Journal of Addiction The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:43:29 +0000 Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC. Michael J. Wesley, Terry Lohrenz, Mikhail N. Koffarnus, Samuel M. McClure, Richard De La Garza II, Ramiro Salas, Daisy G. Y. Thompson-Lake, Thomas F. Newton, Warren K. Bickel, and P. Read Montague Copyright © 2014 Michael J. Wesley et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Religiosity and Dysfunctional Dating Attitudes on Youth Substance Use Tue, 05 Aug 2014 05:24:34 +0000 The current investigation examined the interactive effect of dysfunctional dating attitudes and religiosity on substance use in a large sample of youth () from the YouthStyles survey. Based on past research, we explored the possibility that religiosity buffered the association between dysfunctional dating attitudes and substance use. Because age was significantly associated with all study variables, we included age in our analyses. In support of our hypothesis we found an attitude by religiosity by age interaction among youth with moderate levels of dysfunctional dating attitudes. Among these youth, the buffering effect of religiosity increased with age. For youth with low and high dysfunctional dating attitudes, religiosity did not buffer the association. The results of this study are in line with past work that suggests that the association between relationship characteristics and substance use is complex. It also identifies religiosity as a protective factor for the effect of dating attitudes on substance use but suggests that these effects may be the most important for youth with moderate levels of dysfunctional dating attitudes. Andra Teten Tharp, C. Nathan DeWall, Stephanie B. Richman, and Rita K. Noonan Copyright © 2014 Andra Teten Tharp et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Middle School Students’ Interest in Participating in an Incentive-Based Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program in Connecticut Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:20:11 +0000 Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6–8) attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1) intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race), smoking history, and trait impulsivity) and/or (2) aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency). Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8%) reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games) offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools. Meghan E. Morean, Deepa R. Camenga, Grace Kong, Dana A. Cavallo, Ty S. Schepis, and Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin Copyright © 2014 Meghan E. Morean et al. All rights reserved. Substance Use and Associated Factors among University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Mon, 28 Apr 2014 07:18:05 +0000 Studies indicate that substance use among Ethiopian adolescents is considerably rising; in particular college and university students are the most at risk of substance use. The aim of the study was to assess substance use and associated factors among university students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1040 Haramaya University students using self-administered structured questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. About two-thirds (62.4%) of the participants used at least one substance. The most commonly used substance was alcohol (50.2%). Being male had strong association with substance use (AOR (95% CI), 3.11 (2.20, 4.40)). The odds of substance use behaviour is higher among third year students (AOR (95% CI), 1.48 (1.01, 2.16)). Being a follower of Muslim (AOR (95% CI), 0.62 (0.44, 0.87)) and Protestant (AOR (95% CI), 0.25 (0.17, 0.36)) religions was shown to be protective of substance use. Married (AOR (95% CI), 1.92 (1.12, 3.30)) and depressed (AOR (95% CI), 3.30 (2.31, 4.72)) students were more likely to use substances than others. The magnitude of substance use was high. This demands special attention, emergency preventive measures, and targeted information, education and communication activity. Gezahegn Tesfaye, Andualem Derese, and Mitiku Teshome Hambisa Copyright © 2014 Gezahegn Tesfaye et al. All rights reserved. Factor Structure of CIWA-Ar in Alcohol Withdrawal Sun, 06 Apr 2014 12:19:56 +0000 Objective. To identify the underlying factor structure of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as measured with CIWA-Ar. Methods. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the items of CIWA-Ar. On 201 alcohol-dependent male patients seeking treatment for alcohol withdrawal at 36 hours of abstinence. Results. A three-factor solution was obtained that accounted for 68.74% of total variance. First factor had loading from four items (34.34% variance), second factor also had four items (24.25% variance), and the third had two items (10.04% variance). Conclusions. Factor analysis reveals the existence of multidimensionality of alcohol withdrawal as measured with CIWA-Ar and we found three factors that can be named as delirious, autonomic and nonspecific factors. Ajay Kumar Bakhla, Christoday R. J. Khess, Vijay Verma, Mahesh Hembram, Samir Kumar Praharaj, and Subhas Soren Copyright © 2014 Ajay Kumar Bakhla et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of Alcohol to Hypertension Mortality in Russia Sun, 23 Feb 2014 06:52:44 +0000 Background. Hypertension (HTN) is reported to be the leading contributor to premature death globally. Considerable research evidence suggests that excessive alcohol intake (binge drinking) is an independent risk factor for HTN. It was repeatedly emphasized that binge drinking is a major contributor to a high cardiovascular mortality rate in Russia. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the aggregate-level relation between alcohol consumption and HTN mortality rates in Russia. Method. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female HTN mortality data for the period 1980–2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means of ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) time-series analysis. The level of alcohol consumption per capita has been estimated using the indirect method based on alcohol psychoses incidence rate and employing ARIMA time-series analysis. Results. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with both male and female HTN mortality rates: a 1-liter increase in overall alcohol consumption would result in a 6.3% increase in the male HTN mortality rate and in a 4.9% increase in female HTN mortality rate. The results of the analysis suggest that 57.5% of all male HTN deaths and 48.6% of all female HTN deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. Conclusions. The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high HTN mortality rate in the Russian Federation. The findings from the present study have important implications with to regards HTN mortality prevention, indicating that a restrictive alcohol policy can be considered as an effective measure of prevention in countries with a higher rate of alcohol consumption. Y. E. Razvodovsky Copyright © 2014 Y. E. Razvodovsky. All rights reserved. Age Differences in the Longitudinal Relationship between Work-Family Conflict and Alcohol Use Tue, 28 Jan 2014 06:38:02 +0000 Research on the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use has generally shown small effects possibly due to failure to include important individual differences relevant to the experience of work-family conflict and alcohol use, notably age. This study examined whether the relationships between aspects of work-family conflict and alcohol use variables differed by age. Participants were 543 individuals (51.2% women) from a community sample of working adults in the greater Chicagoland area who responded to a mail survey at three time points. Results showed important differences between age groups in several predictors of alcohol use. Strain versus time-based conflict had different effects on drinking, and strain-based forms of work-family conflict were related to increased problematic alcohol use depending on age. This study indicates that individual differences, particularly age, should be systematically accounted for when studying the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Jennifer M. Wolff, Kathleen M. Rospenda, and Judith A. Richman Copyright © 2014 Jennifer M. Wolff et al. All rights reserved. Pattern and Trend of Substance Abuse in Eastern Rural Iran: A Household Survey in a Rural Community Tue, 24 Dec 2013 11:15:27 +0000 Introduction and Aim. Substance abuse imposes hazards on human health in all biopsychosocial aspects. Limited studies exist on epidemiology of substance abuse and its trend in rural areas. The present study aimed to compare substance abuse in one of the rural areas of southeast Iran, in a 12-year period (2000 and 2012). Design and Methods. In a household survey conducted in 2012, in Dashtkhak/Kerman, 1200 individuals above 12 years of age completed a questionnaire to determine their frequency of substance abuse. The questionnaire included the following three areas: demographic characteristics, frequency of substance abuse and ease of access to various drugs. Results. Among 900 completed questionnaires, majority of the participants (61.8%) were below 30 years of age and among them 54.4% were male. Cigarette (17.0%), opium (15.7%) and opium residue (9.0%) were the most frequent substances abused on a daily basis. Based on the participant’s opinion, we conclude that the ease of access to cigarette, waterpipe and opium contributed to their increase in consumption compared with earlier years. Discussion and Conclusion. The steady rise in substance abuse in rural communities demands immediate attention and emergency preventive measures from policy makers. Hasan Ziaaddini, Tayebeh Ziaaddini, and Nouzar Nakhaee Copyright © 2013 Hasan Ziaaddini et al. All rights reserved. Drug Poisoning Deaths according to Ethnicity in Utah Wed, 11 Dec 2013 14:22:07 +0000 This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS). Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female) of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combination of drugs. For each combination, rates were significantly greater for non-Hispanics than Hispanics, with an exception for opiates and illicit drugs combined, where there was no significant difference. Approximately 79% of non-Hispanics and 65% of Hispanics had one or more of the selected problems (e.g., mental, physical, or crisis related). Rates for each combination of problems were significantly greater in non-Hispanics, with the exception of crisis. Hispanics were less affected by the rise in prescription drug abuse. Hispanic decedents had a greater proportion of illegal drugs, consistent with it being more difficult to obtain prescription drugs. Hispanic decedents were less likely to have physical and mental health problems, which may be related to a smaller chance of diagnosis of such problems through the healthcare system. Ray M. Merrill, Riley J. Hedin, Anna Fondario, Arielle A. Sloan, and Carl L. Hanson Copyright © 2013 Ray M. Merrill et al. All rights reserved. Association between Acculturation and Binge Drinking among Asian-Americans: Results from the California Health Interview Survey Wed, 11 Dec 2013 09:26:57 +0000 Objective. Evaluate the association between acculturation and binge drinking among six Asian-American subgroups. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of public access adult portion of 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Survey data was conducted. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized with any binge drinking in the past year as the outcome variable and language spoken at home and time in USA as proxy measures of acculturation. Results. A total of 1,631 Asian-Americans () were identified as binge drinkers. Binge drinking was positively associated with being first generation South Asian (, 95% , 5.98) and monolingual (English only) Vietnamese (; 95% , 5.70), especially among females. Other factors associated with increased binge drinking were being female (Chinese only), not being current married (South Asian only), and being an ever smoker (all subgroups except South Asians). Conclusion. First generation South Asians and linguistically acculturated Vietnamese, especially females, are at an increased risk of binge drinking. Future studies and preventive measures should address the cultural basis of such health risk behaviors among Asian-American adults. Monideepa B. Becerra, Patti Herring, Helen Hopp Marshak, and Jim E. Banta Copyright © 2013 Monideepa B. Becerra et al. All rights reserved. Exploring Spatial Associations between On-Sale Alcohol Availability, Neighborhood Population Characteristics, and Violent Crime in a Geographically Isolated City Wed, 27 Nov 2013 09:18:44 +0000 Objectives. Despite the increasing evidence of the associations between alcohol availability and violence, there are still inconsistent findings on the effects of on- and off-sale alcohol outlets on violent crime. The aim of this study was to examine spatial associations between on-sale alcohol availability, neighborhood characteristics, and violent crime in a geographically isolated city in Texas. Methods. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) and global regression models were employed to analyze the nature of the spatial relationship between violent crime, neighborhood sociocultural characteristics, and on-sale alcohol environment. Results. We found strong effects of neighborhood characteristics combined with on-sale alcohol availability on violence outcomes. Several neighborhood variables combined with alcohol availability explained about 63% of the variability in violence. An additional 7% was explained by the GWR model, while spatially nonstationary associations between violence and some predictor variables were observed. Conclusions. This study provided more credible evidence of the influence of on-sale alcohol outlets on violence in a unique setting. These findings have important policy implications in addressing the question of public health consequences of alcohol-related violence in local contexts. Daikwon Han and Dennis M. Gorman Copyright © 2013 Daikwon Han and Dennis M. Gorman. All rights reserved. Initial Smoking Experiences and Current Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions among Current Smokers Thu, 12 Sep 2013 10:07:10 +0000 Purpose. We examine early-onset cigarette smoking and how, if at all, it is related to subsequent smoking practices. Methods. From 2004 to 2007, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 485 adult cigarette smokers residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Data analysis involved a multivariate analysis to determine whether age of smoking onset was related to current smoking practices when the effects of gender, age, race, marital/relationship status, income, and educational attainment were taken into account. Results. The mean age for smoking onset was 14.8, and more than one-half of all smokers had their first cigarette between the ages of 12 and 16. Most people reported an interval of less than one month between their first and second time using tobacco. Earlier onset cigarette smoking was related to more cigarette use and worse tobacco-related health outcomes in adulthood. Conclusions. Early prevention and intervention are needed to avoid early-onset smoking behaviors. Intervening after initial experimentation but before patterned smoking practices are established will be challenging, as the interval between initial and subsequent use tends to be short. Hugh Klein, Claire E. Sterk, and Kirk W. Elifson Copyright © 2013 Hugh Klein et al. All rights reserved. Measuring Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the PUMP Scale Wed, 04 Sep 2013 14:46:37 +0000 This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of an English language measure of problematic mobile phone use. Participants were recruited from a university campus, health science center, and other public locations. The sample included 244 individuals (68.4% female) aged 18–75. Results supported a unidimensional factor structure for the 20-item self-report Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP) Scale. Internal consistency was excellent (). Strong correlations (, ) were found between the PUMP Scale and an existing scale of cellular phone dependency that was validated in Asia, as well as items assessing frequency and intensity of mobile phone use. Results provide preliminary support for the use of the PUMP Scale to measure problematic use of mobile phones. Lisa J. Merlo, Amanda M. Stone, and Alex Bibbey Copyright © 2013 Lisa J. Merlo et al. All rights reserved. An Exploration of Responses to Drug Conditioned Stimuli during Treatment for Substance Dependence Mon, 26 Aug 2013 10:08:31 +0000 Although it is well established that drug conditioned stimuli produce a variety of conditioned responses, it is not known whether such stimuli can also reinforce an arbitrary operant response and thus serve as conditioned reinforcers. Volunteers () recruited from a residential treatment center for substance dependence were tested on a task in which presses on computer keys activated images of drugs/drug paraphernalia on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. They also completed a personalized craving questionnaire and a personalized Implicit Association Test. A significant bias in responding was found for images of preferred drugs/route of drug administration. Craving, however, was low and the images generated negative evaluative reactions. Two additional studies were performed to ascertain the generalizability of the effects to a different population of drug-using individuals (i.e., students who drink) and to incentive stimuli of a different nature (i.e., sexual). The additional studies partially replicated and extended the central findings of the main study. Therefore, although these data should be considered preliminary in light of small group sizes, it is concluded that cue specificity and availability of the unconditioned stimuli (drugs and sex) plays a role in modulating responding maintained by conditioned reinforcers. Benjamin Goddard, Leanne S. Son Hing, and Francesco Leri Copyright © 2013 Benjamin Goddard et al. All rights reserved. Controlling Chaos: The Perceptions of Long-Term Crack Cocaine Users in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Wed, 24 Jul 2013 13:12:00 +0000 People who smoke crack cocaine are described as chaotic and more likely to engage in risky sex, polysubstance use and contract infectious diseases. However, little is known about how individuals perceive smoking crack as compared to other forms of cocaine use, especially injection. We explored the lived experience of people who smoke crack cocaine. Six gender-specific focus groups () of individuals who currently smoke crack in Vancouver, Canada, were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed by constant comparative methodology. We applied Rhodes’ risk environment to the phenomenological understanding that individuals have regarding how crack has affected their lives. Subjects reported that smoking rather than injecting cocaine allows them to begin “controlling chaos” in their lives. Controlling chaos was self-defined using nontraditional measures such as the ability to maintain day-to-day commitments and housing stability. The phenomenological lens of smoking crack instead of injecting cocaine “to control chaos” contributes a novel perspective to our understanding of the crack-smoking population. This study examines narratives which add to prior reports of the association of crack smoking and increased chaos and suggests that, for some, inhaled crack may represent efforts towards self-directed harm reduction. Steven Persaud, Despina Tzemis, Margot Kuo, Vicky Bungay, and Jane A. Buxton Copyright © 2013 Steven Persaud et al. All rights reserved. Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia Sun, 31 Mar 2013 15:21:58 +0000 Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use. Robyn L. Richmond, Devon Indig, Tony G. Butler, Kay A. Wilhelm, Vicki A. Archer, and Alex D. Wodak Copyright © 2013 Robyn L. Richmond et al. All rights reserved. Involvement in Specific HIV Risk Practices among Men Who Use the Internet to Find Male Partners for Unprotected Sex Mon, 25 Mar 2013 08:36:52 +0000 Purpose. Men who have sex with other men (MSM) account for more than one-half of all new HIV infections in the USA. This study reports on the prevalence of a variety of HIV risk behaviors in one specific subpopulation of risk-seeking MSM. Methods. The study was based on a national sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to find partners for unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Results. Unprotected oral and anal sex was commonplace among study participants. Men engaged in a large number of other risky behaviors as well, including having had multiple recent sex partners (mean number = 11), simultaneous double-penile penetration of the anus (16%), eating semen out of another man’s anus (17%), engaging in multiple-partner sexual encounters (47%), engaging in anonymous sex (51%), and having sex while “under the influence” (52%). Conclusions. HIV intervention and prevention programs need to address numerous behaviors that place MSM at risk for contracting/transmitting HIV. Merely focusing on unprotected anal sex does a disservice to members of this community, who typically engage in many types of behavioral risks, each of which requires addressing if HIV transmission rates are to be reduced. Hugh Klein Copyright © 2013 Hugh Klein. All rights reserved. Familial, Social, and Individual Factors Contributing to Risk for Adolescent Substance Use Wed, 20 Mar 2013 10:05:05 +0000 Data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveal high numbers of adolescent substance use in the United States. Substance use among adolescents can lead to increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, vehicular fatalities, juvenile delinquency, and other problems associated with physical and mental health. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to involvement in substance use due to the underdeveloped state of the adolescent brain, which can lead to reduced decision-making ability and increased long-term effects of drugs and alcohol. Understanding the causes of adolescent substance use is vital for successful prevention and intervention programs. Mackenzie Whitesell, Annette Bachand, Jennifer Peel, and Mark Brown Copyright © 2013 Mackenzie Whitesell et al. All rights reserved. Parental Factors Associated with Mexican American Adolescent Alcohol Use Thu, 14 Mar 2013 09:59:26 +0000 The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options. Cristina Mogro-Wilson Copyright © 2013 Cristina Mogro-Wilson. All rights reserved. Receipt of Prescribed Controlled Substances by Adolescents and Young Adults Prior to Presenting for Opiate Dependence Treatment Sun, 17 Feb 2013 08:56:39 +0000 Purpose. The objective of this study was to document the number of controlled substance prescriptions filled by adolescents and young adult patients in the 2 years prior to presentation for opiate dependence treatment. Methods. Opiate-dependent youth () presenting to our Medication-Assisted Treatment for Addiction program from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 were identified via electronic medical record. Subjects were further classified based on their opiate use as dependent to heroin-only, prescription (Rx) opiate-only, or combined heroin + Rx opiate only. The Ohio Automated Rx Reporting System (OARRS) was used to identify each subject's controlled substance prescription history. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationships between patient characteristics and the total number of prescriptions filled. Results. Twenty-five percent of subjects had filled ≥6 prescriptions, and 15% had filled ≥11 prescriptions. The mean number of prescriptions filled was 5 (range: 0–59). Thirteen percent had filled ≥6 opiate/narcotic prescriptions, and 8% had filled ≥11 prescriptions. Conclusions. A subset of opiate-dependent youth had filled multiple opiate/narcotic prescriptions providing some evidence that physician-provided prescriptions may be a source of opiate abuse or diversion for a minority of opiate-dependent adolescents and young adults. Steven C. Matson, Cathleen Bentley, Vicki Hughes Dughman, and Andrea E. Bonny Copyright © 2013 Steven C. Matson et al. All rights reserved. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood Tue, 15 Jan 2013 13:13:43 +0000 This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (; , ) completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults. Sasha A. Fleary, Robert W. Heffer, and E. Lisako J. McKyer Copyright © 2013 Sasha A. Fleary et al. All rights reserved. The Interactive Effects of Affect Lability, Negative Urgency, and Sensation Seeking on Young Adult Problematic Drinking Thu, 27 Dec 2012 07:49:59 +0000 Prior studies have suggested that affect lability might reduce the risk for problematic drinking among sensation seekers by compensating for their deficiencies in emotional reactivity and among individuals high on negative urgency by disrupting stable negative emotions. Due to the high prevalence of college drinking, this study examined whether affect lability interacted with sensation seeking and negative urgency to influence college student problematic drinking. 414 college drinkers (mean age: 20, 77% female, and 74% Caucasian) from a US Midwestern University completed self-administered questionnaires online. Consistent with our hypotheses, our results indicated that the effects of sensation seeking and negative urgency on problematic drinking weakened at higher levels of affect lability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering specific emotional contexts in understanding how negative urgency and sensation seeking create risk for problematic drinking among college students. These findings might also help us better understand how to reduce problematic drinking among sensation seekers and individuals high on negative urgency. Kenny Karyadi, Ayca Coskunpinar, Allyson L. Dir, and Melissa A. Cyders Copyright © 2013 Kenny Karyadi et al. All rights reserved. The AC-OK Cooccurring Screen: Reliability, Convergent Validity, Sensitivity, and Specificity Sun, 23 Dec 2012 17:19:06 +0000 The principal barriers to universal screening for the cooccurring disorders of mental illness and substance abuse are training, time, cost, and a reliable and valid screen. Although many of the barriers to universal screening still remain intact, the lack of a cooccurring screen that is effective and can be administered in a cost efficient way is no longer an obstacle. This study examined the reliability, factor structure, and convergent validity of the 15-item AC-OK Cooccurring Screen. A total of 2,968 AC-OK Cooccurring Screens administrated to individuals who called or went to one of the nine participating mental health and substance abuse treatment facilities were administrated and analyzed. Principal axis factor (PAF) analysis was used in the confirmatory factor analysis to identify the common variance among the items in the scales while excluding unique variance. Cronbach's Alpha was used to establish internal consistency (reliability) of each subscale. Finally, the findings from the AC-OK Cooccurring Screen were compared to individual scores on two standardized reference measures, the addiction severity index and the Client assessment record (a measure of mental health status) to determine sensitivity and specificity. This analysis of the AC-OK Cooccurring Screen found the subscales to have excellent reliability, very good convergent validity, excellent sensitivity, and sufficient specificity to be highly useful in screening for cooccurring disorders in behavioral health settings. In this study, the AC-OK Cooccurring Screen had a Cronbach's Alpha of .92 on the substance abuse subscale and a Cronbach's Alpha of .80 on the mental health subscale. Andrew L. Cherry and Mary E. Dillon Copyright © 2013 Andrew L. Cherry and Mary E. Dillon. All rights reserved. A Preliminary Study of Functional Brain Activation among Marijuana Users during Performance of a Virtual Water Maze Task Mon, 17 Dec 2012 15:35:53 +0000 Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ) users compared to 18 nonusing (NU) comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform) and motor control (visible platform) conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval-Motor Control contrast (NU > MJ). These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval. Jennifer Tropp Sneider, Staci A. Gruber, Jadwiga Rogowska, Marisa M. Silveri, and Deborah A. Yurgelun-Todd Copyright © 2013 Jennifer Tropp Sneider et al. All rights reserved. An Association between Emotional Responsiveness and Smoking Behavior Thu, 13 Dec 2012 15:02:22 +0000 Introduction. Emotional responsiveness (ER) has been theorized to play a protective role in pathways to tobacco initiation, regular use, and dependence, yet a possible association between ER and smoking behavior has not been studied. Our aim was to test whether measuring ER to a neutral stimulus was associated with decreased odds of current smoking. Methods. We measured ER and smoking status (current, former, and never) in two datasets: a cross-sectional dataset of persons with diabetes () and a prospective dataset of depressed patients () from an urban primary care system. Because there were few former smokers in the datasets, smoking status was dichotomized (current versus former/never) and measured at baseline (cross-sectional dataset) or at 36 weeks after-baseline (prospective dataset). ER was ascertained with response to a neutral facial expression (any ER versus none). Results. Compared to their nonresponsive counterparts, adjusted odds of current smoking were lower among participants endorsing emotional responsiveness in both the cross-sectional and prospective datasets (ORs = .29 and .32, ’s , resp.). Discussion. ER may be protective against current smoking behavior. Further research investigating the association between ER and decreased smoking may hold potential to inform treatment approaches to improve smoking prevalence. Robert D. Keeley and Margaret Driscoll Copyright © 2013 Robert D. Keeley and Margaret Driscoll. All rights reserved. Therapist’s Gender and Gender Roles: Impact on Attitudes toward Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment Tue, 11 Dec 2012 16:24:47 +0000 The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of therapist’s gender and gender roles on attitudes toward clients. Attitudes toward motivational interviewing were also a focus as MI can be hypothesized to be feminine rather than masculine in nature. The subjects () were Finnish substance abuse therapists. Their attitudes toward clients were measured using a vignette task. Results indicated that female therapists were significantly more positive toward clients than were male therapists. Although females were significantly more feminine than males, they saw themselves as masculine as the males did. The more feminine the therapist was, the more s/he preferred MI. In the future, an examination of this kind should be combined with measurement of treatment processes and outcomes. Tytti Artkoski and Pekka Saarnio Copyright © 2013 Tytti Artkoski and Pekka Saarnio. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Endorsing Gambling as an Escape and the Display of Gambling Problems Sat, 01 Dec 2012 12:33:19 +0000 Previous research has reported a strong relationship between endorsing gambling as an escape and problem/pathological gambling as measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The present study recruited 249 university students to complete the Gambling Functional Assessment-Revised (GFA-R), which measures the function of the respondent’s gambling, as well as the SOGS and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), which was designed to identify gambling problems in the general population. Endorsing gambling as an escape on the GFA-R was again predictive of SOGS scores. The function of one’s gambling was also predictive of the respondents’ PGSI scores, but whether gambling for positive reinforcement or as an escape was the significant predictor differed between male and female respondents. Scores on the GFA-R subscales also accounted for a significant amount of variance in PGSI scores above and beyond that accounted for by SOGS scores. The present results support the idea that both practitioners and researchers should be interested in the function of an individual’s gambling as well as the presence or the absence of pathology. They also suggest that differences in the function of gambling might also exist between the sexes. Jeffrey N. Weatherly Copyright © 2013 Jeffrey N. Weatherly. All rights reserved. Evaluation of a Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinic in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada: One Year Retention Rate and Illicit Drug Use Tue, 23 Oct 2012 09:35:26 +0000 Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT) methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management. Timothy K. S. Christie, Alli Murugesan, Dana Manzer, Michael V. O'Shaughnessey, and Duncan Webster Copyright © 2013 Timothy K. S. Christie et al. All rights reserved. Everyday Prospective Memory and Executive Function Deficits Associated with Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Tue, 18 Sep 2012 13:03:38 +0000 This study explored whether exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has a detrimental impact upon everyday memory in two groups of non-smokers; one which reported regular exposure to SHS and one that reported never having been exposed to SHS. Thirty-four non-smokers who reported having been regularly exposed to SHS (SHS group) and 34 non-smokers who reported never having been exposed to SHS (non-SHS group) were compared on self-reports of prospective memory (PM: remembering future intentions and/or activities) and executive function (EF: those processes involved in attention, multitasking and decision-making). The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) assessed everyday PM lapses; the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ) assessed self-reported problems in EF; a drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered. Two univariate ANCOVAs were applied to the PM and EF data, controlling for between-group differences in age, weekly alcohol use, anxiety and depression scores, and self-reported retrospective memory scores. The SHS group reported significantly more lapses on the PRMQ and more deficits on the EFQ than the non-SHS group. These findings provide new insights into PM and EF deficits associated with prolonged exposure to SHS in a group of non-smokers. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are also considered. Thomas M. Heffernan and Terence S. O'Neill Copyright © 2013 Thomas M. Heffernan and Terence S. O'Neill. All rights reserved. Early Adolescents and Substance Use Mon, 27 Aug 2012 09:09:27 +0000 1300 students (54.3% girls) 13–16 years old were interviewed in the urban area of Bologna during 2010. Random effect multiple logistic regression models were used. Results show a reciprocal relationship between alcohol use, tobacco, and cannabis. Most users were offered cannabis, began using at 14 years of age, and do not believe using is very dangerous. They live with only one parent, have more than 50 euros of spending money per month, and abuse alcohol, abuse that increases relative to the intensity of cigarette smoking. Legal/illegal dichotomy seems to overturn, where alcohol becomes a “drug” and the use of tobacco, similar to other drugs, is motivated as a solution to reduce anxiety, combat boredom, relax, and to ease loneliness. Raimondo Maria Pavarin and Dario Consonni Copyright © 2013 Raimondo Maria Pavarin and Dario Consonni. All rights reserved.