows Tue, 10 Mar 2015 13:31:03 +0000 The authors have carried out the large-signal (L-S) simulation of double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diodes based on , , and oriented GaAs. A nonsinusoidal voltage excited (NSVE) L-S simulation technique is used to investigate both the static and L-S performance of the above-mentioned devices designed to operate at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) atmospheric window frequencies, such as 35, 94, 140, and 220 GHz. Results show that oriented GaAs diodes are capable of delivering maximum RF power with highest DC to RF conversion efficiency up to 94 GHz; however, the L-S performance of oriented GaAs diodes exceeds their other counterparts while the frequency of operation increases above 94 GHz. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for the future experimentalists to choose the GaAs substrate of appropriate orientation to fabricate DDR GaAs IMPATT diodes at mm-wave frequencies. Bhadrani Banerjee, Anvita Tripathi, Adrija Das, Kumari Alka Singh, Aritra Acharyya, and J. P. Banerjee Copyright © 2015 Bhadrani Banerjee et al. All rights reserved. A Genetic Multimutation Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder Fits Disparate Twin Concordance Data from the USA and Canada Wed, 04 Mar 2015 10:18:39 +0000 Whether autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is caused by genetics, environmental factors, or a combination of both is still being debated today. To help resolve this issue, a genetic multimutation model of ASD development was applied to a wide variety of age-of-onset data from the USA and Canada, and the model is shown to fit all the data. Included in this analysis is new, updated data from the Interactive Autism Network (IAN) of the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. We find that the age-of-onset distribution for males and females is identical, suggesting that ASD may be an autosomal disorder. The ASD monozygote concordance rate in twin data predicted by the genetic multimutation model is shown to be compatible with the observed rates. If ASD is caused entirely by genetics, then the ASD concordance rate of a cohort of monozygote twins should approach 100% as the youngest pair of twins in the cohort passes 10 years of age, a prediction that constitutes a critical test of the genetic hypothesis. Thus, by measuring the ASD concordance rate as a cohort of monozygote twins age, the hypothesis that this disorder is caused entirely by genetic mutations can be tested. Ivan Kramer, Paul H. Lipkin, Alison R. Marvin, and Paul A. Law Copyright © 2015 Ivan Kramer et al. All rights reserved. Validation of Health Extension Workers Job Motivation Scale in Gamo-Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 24 Feb 2015 08:13:45 +0000 Introduction. Well-trained and highly motivated community health workers are critical for delivery of community-based health care services. Understanding what motivates especially community health care providers for better community health requires the use of psychometrically reliable and valid scale. This study was conducted to validate job motivation scale in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 150 health care posts in Gamo Gofa Zone, from February 01, 2013, to March 01, 2013. A total of 301 participants responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics and job motivation. Exploratory factor analysis with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser Normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for job motivation. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as criterion of extraction. Items with item factor loadings less than 0.4 and double loaded items were dropped. Alpha and exploratory factor analyses were examined to test reliability and validity of the scale. Results. During exploratory factor analysis eight factors emerged from the three dimensions of job motivation scale, namely, educational career, workload, financial incentive, supervisor encouragement, community recognition, access to infrastructure, living condition, and better achievement in work. The factor loadings of the items in each dimension ranged from 0.58 to 0.83. Crobach’s alpha of the scales ranged from 0.79 to 0.90. To check validities of the scales developed in this study, the previous studies conducted to develop job motivation scale were used. Conclusion. Although the present scale has the potential to measure the job motivation of health extension workers and it is low in cost and easy to administer and analyze, it should be field-tested at different settings. Shikur Mohammed, Marelign Tilahun, Mesfin Kote, Mohamedaman Mama, and Dessalegn Tamiru Copyright © 2015 Shikur Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Associated with Micro- and Nanoparticle Radiopacifiers: Physicochemical Properties and Bioactivity Mon, 23 Feb 2015 09:49:52 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two formulations of calcium silicate-based cements containing additives (CSCM) or resin (CSCR), associated with radiopacifying agents zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and niobium oxide (Nb2O5) as micro- and nanoparticles; calcium tungstate (CaWO4); and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3). MTA Angelus was used as control. Methods. Surface features and bioactivity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and the chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS-X). Results. CSCM and CSCR presented larger particle sizes than MTA. Hydroxyapatite deposits were found on the surface of some materials, especially when associated with the radiopacifier with ZrO2 nanoparticles. All the cements presented calcium, silicon, and aluminum in their composition. Conclusion. Both calcium silicate-based cements presented composition and bioactivity similar to MTA when associated with the radiopacifiers evaluated. Roberta Bosso-Martelo, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Raqueli Viapiana, Fábio Luis Camargo Vilella Berbert, Maria Inês Basso Bernardi, and Mario Tanomaru-Filho Copyright © 2015 Roberta Bosso-Martelo et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Mobility-Enhancing Nursing Intervention in Patients with MS and Stroke: Randomised Controlled Trial Tue, 17 Feb 2015 06:35:26 +0000 Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) or stroke causes functional impairment which can have a major impact on patients’ life. Objectives. This RCT investigated the effect of a new nursing intervention (Mobility Enhancing Nursing Intervention—MFP) designed to improve rehabilitation outcomes. Method. The study took place in a rehabilitation clinic in Switzerland. One hundred forty participants diagnosed with MS, stroke, and brain injuries were randomly assigned to control group (CG = standard care) or intervention group (IG). The IG combined standard care with 30 days of MFB. MFP placed patients on a mattress on the floor and used tactile-kinaesthetic stimulation to increase spatial orientation and independency. Outcomes were functionality (Extended Barthel Index, EBI), quality of life (WHOQoL), and fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I). Results. There was a significant main effect of the intervention on functionality (EBI-diff/day mean = 0.30, versus mean = 0.16, ). There was also a significant main effect on QoL (WHOQoL-diff mean = 13.8, versus mean = 5.4, ). No significant effect was observed on fall-related self-efficacy. Conclusions. The positive effect of MFP on rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life suggests that this specialized nursing intervention could become an effective part of rehabilitation programs. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of St. Gallen (KEK-SG Nr. 09/021) and registered at NCT02198599. Lorenz Imhof, Susanne Suter-Riederer, and Jürg Kesselring Copyright © 2015 Lorenz Imhof et al. All rights reserved. Soil Fertility, Phosphorus Fractions, and Maize Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure and Single Superphosphate Tue, 10 Feb 2015 12:34:51 +0000 A field experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008 on a slightly acidic alfisol. Poultry manure (PM) was applied at 0, 5 t ha−1, 10 t ha−1, 15 t ha−1, and 20 t ha−1 in combination with SSP at 0, 15 kg P ha−1, 30 kg P ha−1, 45 kg P ha−1, and 60 kg P ha−1, which was replicated three times. The pH and organic C were significantly increased by the application of PM alone while available P was highly increased by the sole application of SSP. Plant tissue P was significantly increased with the application of 30 kg P ha−1 while the largest grain yield was obtained when PM at 20 t ha−1 was combined with SSP at 60 kg P ha−1. The buildup of organic P was observed when PM was applied at 15 t ha−1 while the combination of the two treatments increased residual P and Fe-P. However, P occlusion was effectively reduced with the sole application of PM. Organic P and residual P however had a strong positive relationship with the grain yield. Comparing the sole and combined application of the treatments, the combined application was more effective for most of the parameters observed. A. O. Ojo, M. T. Adetunji, K. A. Okeleye, and C. O. Adejuyigbe Copyright © 2015 A. O. Ojo et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Review: Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer with respect to Stage of Disease Sun, 08 Feb 2015 10:44:38 +0000 Background. Recent meta-analysis of 21 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) supports the use of adjuvant chemotherapy for nonmetastatic rectal carcinoma. In order to define a subgroup of patients who can potentially benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, this study aims to review trials investigating adjuvant chemotherapy with respect to stage of disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who had undergone surgery for cure (stage II and stage III). Methods. We searched electronic information sources to identify randomised trials evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stages II and III rectal cancer with overall survival or disease-free survival as outcomes. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network notes on methodology were used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Random-effects models were applied to calculate pooled outcome data. Results. Eight studies reporting total of 5527 patients were selected for analysis. Adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with statistically significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival compared to surgery alone in both stage II and stage III cancer. Conclusions. This study indicates that both stage II and stage III rectal cancer patients may benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. However, the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients who already had neoadjuvant chemoradiation still remain unknown. Shahab Hajibandeh and Shahin Hajibandeh Copyright © 2015 Shahab Hajibandeh and Shahin Hajibandeh. All rights reserved. Tan’s Epsilon-Determinant and Ranks of Matrices over Semirings Wed, 04 Feb 2015 10:34:52 +0000 We use the ϵ-determinant introduced by Ya-Jia Tan to define a family of ranks of matrices over certain semirings. We show that these ranks generalize some known rank functions over semirings such as the determinantal rank. We also show that this family of ranks satisfies the rank-sum and Sylvester inequalities. We classify all bijective linear maps which preserve these ranks. Preeti Mohindru and Rajesh Pereira Copyright © 2015 Preeti Mohindru and Rajesh Pereira. All rights reserved. Nephrogenic Adenoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Review of the Literature Mon, 02 Feb 2015 09:30:46 +0000 Background. Nephrogenic adenoma of the urinary bladder (NAUB) is a rare lesion associated with nonspecific symptoms and could inadvertently be misdiagnosed. Aim. To review the literature. Methods. Various internet search engines were used. Results. NAUB is a benign tubular and papillary lesion of the bladder, is more common in men and adults, and has been associated with chronic inflammation/irritation, previous bladder surgery, diverticula, renal transplantation, and intravesical BCG; recurrences and malignant transformations have been reported. Differential diagnoses include clear cell adenocarcinoma, endocervicosis, papillary urothelial carcinoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma of bladder, and nested variant of urothelial carcinoma; most NAUBs have both surface papillary and submucosal tubular components; both the papillae and tubules tend to be lined by a single layer of mitotically inactive bland cells which have pale to clear cytoplasm. Diagnosis may be established by using immunohistochemistry (positive staining with racemase; PAX2; keratins stain positive with fibromyxoid variant), electron microscopy, DNA analysis, and cytological studies. Treatment. Endoscopic resection is the treatment but recurrences including sporadic malignant transformation have been reported. Conclusions. There is no consensus on best treatment. A multicentre study is required to identify the treatment that would reduce the recurrence rate, taking into consideration that intravesical BCG is associated with NAUB. Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo Copyright © 2015 Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo. All rights reserved. Characterization and Prediction of Cracks in Coated Materials: Direction and Length of Crack Propagation in Bimaterials Sat, 31 Jan 2015 14:09:14 +0000 The behaviour of materials is governed by the surrounding environment. The contact area between the material and the surrounding environment is the likely spot where different forms of degradation, particularly rust, may be generated. A rust prevention treatment, like bluing, inhibitors, humidity control, coatings, and galvanization, will be necessary. The galvanization process aims to protect the surface of the material by depositing a layer of metallic zinc by either hot-dip galvanizing or electroplating. In the hot-dip galvanizing process, a metallic bond between steel and metallic zinc is obtained by immersing the steel in a zinc bath at a temperature of around 460°C. Although the hot-dip galvanizing procedure is recognized to be one of the most effective techniques to combat corrosion, cracks can arise in the intermetallic layer. These cracks can affect the life of the coated material and decrease the lifetime service of the entire structure. In the present paper the mechanical response of hot-dip galvanized steel submitted to mechanical loading condition is investigated. Experimental tests were performed and corroborative numerical and analytical methods were then applied in order to describe both the mechanical behaviour and the processes of crack/cracks propagation in a bimaterial as zinc-coated material. C. I. Pruncu, Z. Azari, C. Casavola, and C. Pappalettere Copyright © 2015 C. I. Pruncu et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Accuracy of Mucosal Biopsy versus Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in Barrett’s Esophagus and Related Superficial Lesions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:29:25 +0000 Background. Endoscopic surveillance for early detection of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) depends usually on biopsy. The diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in BE is rapidly growing. Objective. The aim of this study was to check the accuracy of biopsy for precise histopathologic diagnosis of dysplasia and neoplasia, compared to EMR in patients having BE and related superficial esophageal lesions. Methods. A total of 48 patients with previously diagnosed BE (36 men, 12 women, mean age years) underwent routine surveillance endoscopic examination. Biopsies were taken from superficial lesions, if present, and otherwise from BE segments. Then, EMR was performed within three weeks. Results. Biopsy based histopathologic diagnoses were nondysplastic BE (NDBE), 22 cases; low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 14 cases; high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 8 cases; intramucosal carcinoma (IMC), two cases; and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC), two cases. EMR based diagnosis differed from biopsy based diagnosis (either upgrading or downgrading) in 20 cases (41.67%), (Kappa , 95% CI: 0.170–0.69). Conclusions. Biopsy is not a satisfactory method for accurate diagnosis of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in BE patients with or without suspicious superficial lesions. EMR should therefore be the preferred diagnostic method in such patients. Hany M. Elsadek and Mamdouh M. Radwan Copyright © 2015 Hany M. Elsadek and Mamdouh M. Radwan. All rights reserved. Toxicity and Loss of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Induced by Alkyl Gallates in Trypanosoma cruzi Wed, 28 Jan 2015 06:26:31 +0000 American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease is a debilitating disease representing an important social problem that affects, approximately, 10 million people in the world. The main aggravating factor of this situation is the lack of an effective drug to treat the different stages of this disease. In this context, the search for trypanocidal substances isolated from plants, synthetic or semi synthetic molecules, is an important strategy. Here, the trypanocidal potential of gallates was assayed in epimastigotes forms of T. cruzi and also, the interference of these substances on the mitochondrial membrane potential of the parasites was assessed, allowing the study of the mechanism of action of the gallates in the T. cruzi organisms. Regarding the preliminary structure-activity relationships, the side chain length of gallates plays crucial role for activity. Nonyl, decyl, undecyl, and dodecyl gallates showed potent antitrypanosomal effect (IC50 from 1.46 to 2.90 μM) in contrast with benznidazole (IC50 = 34.0 μM). Heptyl gallate showed a strong synergistic activity with benznidazole, reducing by 105-fold the IC50 of benznidazole. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by these esters was revealed. Tetradecyl gallate induced a loss of 53% of the mitochondrial membrane potential, at IC50 value. Rogério Andréo, Luís Octávio Regasini, Maicon Segalla Petrônio, Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo, Aline Tansini, Dulce Helena Siqueira Silva, and Regina Maria Barretto Cicarelli Copyright © 2015 Rogério Andréo et al. All rights reserved. Restless Legs Syndrome among Pakistani Population: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 27 Jan 2015 10:02:56 +0000 Objective. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a chronic distressing disease characterized by an urge to move the legs with an unpleasantsensation during periods of rest. The global prevalence estimates of RLS range from 2.5% to 15%. Method. This cross-sectional study was conducted at various hospitals in Karachi during August 13 to March 14. The visitors who had accompanied patients to Outpatient Department or had come to visit admitted patients were approached conveniently. Subjects were interviewed regarding the essential criteria of RLS and its attributes. Results. The sample size was 390 with 56% being females. The point prevalence of RLS was estimated to be 23.6%. The prevalence in females was twice as high as compared to males. Smoking and low level of education were associated with RLS (). Among RLS positive individuals, 50.1% reported frequency of their symptoms to be greater than 16 days per month and 64.1% graded their symptom severity as mild to moderate. About 37% of RLS positive individuals consulted a general physician for their symptoms. Conclusion. RLS is highly prevalent and underdiagnosed condition among Pakistani population. Efforts must be directed to raise the awareness of this condition among physicians and general population. Khalid Mahmood, Rabeea Farhan, Asif Surani, Arif Anwer Surani, and Salim Surani Copyright © 2015 Khalid Mahmood et al. All rights reserved. Association between Serum Bilirubin and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate among Diabetic Patients Mon, 26 Jan 2015 10:31:37 +0000 The subjects comprised 230 men aged 77 ± 10 (range: 50–100) years and 279 women aged 81 ± 10 (50–101) years that visited the medical department. We examined the relationship between increased serum bilirubin and renal function evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using CKD-EPI equations modified by a Japanese coefficient. Compared with the fourth quartile in serum bilirubin (1.01–1.97 mg/dL), the nonadjusted, age and gender-adjusted, and multivariate-adjusted odds ratios 95% confidence interval (CI) of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for the first quartile in serum bilirubin (0.13–0.50 mg/dL) were 2.08 (1.25–3.44), 1.82 (1.07–3.09), and 1.53 (0.83–2.81), respectively. Moreover, compared with the fourth quartile, nonadjusted, age and gender-adjusted, and multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 for the first quartile were 3.50 (1.95–6.23), 3.12 (1.72–5.65), and 3.53 (1.71–7.26), respectively. The data were further stratified by gender, age, medication (antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, and antidiabetic agents), and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The standardized coefficients for eGFR were significant in all the subgroups other than the prevalence of CVD, and there were significant interactions between the two groups regarding CVD. Our data demonstrated an independent positive association between serum bilirubin and eGFR among diabetic patients. Takeaki Katoh, Ryuichi Kawamoto, Katsuhiko Kohara, and Tetsuro Miki Copyright © 2015 Takeaki Katoh et al. All rights reserved. Toxicity Evaluation of Pũrṇa Cantirotaya Centũram, a Siddha Medicine in Wistar Rats Mon, 26 Jan 2015 08:40:43 +0000 Pũrṇa Cantirotaya Centũram (PCC), a herbometallic formulation of Siddha medicine, consists of mercury, sulphur, and gold, processed with red cotton flower and plantain stem pith juices. To evaluate its safety, acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. In acute study, PCC was administered orally at 5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for toxic signs for 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose toxicity study, PCC was administered at 2.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. Satellite groups (control and high dose) were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of PCC. In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the LD50 cut-off value of PCC is between 2000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The repeated dose study did not show evidence of any treatment related changes in all observations up to the high dose level, when compared with the control. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities except mild hyperplasia of stomach in high dose group. This study provides scientific validation for the safety of PCC. B. Chitra, R. S. Ramaswamy, and V. Suba Copyright © 2015 B. Chitra et al. All rights reserved.