Table 1: Phytochemicals that are known to activate the Nrf2/Keap1 signalling pathway in human and animal systems with identified mechanisms.

PhytochemicalKeap1Nrf2 References
OxidationAlkylationUbiquitinationPhosphorylation

Sulforaphane+?? [199, 200]
Curcumin+?[201]
Epigallocatechin gallate+[202]
Allyl sulfides?+[203, 204]
Resveratrol+[205]
Capsaicin+[206]
-Shogaol+[207]
Lycopene[208]
Carnosol+[209]
Xanthohumol+[210]