Figure 1: VEGF-binding properties and distinct VEGF receptor expression on lymphatic and blood vascular endothelium. VEGFs bind to the three VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, leading to the formation of VEGFR dimers. Blood vascular endothelial cells express VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, whereas lymphatic endothelial cells express VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. VEGF-A—which binds both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2—can directly induce blood and lymphatic vascular remodeling. VEGF-C and -D bind VEGFR-3 and, after proteolytic processing, also VEGFR-2, thus inducing angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.