(i) Fetal lymphoid organs (ii) Tonsils, intestines, spleen, Peyer’ patches
(i) IL-1β, IL-23 (ii) IL-7
Rort Id2 Tox AhR Notch2 (just in adults)
IL-17 IL-22 IL-2 IL-13 GM-CSF TNF-α LT CXCL-18
(i) In all subsets: CD127 (IL-7Rα), CD161, CD117 (c-kit), OX40L, CD30L (ii) In some subsets: CD4, CD90, CD56, NKP44 ( in human), NKP46 (in mouse), RANK, RANKL
(i) Lymphoid tissue formation (organogenesis) (ii) Tissue repair (iii) Innate immunity against bacterial and yeast infections (iv) Triggering of IgA production independently from T cells (v) Mucosal immunity6 (vi) Mucosal homeostasis7 (vii) Intestine and cancer pathology8
aThe biology and functions of NK cells and Rorγt+ ILCs are in more details than ILC 2. The latter cells are our target cells in this paper so we meet them in great details through the text. bEach three major cell types of ILC family are actually a heterogeneous population so in this table just common features of subsets of each subfamily have been indicated.
1IL-1R, IL-2R, IL-12R, IL-15R, IL-18R, IFN-α. 2CCR2, CCR5, CCR7, CXCR1, CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR6,CX3CR1, S1P5, Chem23R. 3CD2, CD56, CD122, DX5, CD11b, DNA M1, β1-integrins, β2-integrins. 4NKPs (NCRs), CD16, NKG2D, NKR-P1C, KIR-S, CD94/NKG2C, CRACC, ly9, CD84, NTB4, 2B4. 5LAIR1, KLRG1, NKR-P1B, NKR-P1D, TIGIT, CEACAM1, KIR-L, LILRB1, ly49, CD94/NKG2A.
6For example, by interaction with T cell, through CD30L and OX40L, that causes survival of Th2 and memory T cells. 7For example, by TNF-α-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinases that lead to TGF-β production and in return IgA secretion by B cells. 8In intestine pathology, for example, by by IL-17 production and in return promotion and aggravation of mucosal inflammation. In cancer pathology, for example, by tumor expansion through recalling and recruitment immune suppressive cells. Rort: transcription factor retinoic acid (RA) receptor-related orphan receptor (Ror) t, Tox: thymocyte selection-associated high-mobility group box protein, Eomes: eomesodermin, T-bet (Tbx21): T-box transcription factor expressed in T cells, E4BP4 (NFIL3): nuclear factor IL-3 regulated (a basic leucine zipper transcription factor), AhR: aryl hydrocarbon receptor, LT: lymphotoxin, FALC: fat-associated lymphoid cluster, mLN: mesenteric lymph nodes, BM: bone marrow.