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Journal of Allergy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 658279, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/658279
Review Article

An Overlapping Syndrome of Allergy and Immune Deficiency in Children

Department of Pediatric Pneumonology, Allergology and Clinical Immunology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Szpitalna Street 27/33, 60-572 Poznan, Poland

Received 13 March 2011; Revised 15 May 2011; Accepted 10 July 2011

Academic Editor: Mary Beth Hogan

Copyright © 2012 Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recurrent airway inflammations in children are an important clinical problem in pediatric practice. An essential challenge is differentiation between allergic background and immune deficiency, which is a difficult task taking into consideration individual predisposition to atopy, immune system maturation in the early childhood, as well as exposition to environmental allergens and microbial antigens. In this paper relationship between selected elements of innate and adaptive immunity, such as pattern-recognition receptors, complement components, dendritic cells, as well as immunoglobulins, and regulatory T lymph cells has been discussed. Particular attention has been paid to these mechanisms of the immune response which, depending on settings and timing of activation, predispose to allergy or contribute to tolerogenic phenotype. In the context of multifactorial conditioning of the innate and adaptive immunity governing the ultimate response and associations between allergy and immune deficiencies, these phenomena should be considered as pathogenetically not precluding, but as an overlapping syndrome.