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Journal of Allergy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 130937, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/130937
Review Article

Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Friends or Foes—Role in Airway Allergic Inflammation and Asthma

1Immunology Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2Immuno-Biochemistry Lab, Allergy Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Received 15 June 2012; Accepted 24 September 2012

Academic Editor: Georgia Hardavella

Copyright © 2012 Abbas Pishdadian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Innate-like lymphocytes (ILLs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are two newly characterized families of lymphocytes with limited and no rearranged antigen receptors, respectively. These soldiers provide a first line of defense against foreign insults by triggering a prompt innate immune response and bridging the gap of innate and adaptive immunity. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs2) are newly identified members of the ILC family that play a key role in type 2 immune responses by prompt production of type 2 cytokines (especially IL-5 and IL-13) in response to antigen-induced IL-25/33 and by recruiting type 2 “immune franchise.” Regarding the two different roles of type 2 cytokines, helminth expulsion and type 2-related diseases, here we review the latest advances in ILC2 biology and examine the pivotal role of resident ILCs2 in allergen-specific airway inflammation and asthma.