- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Amino Acids
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 346237, 5 pages
Pharmacokinetics of Oral Taurine in Healthy Volunteers
1NPMC, Hemmatology and Oncology Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2Tropical and Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
4Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK
Received 23 November 2009; Revised 9 March 2010; Accepted 20 May 2010
Academic Editor: Hari S. Sharma
Copyright © 2010 Mohammadreza Ghandforoush-Sattari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a normal constituent of the human diet. Little is known of the pharmacokinetics of taurine in man after oral administration. We studied the pharmacokinetics of 4 g taurine in eight healthy male volunteers (median age 27.5, range 22–45) following orally administration in the fasting state in the morning. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals and plasma taurine concentration was measured by a modified HPLC method. Data were subjected to noncompartmental analysis. Maximum plasma taurine concentration () was measured at hr after administration as mg/L ( mmol). Plasma elimination half-life () and the ratio of clearance/bioavailability (Cl/F) were hr and L/hr, respectively. Since taurine is occasionally used in therapeutics as a medicine, the pharmacokinetics and effects of oral taurine in healthy volunteers would be useful in the future studies of taurine in pharmacology and nutrition.
Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a relatively nontoxic substance and a normal constituent of the human diet . The diet provides most taurine either directly or by synthesis in the liver and brain from methionine or cysteine via cysteic acid or hypotaurine  or via cysteamine in the heart and kidney. Taurine stabilises membranes, modulates calcium transport, and is able to dissipate the toxic effects of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) by the formation of the relatively stable taurochloramine molecule, generated by myeloperoxidases from oxygen radicals. The ability of taurine to conjugate with xenobiotics, retinoic acid, and bile salts and its role as a major free amino acid in regulating the osmolality of cells are also examples of protective functions . Obinata et al. showed ALT concentrations recovering in children with fatty liver after 6-months treatment with oral taurine administered daily . Protective effects of taurine against arteriosclerosis , lung injury by oxidant gases , deleterious effects of various drugs such as tauromustine, an antitumor agent, , hepatotoxicity of sulfolithocholate , and its promotion of the recovery of leukocytes in irradiated rats  have already been studied on animals. The therapeutic effects of taurine on epilepsy , ischemia , obesity , diabetes , hypertension , Congestive heart failure , noxious effect of smoking , toxicity of methotrexate  myocardial infarction , alcoholic craving , and neurodegeneration in elderly  have also been reported. Taurine may protect membranes by detoxification of destructive compounds and/or by directly preventing alterations in membrane permeability . Some foods or drinks, for example, Red Bull energy drink , boosters, eye drops, and eardrops, contain a considerable amount of taurine . Little is known of the pharmacokinetics of taurine in man after oral administration. Such information is essential if a regimen for administration of this agent to patients (e.g., after paracetamol poisoning) is designed. A literature review revealed only one report concerning the pharmacokinetics of taurine performed by Zhang et al.  using 200 mg IV injection form of taurine in six patients with hypertension, but the paper was brief and only available in mandarin. We therefore studied the pharmacokinetics and effects of oral taurine in healthy volunteers that would be useful in the future studies of taurine in pharmacology and nutrition
2. Materials and Methods
Eight healthy male volunteers (age between 22–45 year, med. 27.5 and weight between 69–122 kg, med. 79.5 kg) were recruited from the general population after fully informed written consent and after getting approval from the ethics committee of Bro Taf Health Authority of Wales, UK. Each taurine capsule contained 1000 mg (0.008 moL) taurine, manufactured by Life Extension Foundation Buyers Club, Inc (USA). Taurine 4 g (32 mmoL) was administered orally to each volunteer in the fasting state in the morning. Subjects were asked to avoid taking any proprietary medicine including prescribed or recreational drugs, eating fish and any seafood or dairy products, and drinking “Red-Bull” 24 hours before and 48 hours after the study. They were given toast and jam with a cup of tea one hour after starting the study and a normal meal without any seafood at 4 hr of the study. Blood samples were taken (3 mL each time) at regular intervals over the following times: 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 hours and at 24 and 48 hours using cannulae in the brachial vain and collected into heparinised tubes. The samples were immediately centrifuged at 4°C at 3000 rpm. Plasma was removed using a Pasteur pipette and transferred into 5ml glass tubes and kept frozen at 0°C until analysis. Plasma taurine concentration was measured by a modified HPLC method. This method was sensitive enough, to quantify 150 pg/mL and detect 50 pg/mL of taurine ranging normally between 65 and 179 mmol/L (8–22 g/mL) . The pharmacokinetic parameters of area under the concentration curve , maximum concentration , time of (), plasma half-life (T1/2), volume of distribution (V), and the ratio of clearance/bioavailability (Cl/F) were calculated using WinNonlin (Version 1.5) software packages. The data were used to develop a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic model, which might be suitable for patient studies in the future. Since plasma taurine concentration returned to endogenous level after 8 hr of study, the data after 8 hr were ruled out of the pharmacokinetic analysis. In addition, since this was a study of kinetics of exogenously administered taurine, baseline endogenous concentrations of taurine in plasma (0.04 ± 0.0 mmoL) were also excluded from the study. Therefore, the changes in plasma taurine concentration from baseline were calculated.
Plasma taurine values from 0–48 hr in eight healthy volunteers after administration of 4 g taurine capsules are listed in Table 1. Data showed that endogenous plasma taurine concentrations before taking the taurine capsules ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 mmoL (mean 0.04 ± 0.0 mmoL). Time to reach maximum concentration ranged from 1 to 2.5 hr (mean 1.5 ± 0.6 hr) (absorption phase). The mean maximum plasma taurine concentration was 0.57 ± 0.05 mmoL. Plasma taurine concentrations returned to normal range at 8 hr (elimination phase) (Figure 1).
Mean changes in plasma taurine concentrations from baseline showed that the absorption phase for taurine after oral administration of 4 g taurine capsules took 1.5 hr to reach the peak concentration (0.53 ± 0.1 mmoL) and then returned to normal range (0.04 ± 0.0 mmoL) in 6.5 hr (Figure 1). The pharmacokinetic parameters of taurine after oral administration of 4 g taurine capsules are shown in Table 2. Plasma taurine concentration peaked to 59.0–112.6 mg/L (mean 86.1 ± 19.0) at 1–2.5 hr of study, plasma elimination half-life ranged from 0.7 to 1.4 hr (mean 1.0 ± 0.3), volume of distribution ranged from 19.8 to 40.7 L (mean 30.0 ± 7.6), ratio of clearance/bioavailability (Cl/F) ranged from 14.0 to 34.4 L/hr (mean 21.1 ± 7.8), and area under curve between 0–8 hr (AUC) ranged from 116.0 to 284.5 mghr/L (mean 206.3 ± 63.9).
Taurine has already been used intravenously in humans in doses of up to 5 g  and 2–6 g/day orally for a period of 6 months in children with fatty liver  without any toxic side effect. In the human adult, about one-fourth of bile acids are conjugated with taurine and a small fraction of taurine is also converted to isethionate by either bacterial or tissue enzymes and may be converted in part to sulphate, CO2, water, and ammonia, the last being converted to urea . Total body taurine is regulated by the kidney. Taurine is a major urinary amino acid in humans because the capacity of renal uptake is low [2, 28]. Daily taurine losses in urine are diet-dependent but generally range from 65 to 250 mg (0.5–2.0 mmoL) . With few exceptions, animal  and human  studies have demonstrated that taurine, even in high doses, is generally free of any serious adverse effects. In the present study, no significant change in the systolic or diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate was observed during the study and the volunteers had no complaint during the study. In the present study, data showed that oral taurine was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract 1–2.5 hr following administration and then eliminated from plasma by first order kinetics. Even though the volunteers had been asked to avoid eating anything before coming to the trial, two subjects (3 and 6), whose absorption phase took 2 and 2.5 hr, respectively, may not have taken the drug with an empty stomach (Figure 2).
Plasma taurine returned to endogenous concentrations after 6–8 hr of study. Therefore, there was no need to follow up the drug in plasma after 8 hr.
A literature review revealed only one report concerning the pharmacokinetics of taurine . Zhang et al. studied the pharmacokinetics of an IV injection of a 200 mg bolus dose on six hypertensive human patients and six healthy volunteers. Plasma half-life and volume of distribution of taurine in Zhang et al.’s was 3.85 ± 0.05 min and 9.6 ± 3.2 L, respectively. However, they only followed the plasma taurine concentrations for 20 min, and therefore, they were probably examining an alpha phase which was obscured by the absorption phase for taurine after oral absorption. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the optimum dose of oral taurine for protecting cells against toxic agents in human.
The authors wish to thank to Dr. DC Buss, Dr. A. Hutchings, Mrs. F. Harry, Miss M. Tessa Hut, and the personnel of the Toxicology Department and Poisons Unit at Llandough Hospital and Pharmacology Department at the University Hospital of Wales for helping them in the development of analysis techniques and running the necessary clinical investigations and the healthy volunteers for taking part in the clinical investigations.
- R. Huxtable and L. Sebring, “Cardiovascular actions of taurine,” in Sulfur Amino Acids Biochemical Aspects, K. Kuriyama, R. Huxtable, and H. Iwata, Eds., pp. 5–37, Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
- J. G. Jacobsen and L. H. Smith, “Biochemistry and physiology of taurine and taurine derivatives,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 424–511, 1968.
- C. J. Waterfield, J. A. Turton, M. D. Scales, and J. A. Timbrell, “Taurine, a possible urinary marker of liver damage: a study of taurine excretion in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 548–555, 1991.
- K. Obinata, T. Maruyama, M. Hayashi, T. Watanabe, and H. Nittono, “Effect of taurine on the fatty liver of children with simple obesity,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 403, pp. 607–613, 1996.
- K. Yamauchi-Takihara, J. Azuma, and S. Kishimoto, “Taurine protection against experimental arterial calcinosis in mice,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 679–683, 1986.
- R. E. Gordon, “The effects of on ionic surface charge on type I pneumocytes of hamster lungs,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 291–297, 1985.
- H. F. Pierson, J. M. Fisher, and M. Rabinovitz, “Modulation by taurine of the toxicity of taumustine, a compound with antitumor activity,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 905–909, 1985.
- N. P. Dorvil, I. M. Yousef, B. Tuchweber, and C. C. Roy, “Taurine prevents cholestasis induced by lithocholic acid sulfate in guinea pigs,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 221–232, 1983.
- M. Abe, M. Takahashi, K. Takeuchi, and M. Fukuka, “Studies on the significance of taurine in radiation injury,” Radiation Research, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 563–573, 1968.
- A. Barbeau and J. Donaldson, “Zinc, taurine, and epilepsy,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 52–58, 1974.
- M. F. McCarty, “A proposal for the locus of metformin's clinical action: potentiation of the activation of pyruvate kinase by fructose-1,6-diphosphate,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 89–93, 1999.
- F. M. Fennessy, D. S. Moneley, J. H. Wang, C. J. Kelly, and D. J. Bouchier-Hayes, “Taurine and vitamin C modify monocyte and endothelial dysfunction in young smokers,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 410–415, 2003.
- K. B. Chauncey, T. E. Tenner Jr., and T. E. Tenner, “The effect of taurine supplementation on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 526, pp. 91–96, 2003.
- T. Fujita, K. Ando, H. Noda, Y. Ito, and Y. Sato, “Effects of increased adrenomedullary activity and taurine in young patients with borderline hypertension,” Circulation, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 525–532, 1987.
- J. Azuma, A. Sawamura, N. Awata, et al., “Therapeutic effect of taurine in congestive heart failure: a double-blind crossover trial,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 276–282, 1985.
- M. I. Wilde and A. J. Wagstaff, “Acamprosate. A review of its pharmacology and clinical potential in the management of alcohol dependence after detoxification,” Drugs, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1038–1053, 1997.
- M. Çetiner, G. Şener, and G. Şener, “Taurine protects against methotrexate-induced toxicity and inhibits leukocyte death,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 39–50, 2005.
- R. B. Singh, K. Kartikey, A. S. Charu, M. A. Niaz, and S. Schaffer, “Effect of taurine and coenzyme Q10 in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 526, pp. 41–48, 2003.
- D. R. Wallace and R. Dawson Jr., “Decreased plasma taurine in aged rats,” Gerontology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 1990.
- A. Barbeau, N. Inoue, Y. Tsukada, and R. F. Butterworth, “The neuropharmacology of taurine,” Life Sciences, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 669–677, 1975.
- B. S. Kendler, “Taurine: an overview of its role in preventive medicine,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 79–100, 1989.
- C. Alford, H. Cox, and R. Wescott, “The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood,” Amino Acids, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 139–150, 2001.
- R. C. Gupta, T. Win, and S. Bittner, “Taurine analogues; a new class of therapeutics: retrospect and prospects,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 2021–2039, 2005.
- Y. Zhang, Z. Sun, and X. Shi, “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the effects of taurine on human blood pressure and heart rate,” Journal of Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, vol. 18, pp. 106–107, 1998.
- M. Ghandforoush-Sattari, S. Mashayekhi, M. Nemati, and P. A. Routledge, “A rapid determination of taurine in human plasma by LC,” Chromatographia, vol. 69, no. 11-12, pp. 1427–1430, 2009.
- J. Milei, R. Ferreira, S. Llesuy, P. Forcada, J. Covarrubias, and A. Boveris, “Reduction of reperfusion injury with preoperative rapid intravenous infusion of taurine during myocardial revascularization,” American Heart Journal, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 339–345, 1992.
- J. A. Sturman, G. W. Hepner, A. F. Hofmann, and P. J. Thomas, “Metabolism of [35S]taurine in man,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 105, no. 9, pp. 1206–1214, 1975.
- R. W. Chesney, “Taurine: its biological role and clinical implications,” Advances in Pediatrics, vol. 32, pp. 1–42, 1985.