Journal of Amino Acids The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Protein Quantification by Derivatization-Free High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Aromatic Amino Acids Sun, 31 Jul 2016 07:12:31 +0000 Amino acid analysis is considered to be the gold standard for quantitative peptide and protein analysis. Here, we would like to propose a simple HPLC/UV method based on a reversed-phase separation of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine (Tyr), phenylalanine (Phe), and optionally tryptophan (Trp) without any derivatization. The hydrolysis of the proteins and peptides was performed by an accelerated microwave technique, which needs only 30 minutes. Two internal standard compounds, homotyrosine (HTyr) and 4-fluorophenylalanine (FPhe) were used for calibration. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.05 µM (~10 µg/L) for tyrosine and phenylalanine at 215 nm. The LOD for a protein determination was calculated to be below 16 mg/L (~300 ng BSA absolute). Aromatic amino acid analysis (AAAA) offers excellent accuracy and a precision of about 5% relative standard deviation, including the hydrolysis step. The method was validated with certified reference materials (CRM) of amino acids and of a pure protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). AAAA can be used for the quantification of aromatic amino acids, isolated peptides or proteins, complex peptide or protein samples, such as serum or milk powder, and peptides or proteins immobilized on solid supports. Almut Hesse and Michael G. Weller Copyright © 2016 Almut Hesse and Michael G. Weller. All rights reserved. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia Thu, 05 May 2016 12:09:43 +0000 High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia. Filip Ottosson, Ulrika Ericson, Peter Almgren, Jeanette Nilsson, Martin Magnusson, Céline Fernandez, and Olle Melander Copyright © 2016 Filip Ottosson et al. All rights reserved. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans Tue, 12 Jan 2016 14:16:53 +0000 L-Tryptophan is the unique protein amino acid (AA) bearing an indole ring: its biotransformation in living organisms contributes either to keeping this chemical group in cells and tissues or to breaking it, by generating in both cases a variety of bioactive molecules. Investigations on the biology of Trp highlight the pleiotropic effects of its small derivatives on homeostasis processes. In addition to protein turn-over, in humans the pathways of Trp indole derivatives cover the synthesis of the neurotransmitter/hormone serotonin (5-HT), the pineal gland melatonin (MLT), and the trace amine tryptamine. The breakdown of the Trp indole ring defines instead the “kynurenine shunt” which produces cell-response adapters as L-kynurenine, kynurenic and quinolinic acids, or the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). This review aims therefore at tracing a “map” of the main molecular effectors in human tryptophan (Trp) research, starting from the chemistry of this AA, dealing then with its biosphere distribution and nutritional value for humans, also focusing on some proteins responsible for its tissue-dependent uptake and biotransformation. We will thus underscore the role of Trp biochemistry in the pathogenesis of human complex diseases/syndromes primarily involving the gut, neuroimmunoendocrine/stress responses, and the CNS, supporting the use of -Omics approaches in this field. Lionella Palego, Laura Betti, Alessandra Rossi, and Gino Giannaccini Copyright © 2016 Lionella Palego et al. All rights reserved. Endotoxin-Induced Tryptophan Degradation along the Kynurenine Pathway: The Role of Indolamine 2,3-Dioxygenase and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Immunosuppressive Effects in Endotoxin Tolerance and Cancer and Its Implications for Immunoparalysis Thu, 31 Dec 2015 09:26:47 +0000 The degradation of tryptophan (TRP) along the kynurenine pathway plays a crucial role as a neuro- and immunomodulatory mechanism in response to inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In endotoxemia or sepsis, an enhanced activation of the rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is associated with a higher mortality risk. It is assumed that IDO induced immunosuppressive effects provoke the development of a protracted compensatory hypoinflammatory phase up to a complete paralysis of the immune system, which is characterized by an endotoxin tolerance. However, the role of IDO activation in the development of life-threatening immunoparalysis is still poorly understood. Recent reports described the impact of inflammatory IDO activation and aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (AhR-) mediated pathways on the development of LPS tolerance and immune escape of cancer cells. These immunosuppressive mechanisms offer new insights for a better understanding of the development of cellular dysfunctions in immunoparalysis. This review provides a comprehensive update of significant biological functions of TRP metabolites along the kynurenine pathway and the complex regulation of LPS-induced IDO activation. In addition, the review focuses on the role of IDO-AhR-mediated immunosuppressive pathways in endotoxin tolerance and carcinogenesis revealing the significance of enhanced IDO activity for the establishment of life-threatening immunoparalysis in sepsis. Elisa Wirthgen and Andreas Hoeflich Copyright © 2015 Elisa Wirthgen and Andreas Hoeflich. All rights reserved. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study Mon, 28 Dec 2015 07:09:42 +0000 Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: ; women: ) and 197 white (men: ; women: ) South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance). ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase) regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. ; , ) and pulse pressure (Adj. ; , ) was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (). Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort. Christine Susara du Plooy, Catharina Martha Cornelia Mels, Hugo Willem Huisman, and Ruan Kruger Copyright © 2015 Christine Susara du Plooy et al. All rights reserved. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability Wed, 04 Nov 2015 06:32:04 +0000 E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. Baisakhi Banerjee and Rajat Banerjee Copyright © 2015 Baisakhi Banerjee and Rajat Banerjee. All rights reserved. Genes of Different Catabolic Pathways Are Coordinately Regulated by Dal81 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Thu, 17 Sep 2015 13:31:50 +0000 Yeast can use a wide variety of nitrogen compounds. However, the ability to synthesize enzymes and permeases for catabolism of poor nitrogen sources is limited in the presence of a rich one. This general mechanism of transcriptional control is called nitrogen catabolite repression. Poor nitrogen sources, such as leucine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and allantoin, enable growth after the synthesis of pathway-specific catabolic enzymes and permeases. This synthesis occurs only under conditions of nitrogen limitation and in the presence of a pathway-specific signal. In this work we studied the temporal order in the induction of AGP1, BAP2, UGA4, and DAL7, genes that are involved in the catabolism and use of leucine, GABA, and allantoin, three poor nitrogen sources. We found that when these amino acids are available, cells will express AGP1 and BAP2 in the first place, then DAL7, and at last UGA4. Dal81, a general positive regulator of genes involved in nitrogen utilization related to the metabolisms of GABA, leucine, and allantoin, plays a central role in this coordinated regulation. Marcos D. Palavecino, Susana R. Correa-García, and Mariana Bermúdez-Moretti Copyright © 2015 Marcos D. Palavecino et al. All rights reserved. Amino Acid Metabolism of Thermoanaerobacter Strain AK90: The Role of Electron-Scavenging Systems in End Product Formation Thu, 27 Aug 2015 13:10:31 +0000 The catabolism of the 20 amino acids by Thermoanaerobacter strain AK90 (KR007667) was investigated under three different conditions: as single amino acids without an electron-scavenging system, in the presence of thiosulfate, and in coculture with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen. The strain degraded only serine without an alternative electron acceptor but degraded 11 amino acids (alanine, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine) under both of the electron-scavenging systems investigated. Acetate was the dominant end product from alanine, cysteine, lysine, serine, and threonine under electron-scavenging conditions. The branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine, were degraded to their corresponding fatty acids under methanogenic conditions and to a mixture of their corresponding fatty acids and alcohols in the presence of thiosulfate. The partial pressure of hydrogen seems to be of importance for the branched-chain alcohol formation. This was suggested by low but detectable hydrogen concentrations at the end of cultivation on the branched-chain amino acid in the presence of thiosulfate but not when cocultured with the methanogen. A more detailed examination of the role of thiosulfate as an electron acceptor was performed with Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (DSM 2246) and Thermoanaerobacter brockii (DSM 1457). Sean Michael Scully and Johann Orlygsson Copyright © 2015 Sean Michael Scully and Johann Orlygsson. All rights reserved. Properties of Taurine Release in Glucose-Free Media in Hippocampal Slices from Developing and Adult Mice Wed, 05 Aug 2015 13:24:29 +0000 The release of preloaded [3H]taurine from hippocampal slices from developing 7-day-old and young adult 3-month-old mice was studied in a superfusion system in the absence of glucose. These hypoglycemic conditions enhanced the release at both ages, the effect being markedly greater in developing mice. A depolarizing K+ concentration accentuated the release, which indicates that it was partially mediated by exocytosis. The anion channel blockers were inhibitory, witnessing the contribution of ion channels. NO-generating agents fomented the release as a sign of the participation of excitatory amino acid receptors. The other second messenger systems were apparently less efficient. The much greater taurine release could be a reason for the well-known greater tolerance of developing nervous tissue to lack of glucose. Simo S. Oja and Pirjo Saransaari Copyright © 2015 Simo S. Oja and Pirjo Saransaari. All rights reserved. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes Wed, 17 Jun 2015 13:10:25 +0000 The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr) supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu) simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala). Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu) or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala) for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01) after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L) and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala. Thelma P. Polyviou, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Carlos Celis-Morales, Benjamin Brown, John R. Speakman, and Dalia Malkova Copyright © 2015 Thelma P. Polyviou et al. All rights reserved. Photon Atomic Parameters of Nonessential Amino Acids for Radiotherapy and Diagnostics Sun, 07 Dec 2014 08:34:49 +0000 The total mass attenuation coefficients () (cm2/g) and atomic, molecular, and electronic effective cross sections have been calculated for nonessential amino acids that contain H, C, N, and O such as tyrosine, aspartate, glutamine, alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, and glycine in the wide energy region 0.015–15 MeV. The variations with energy of total mass attenuation coefficients and atomic, molecular, and electronic cross sections are shown for all photon interactions. Ertuğrul O. Bursalıoğlu, Orhan İçelli, Begüm Balkan, H. Birtan Kavanoz, and Mustafa Okutan Copyright © 2014 Ertuğrul O. Bursalıoğlu et al. All rights reserved. Design and Synthesis of Novel Isoxazole Tethered Quinone-Amino Acid Hybrids Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:09:17 +0000 A new series of isoxazole tethered quinone-amino acid hybrids has been designed and synthesized involving 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction followed by an oxidation reaction using cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN). Using this method, for the first time various isoxazole tethered quinone-phenyl alanine and quinone-alanine hybrids were synthesized from simple commercially available 4-bromobenzyl bromide, propargyl bromide, and 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in good yield. P. Ravi Kumar, Manoranjan Behera, M. Sambaiah, Venu Kandula, Nagaraju Payili, A. Jaya Shree, and Satyanarayana Yennam Copyright © 2014 P. Ravi Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice Wed, 12 Nov 2014 09:22:17 +0000 Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance. Takashi Ito, Natsumi Yoshikawa, Stephen W. Schaffer, and Junichi Azuma Copyright © 2014 Takashi Ito et al. All rights reserved. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition Tue, 14 Oct 2014 11:08:53 +0000 Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. Bimal Mohanty, Arabinda Mahanty, Satabdi Ganguly, T. V. Sankar, Kajal Chakraborty, Anandan Rangasamy, Baidyanath Paul, Debajit Sarma, Suseela Mathew, Kurukkan Kunnath Asha, Bijay Behera, Md. Aftabuddin, Dipesh Debnath, P. Vijayagopal, N. Sridhar, M. S. Akhtar, Neetu Sahi, Tandrima Mitra, Sudeshna Banerjee, Prasenjit Paria, Debajeet Das, Pushpita Das, K. K. Vijayan, P. T. Laxmanan, and A. P. Sharma Copyright © 2014 Bimal Mohanty et al. All rights reserved. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids Mon, 01 Sep 2014 06:21:04 +0000 Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in -phase and the minor component was in -phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface. Iwao Sugimoto, Shunsaku Maeda, Yoriko Suda, Kenji Makihara, and Kazuhiko Takahashi Copyright © 2014 Iwao Sugimoto et al. All rights reserved. Interaction of Ingested Leucine with Glycine on Insulin and Glucose Concentrations Thu, 10 Jul 2014 12:14:14 +0000 The majority of individual amino acids increase insulin and attenuate the plasma glucose response when ingested with glucose. Objective. To determine whether ingestion of two amino acids simultaneously, with glucose, would result in an additive effect. Leucine (Leu) and glycine (Gly) were chosen because they were two of the most potent glucose-lowering amino acids when given individually. Materials and Methods. Nine subjects received test items on four separate days. The first was a water control, then 25 g glucose, or Leu + Gly (1 mmol/kg fat-free mass each) ±25 g glucose, in random order. Glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured frequently for 2.5 hours. Net areas were calculated. Results. The glucose area response decreased by 66%. The insulin area response increased by 24% after ingestion of Leu + Gly + glucose compared to ingestion of glucose alone. The decrease in glucose response was not additive; the increase in insulin response was far less than additive when compared to previously published individual amino acid results. The glucagon concentration remained unchanged. Conclusion. There is an interaction between Leu and Gly that results in a markedly attenuated glucose response. This occurred with a very modest increase in insulin response. Changes in glucagon response could not explain the results. The mechanism is unknown. Jennifer F. Iverson, Mary C. Gannon, and Frank Q. Nuttall Copyright © 2014 Jennifer F. Iverson et al. All rights reserved. In Silico Analysis of -Galactosidases Primary and Secondary Structure in relation to Temperature Adaptation Mon, 24 Mar 2014 14:08:12 +0000 β-D-Galactosidases (EC hydrolyze the terminal nonreducing β-D-galactose residues in β-D-galactosides and are ubiquitously present in all life forms including extremophiles. Eighteen microbial β-galactosidase protein sequences, six each from psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic microbes, were analyzed. Primary structure reveals alanine, glycine, serine, and arginine to be higher in psychrophilic β-galactosidases whereas valine, glutamine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, threonine, and tyrosine are found to be statistically preferred by thermophilic β-galactosidases. Cold active β-galactosidase has a strong preference towards tiny and small amino acids, whereas high temperature inhabitants had higher content of basic and aromatic amino acids. Thermophilic β-galactosidases have higher percentage of α-helix region responsible for temperature tolerance while cold loving β-galactosidases had higher percentage of sheet and coil region. Secondary structure analysis revealed that charged and aromatic amino acids were significant for sheet region of thermophiles. Alanine was found to be significant and high in the helix region of psychrophiles and valine counters in thermophilic β-galactosidase. Coil region of cold active β-galactosidase has higher content of tiny amino acids which explains their high catalytic efficiency over their counterparts from thermal habitat. The present study has revealed the preference or prevalence of certain amino acids in primary and secondary structure of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic β-galactosidase. Vijay Kumar, Nikhil Sharma, and Tek Chand Bhalla Copyright © 2014 Vijay Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Lauryl-poly-L-lysine: A New Antimicrobial Agent? Sun, 23 Feb 2014 13:32:54 +0000 The development of multiple antibiotic resistance is a global problem. It is necessary to find new tools whose mechanisms of action differ from those of currently used antibiotics. It is known that fatty acids and cationic polypeptides are able to fight bacteria. Here, we describe the synthesis of fatty acids linked to a polypeptide with antibacterial activity. The linkage of fatty acids to a polypeptide is reported to increase the antibacterial effect of the linked fatty acid in comparison with free fatty acids (FA) or free poly-L-lysine (PLL) or a mixture of both (FA free + PLL free). A number of C6–C18 fatty acids were linked to PLL to obtain new synthetic products. These compounds were assessed in vitro to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Some fatty acid-PLLs showed a good ability to fight bacteria. Their bactericidal activity was evaluated, and, lauryl linked to PLL was found to be the most active product against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This new active component showed a good degree of specificity and reproducibility and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was comparatively good. The antibacterial activity of the lauryl-PLL compound suggests that it is a new and promising antimicrobial agent. Laetitia Vidal, Véronique Thuault, Arturo Mangas, Rafael Coveñas, Anne Thienpont, and Michel Geffard Copyright © 2014 Laetitia Vidal et al. All rights reserved. L-Phenylalanine Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Participation of GAP1, BAP2, and AGP1 Thu, 20 Feb 2014 12:57:31 +0000 We focused on the participation of GAP1, BAP2, and AGP1 in L-phenylalanine transport in yeast. In order to study the physiological functions of GAP1, BAP2, and AGP1 in L-phenylalanine transport, we examined the kinetics, substrate specificity, and regulation of these systems, employing isogenic haploid strains with the respective genes disrupted individually and in combination. During the characterization of phenylalanine transport, we noted important regulatory phenomena associated with these systems. Our results show that Agp1p is the major transporter of the phenylalanine in a gap1 strain growing in synthetic media with leucine present as an inducer. In a wild type strain grown in the presence of leucine, when ammonium ion was the nitrogen source, Bap2p is the principal phenylalanine carrier. Daniel A. Sáenz, Mónica S. Chianelli, and Carlos A. Stella Copyright © 2014 Daniel A. Sáenz et al. All rights reserved. Immune Activation and Inflammation in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Are Associated with Higher Phenylalanine to Tyrosine Ratios: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study Mon, 10 Feb 2014 07:50:31 +0000 Higher serum neopterin is associated with increased mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Preferentially Th1-type cytokine interferon-γ stimulates neopterin production by GTP cychlohydrolase I (GCH-I) in parallel in monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. In other cells, activation of GCH-I leads to the formation of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the necessary cofactor of amino acid hydroxylases like phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase (PAH). Serum concentrations of phenylalanine, tyrosine, neopterin, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured in 1196 patients derived from the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study, a cohort study among patients referred for coronary angiography. The phenylalanine to tyrosine ratio (Phe/Tyr) served as an estimate of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) enzyme activity. Serum concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine and of Phe/Tyr did not differ between individuals with or without CAD (Welch's -test: = n.s.). Higher neopterin and hsCRP concentrations were observed in CAD patients compared to controls () and they correlated with Phe/Tyr (Spearman's rank correlation for neopterin: = 0.216 and hsCRP: = 0.122; both of ) concentrations. In conclusion, immune activation is associated with higher Phe/Tyr in CAD patients. Data indicates subnormal PAH activity which might be involved in the precipitation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients. Christian Murr, Tanja B. Grammer, Andreas Meinitzer, Marcus E. Kleber, Winfried März, and Dietmar Fuchs Copyright © 2014 Christian Murr et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Novel Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase Knockout Mouse: Dietary Taurine Reduces Neonatal Mortality Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:19:02 +0000 We engineered a CSAD KO mouse to investigate the physiological roles of taurine. The disruption of the CSAD gene was verified by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting. HPLC indicated an 83% decrease of taurine concentration in the plasma of CSAD. Although CSAD generation (G)1 and G2 survived, offspring from G2 CSAD had low brain and liver taurine concentrations and most died within 24 hrs of birth. Taurine concentrations in G3 CSAD born from G2 CSAD treated with taurine in the drinking water were restored and survival rates of G3 CSAD increased from 15% to 92%. The mRNA expression of CDO, ADO, and TauT was not different in CSAD compared to WT and CSAD mRNA was not expressed in CSAD. Expression of Gpx 1 and 3 was increased significantly in CSAD and restored to normal levels with taurine supplementation. Lactoferrin and the prolactin receptor were significantly decreased in CSAD. The prolactin receptor was restored with taurine supplementation. These data indicated that CSAD KO is a good model for studying the effects of taurine deficiency and its treatment with taurine supplementation. Eunkyue Park, Seung Yong Park, Carl Dobkin, and Georgia Schuller-Levis Copyright © 2014 Eunkyue Park et al. All rights reserved. Acute Effects of an Energy Drink on Myocardial Function Assessed by Conventional Echo-Doppler Analysis and by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography on Young Healthy Subjects Sun, 10 Nov 2013 09:09:22 +0000 Purpose. Previous studies have underlined the effects of the energy drinks containing caffeine end taurine on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to determine acute changes on echocardiographic parameters assessed by conventional echo-Doppler analysis and by speckle tracking echocardiography after the consumption of an energy drink in a young healthy population. Methods. measurement of blood pressure, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic examination were performed on 35 healthy subjects (mean age 25 ± 2 years, 16 men), at baseline and one hour after the consumption of a body surface area indexed amount of an energy drink (168 mL/m2) containing caffeine (0.03%) and taurine (0.4%). Results. The analysis of left ventricular function showed a significant increase of mean relative values of MAPSE (+11%; ), global longitudinal strain (+10%, ), and left ventricular twisting (+22%, ) in respect to baseline. Also, right ventricular function parameters appeared significantly increased after energy drink consumption, as TAPSE (+15%, ), global, and free wall right ventricular longitudinal strain (+8%, ; +5%, , resp.). Conclusion. In conclusion, the consumption of the ED in our population showed a significant increase of right and left ventricular myocardial function, suggesting a possible positive inotropic effect related to the substances contained therein. Daniele Menci, Francesca Maria Righini, Matteo Cameli, Matteo Lisi, Susanna Benincasa, Marta Focardi, and Sergio Mondillo Copyright © 2013 Daniele Menci et al. All rights reserved. In Silico Insights of L-Glutamate: Structural Features in Vacuum and in Complex with Its Receptor Wed, 06 Nov 2013 14:32:39 +0000 Structural properties of the glutamate in vacuum and in complex with its receptor were analyzed. The analysis was focused on global properties, attempting to characterize features such as overall flexibility and common trends in the conformation set. The glutamate, as other ligands in complex with the receptor, adopts a spatial conformation that corresponds to one of the possible molecular equilibrium states in physiological conditions. The glutamate forms an extended structure for all cases, but the energy of the glutamate round out form is lower than the extended glutamate form. The results showed the glutamate as a flexible molecule, which can easily adapt to different interacting environments, and it can be considered as an approximation to address why glutamate interacts with a great number of molecules. Janneth Gonzalez and George E. Barreto Copyright © 2013 Janneth Gonzalez and George E. Barreto. All rights reserved. Long-Lasting Effects of Oxy- and Sulfoanalogues of L-Arginine on Enzyme Actions Thu, 24 Oct 2013 15:24:52 +0000 Arginine residues are very important for the structure of proteins and their action. Arginine is essential for many natural processes because it has unique ionizable group under physiological conditions. Numerous mimetics of arginine were synthesized and their biological effects were evaluated, but the mechanisms of actions are still unknown. The aim of this study is to see if oxy- and sulfoanalogues of arginine can be recognized by human arginyl-tRNA synthetase (HArgS)—an enzyme responsible for coupling of L-arginine with its cognate tRNA in a two-step catalytic reaction. We make use of modeling and docking studies of adenylate kinase (ADK) to reveal the effects produced by the incorporation of the arginine mimetics on the structure of ADK and its action. Three analogues of arginine, L-canavanine (Cav), L-norcanavanine (NCav), and L-sulfoarginine (sArg), can be recognized as substrates of HArgS when incorporated in different peptide and protein sequences instead of L-arginine. Mutation in the enzyme active center by arginine mimetics leads to conformational changes, which produce a decrease the rate of the enzyme catalyzed reaction and even a loss of enzymatic action. All these observations could explain the long-lasting nature of the effects of the arginine analogues. Tatyana A. Dzimbova, Peter B. Milanov, and Tamara I. Pajpanova Copyright © 2013 Tatyana A. Dzimbova et al. All rights reserved. (R)-α-Aminoadipic Acid: A Versatile Precursor for the Synthesis of D-Amino Acids Thu, 10 Oct 2013 15:42:48 +0000 The ready accessibility of (R)-α-aminoadipic acid by enzymatic cleavage of cephalosporin C (CephC) in the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) on a large scale makes it a favorable chiral pool building block for the synthesis of unusual amino acids. A route for the synthesis of C-5-alkenyl and C-6-alkylidene derivatives of (R)-pipecolic acid is described which utilizes (R)-α-aminoadipic acid as the enantiomerically pure starting material. Moreover, the synthesis of azido and triazolyl derivatives of (R)-α-aminoadipic acid is reported. Amina Sadiq and Norbert Sewald Copyright © 2013 Amina Sadiq and Norbert Sewald. All rights reserved. Cdc48: A Swiss Army Knife of Cell Biology Sun, 15 Sep 2013 14:32:14 +0000 Cdc48 (also called VCP and p97) is an abundant protein that plays essential regulatory functions in a broad array of cellular processes. Working with various cofactors, Cdc48 utilizes its ATPase activity to promote the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. Here, we review key biological functions and regulation of Cdc48 in ubiquitin-related events. Given the broad employment of Cdc48 in cell biology and its intimate ties to human diseases (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), studies of Cdc48 will bring significant insights into the mechanism and function of ubiquitin in health and diseases. Guem Hee Baek, Haili Cheng, Vitnary Choe, Xin Bao, Jia Shao, Shiwen Luo, and Hai Rao Copyright © 2013 Guem Hee Baek et al. All rights reserved. Total 4EBP1 Is Elevated in Liver of Rats in Response to Low Sulfur Amino Acid Intake Sun, 08 Sep 2013 14:57:27 +0000 Translation initiation is known to be regulated by the binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) by binding proteins (4EBPs), and there is evidence that amino acid deprivation and other cellular stresses upregulate 4EBP1 expression. To pursue the question of whether diets limited in an essential amino acid lead to induction of 4EBP1 expression in vivo, diets that varied in methionine and cystine content were fed to rats for 7 days, and 4EBP1 mRNA and protein levels and 4EBP1 phosphorylation state were determined. Total 4EBP1 mRNA and protein abundance increased in liver of rats with severely deficient intakes of sulfur amino acids (0.23% or 0.11% methionine without cystine) but not in animals with a less restricted intake of sulfur amino acids (0.11% methionine plus 0.35% cystine) but a similarly restricted intake of total diet (53 to 62% of control). The amount of 4EBP1 binding activity (α + β forms) was elevated in liver of rats fed sulfur amino acid-deficient diets, whereas the hyperphosphorylation of 4EBP1 was not affected by dietary treatment. Results suggest that changes in total 4EBP1 expression should be considered when examining mechanisms that attenuate protein synthesis during amino acid deficiency states. Angelos K. Sikalidis, Kevin M. Mazor, Minji Kang, Hongyun Liu, and Martha H. Stipanuk Copyright © 2013 Angelos K. Sikalidis et al. All rights reserved. Ingestion of Leucine + Phenylalanine with Glucose Produces an Additive Effect on Serum Insulin but Less than Additive Effect on Plasma Glucose Mon, 29 Jul 2013 09:27:23 +0000 Most individual amino acids stimulate insulin secretion and attenuate the plasma glucose response when ingested with glucose. We determined whether ingestion of two amino acids simultaneously with glucose would result in an additive effect on the glucose area response compared with ingestion of amino acids individually. Leucine and phenylalanine were chosen because they were two of the most potent glucose-lowering amino acids when given individually. Eight healthy subjects were studied on four separate days. Test meals were given at 0800. The first meal was a water control. Subjects then received 25 g glucose or leucine + phenylalanine (1 mmol/kg fat free body mass each) ±25 g glucose in random order. Glucose, insulin and glucagon were measured frequently for 2.5 hours thereafter. Net areas under the curves were calculated using the mean fasting value as baseline. The insulin response to leucine + phenylalanine was additive. In contrast, the decrease in glucose response to leucine + phenylalanine + glucose was less than additive compared to the individual amino acids ingested with glucose. Interestingly, the insulin response to the combination was largely due to the leucine component, whereas the glucose response was largely due to the phenylalanine component. Glucose was unchanged when leucine or phenylalanine, alone or in combination, was ingested without glucose. This trial is registered with NCT01471509. Jennifer F. Iverson, Mary C. Gannon, and Frank Q. Nuttall Copyright © 2013 Jennifer F. Iverson et al. All rights reserved. An Amino Acids Mixture Improves the Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Mice Wed, 26 Jun 2013 11:38:16 +0000 Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of DDM-GSH, a mixture of L-cysteine, L-methionine, and L-serine in a weight ratio of 2 : 1 : 1, in comparison to N-acetylcysteine (NAC), against acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Toxicity was induced in mice by the intraperitoneal (ip) administration of low dose (2 mmol/kg) or high dose (8 mmol/kg) of APAP. DDM-GSH (0.4 to 1.6 mmol/kg) was given ip to mice 1 h before the APAP administration. The same was done with NAC (0.9 to 3.6 mmol/kg), the standard antidote of APAP toxicity. Mice were sacrificed 8 h after the APAP injection to determine liver weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total glutathione (GSH) depletion and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in liver tissues. DDM-GSH improved mouse survival rates better than NAC against a high dose of APAP. Moreover, DDM-GSH significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner not only APAP-induced increases of ALT but also APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and MDA accumulation. Our results suggest that DDM-GSH may be more potent than NAC in protecting the liver from APAP-induced liver injury. Francesco Di Pierro and Giuseppe Rossoni Copyright © 2013 Francesco Di Pierro and Giuseppe Rossoni. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of Interindividual Responses to the Orally Administered Neurotransmitter β-Alanine Sun, 23 Jun 2013 08:51:17 +0000 Previously, we have identified β-alanine as a potential endogenous anticonvulsant molecule. β-Alanine occurs within the human central nervous system and has been identified as both an inhibitory neuromodulator and neurotransmitter that is bioavailable to brain after oral administration. During preliminary compounding trials to ascertain dosing strategies for β-alanine, we noted pronounced differences in the side effect profile experienced by individuals of Asian and Caucasian descent. To investigate whether ethnicity affects β-alanine-induced side effects, we administered 3 g of β-alanine in 200 mL of fruit drink to ten people of each ethnic background and observed them for 30 minutes. Data collected included basic physical statistics (height, age, and weight) and descriptions of all side effects, as reported by participants. We found that participants of Asian descent experienced paraesthesia, but significantly different in time of onset, intensity, and anatomical localization, as compared to the effects experienced by Caucasian participants. Since β-alanine is an endogenous neurotransmitter substance within human brain, these side effect differences were unexpected. Sarah MacPhee, Ian N. Weaver, and Donald F. Weaver Copyright © 2013 Sarah MacPhee et al. All rights reserved.