Table 1: Study populations.

Characteristicn (cross-sectional dataset)Mean
(95% CI; range) or frequencies
n (prospective dataset)Mean
(95% CI; range) or frequencies

Demographic
 Age (years)12751.3 (49.5–53.2; 26–77)10750.9 (48.4–53.5; 18–66)
 Gender12752.0% female10771.0% female
 Race-ethnicity12740.2% NH White
26.8% NH Black
33.1% Hispanic
10721.5% NH White
32.7% NH Black
35.5% Hispanic
2.8% NH Native American
7.5% NH other
 Educational attainment
 (years)
NA10024.0% < high school
76.0% high school or greater
 Income (US dollars)115$10,309; (7598.5–12,919.2; $0–$40,086)NA
 Insurance12751.2% no insurance
48.8% public (Medicaid or Medicare) or private
NA
 Smoking status12740.9% current
9.5% former
49.6% never
10734.6% current
65.4% former/never
Psychosocial
 Collaborative patient-clinician
 relationship
12515.6 or “moderately good” (15.2, 16.0; 4–18)NA
 Self-efficacy 1233.2 or “good” (3.0, 3.4; 1–4)NA
Social
 Health interference1222.8 or “moderate interference” (2.5, 3.0; 1–5)NA
 No. of household members1271.5 (1.4, 1.7; 1–6)NA
Comorbid
 Probable depressive disorder
 (PHQ-2 ≥ 3: or PHQ-9
  depressive symptoms score)
12731.7%10716.0 (15.2, 16.8; 10–23)
 Generalized anxiety disorderNA10724.2%
 No. of physical comorbidities
 (0–10)
107NA2.6 (2.2–2.9; 0–7)
Functional
 Bodily pain1246.8 or “moderate” (6.3, 7.4; 2–13)NA
 Body mass index 1260.8% underweight
12.7% normal
23.0% overweight
63.5% obese
1070% underweight
18.7% normal
26.2% overweight
55.1% obese
Medical care
 No. of primary care
  visits/previous year
1264.9 (4.4, 5.5; 0–16)NA
 Current narcotic use12635.7%NA
Factor of interest
 Emotional response to neutral
 facial expression(s)§
12736.2%10770.1%§

§Any emotional response to one of two neutral Ekman monographs; NH: non-Hispanic; PHQ: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptoms score (range 0–27).