Journal of Addiction http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Correlates and Consequences of Opioid Misuse among High-Risk Young Adults Mon, 24 Nov 2014 08:57:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/156954/ Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18–25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16–25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse, recency of misuse, and alternate modes of administration within the past 12 months, 3 months, and 30 days. Results. Four latent classes emerged that were differentially associated with heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use, tranquilizer misuse, daily opioid misuse, and opioid withdrawal. Alternate modes of administering opioids were associated with increased risk for these outcomes. Sociodemographic factors, homelessness, prescription history, and history of parental drug use were significantly associated with riskier opioid misuse trajectories. Conclusion. Young adults who reported more debilitating experiences as children and adolescents misused opioids longer and engaged in higher risk alternate modes of administering opioids. Data on decisions both to use and to alter a drug’s form can be combined to describe patterns of misuse over time and predict important risk behaviors. Sheree M. Schrager, Aleksandar Kecojevic, Karol Silva, Jennifer Jackson Bloom, Ellen Iverson, and Stephen E. Lankenau Copyright © 2014 Sheree M. Schrager et al. All rights reserved. Experiences from a Community Based Substance Use Treatment Centre in an Urban Resettlement Colony in India Sun, 09 Nov 2014 12:03:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/982028/ Background. There are limited community based treatment services for drug dependence in India. Rural areas and urban resettlement colonies are in particular deficient in such services. Aims. The current study aimed at preliminary assessment of substance use disorder management services at a community based substance use treatment clinic in an urban resettlement colony. Methods. The study was carried out at community based substance use treatment centre in a resettlement colony in India. The records of the centre were chart reviewed. Results. A total of 754 patients were registered at the clinic during the study period. Heroin was the primary drug of abuse for 63% of the patients. The mean duration of follow-up for the patients with opioid and alcohol dependence was 13.47 (; range 0–39) months. A total of 220 patients of opioid dependence were prescribed substation or abstinence directed therapy. Buprenorphine (87), slow release oral morphine (SROM) (16), and dextropropoxyphene (98) were used for opioid substitution. Conclusion. It is possible to deliver substance use disorder treatment services in community setting. There is a need to develop area specific community based treatment services for substance abuse in socially disadvantaged populations such as urban resettlement colonies. Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Rajeev Ranjan, Anju Dhawan, and Deepak Yadav Copyright © 2014 Yatan Pal Singh Balhara et al. All rights reserved. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India Thu, 06 Nov 2014 09:29:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/170941/ Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey) to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males ( value = 0.000) and in those who got higher pocket money ( value = 0.000). Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India. Varun Kumar, Richa Talwar, Neelam Roy, Deepak Raut, and Saudan Singh Copyright © 2014 Varun Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Dropout from Inpatient Opioid Detoxification with Buprenorphine: A Chart Review Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:32:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/965267/ Inpatient withdrawal treatment (detoxification) is common in opioid dependence, although dropout against medical advice often limits its outcome. This study aimed to assess baseline predictors of dropout from inpatient opioid detoxification with buprenorphine, including age, gender, current substance use, and type of postdetoxification planning. A retrospective hospital chart review was carried out for inpatient standard opioid detoxifications using buprenorphine taper, in a detoxification ward in Malmö, Sweden . Thirty-four percent of patients dropped out against medical advice. In multivariate logistic regression, dropout was significantly associated with younger age (OR 0.93 [0.89–0.97]) and negatively predicted by inpatient postdetoxification plan (OR 0.41 [0.18–0.94]), thus favouring an inpatient plan as opposed to outpatient treatment while residing at home. Dropout was unrelated to baseline urine toxicology. In opioid detoxification, patients may benefit from a higher degree of postdetoxification planning, including transition to residential treatment, in order to increase the likelihood of a successful detoxification and treatment entry. Young opioid-dependent patients may need particular attention in the planning of detoxification. Anders Hakansson and Emma Hallén Copyright © 2014 Anders Hakansson and Emma Hallén. All rights reserved. Unraveling Exercise Addiction: The Role of Narcissism and Self-Esteem Tue, 28 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/987841/ The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA ) and a low EA risk group (LEA ) were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6) on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4) on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores ( were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists) should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction. Antonio Bruno, Diego Quattrone, Giuseppe Scimeca, Claudio Cicciarelli, Vincenzo Maria Romeo, Gianluca Pandolfo, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, and Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello Copyright © 2014 Antonio Bruno et al. All rights reserved. Process and Product in Cross-Cultural Treatment Research: Development of a Culturally Sensitive Women-Centered Substance Use Intervention in Georgia Mon, 22 Sep 2014 09:14:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/163603/ Women who inject drugs (WID) are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals) project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture—and WID within that culture—so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT) and the Women’s CoOp (WC) were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID () and providers of health services () to such women and focus groups [2 with WID () and 2 with health service providers ()]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20 WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed. Hendrée E. Jones, Irma Kirtadze, David Otiashvili, Kevin E. O’Grady, Keryn Murphy, William Zule, Evgeny Krupitsky, and Wendee M. Wechsberg Copyright © 2014 Hendrée E. Jones et al. All rights reserved. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents Sun, 21 Sep 2014 06:11:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/962178/ Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females). Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education. Marco Scalese, Olivia Curzio, Valentina Cutrupi, Luca Bastiani, Mercedes Gori, Francesca Denoth, and Sabrina Molinaro Copyright © 2014 Marco Scalese et al. All rights reserved. The Great Recession and Drinking Outcomes: Protective Effects of Politically Oriented Coping Sun, 14 Sep 2014 09:31:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/646451/ Research derived from the stress paradigm suggests that certain types of coping (e.g., problem-focused coping instead of behavioral disengagement) are protective against problem-related drinking to deal with social stressors. Going beyond the typical focus in the coping literature, we hypothesize that stressors engendered by macrolevel social forces may require coping actions within the political realm in contrast to modes of coping focused outside of the political realm. A United States sample of 663 respondents completed a mail survey in 2010, including measures of stressful consequences of the Great Recession, drinking patterns and problems, modes of coping encompassed in the Brief COPE instrument, and politically oriented coping. Structural equation modeling examined whether modes of coping mediated the links between stressors and drinking outcomes. A substantial portion of the associations between stressors and drinking was explained by modes of coping. Politically oriented coping was protective against problem drinking for both genders. Future studies should further explore politically oriented coping in addition to modes of coping outside of the political realm when studying the relationships between macrolevel social stressors and deleterious drinking outcomes. Judith A. Richman, Robyn Lewis Brown, and Kathleen M. Rospenda Copyright © 2014 Judith A. Richman et al. All rights reserved. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis Tue, 26 Aug 2014 13:16:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/352835/ Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe), individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies. Nadjme Jadidi and Nouzar Nakhaee Copyright © 2014 Nadjme Jadidi and Nouzar Nakhaee. All rights reserved. Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:43:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/189853/ Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC. Michael J. Wesley, Terry Lohrenz, Mikhail N. Koffarnus, Samuel M. McClure, Richard De La Garza II, Ramiro Salas, Daisy G. Y. Thompson-Lake, Thomas F. Newton, Warren K. Bickel, and P. Read Montague Copyright © 2014 Michael J. Wesley et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Religiosity and Dysfunctional Dating Attitudes on Youth Substance Use Tue, 05 Aug 2014 05:24:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/143709/ The current investigation examined the interactive effect of dysfunctional dating attitudes and religiosity on substance use in a large sample of youth () from the YouthStyles survey. Based on past research, we explored the possibility that religiosity buffered the association between dysfunctional dating attitudes and substance use. Because age was significantly associated with all study variables, we included age in our analyses. In support of our hypothesis we found an attitude by religiosity by age interaction among youth with moderate levels of dysfunctional dating attitudes. Among these youth, the buffering effect of religiosity increased with age. For youth with low and high dysfunctional dating attitudes, religiosity did not buffer the association. The results of this study are in line with past work that suggests that the association between relationship characteristics and substance use is complex. It also identifies religiosity as a protective factor for the effect of dating attitudes on substance use but suggests that these effects may be the most important for youth with moderate levels of dysfunctional dating attitudes. Andra Teten Tharp, C. Nathan DeWall, Stephanie B. Richman, and Rita K. Noonan Copyright © 2014 Andra Teten Tharp et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Middle School Students’ Interest in Participating in an Incentive-Based Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program in Connecticut Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:20:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/915652/ Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6–8) attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1) intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race), smoking history, and trait impulsivity) and/or (2) aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency). Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8%) reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games) offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools. Meghan E. Morean, Deepa R. Camenga, Grace Kong, Dana A. Cavallo, Ty S. Schepis, and Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin Copyright © 2014 Meghan E. Morean et al. All rights reserved. Substance Use and Associated Factors among University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Mon, 28 Apr 2014 07:18:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/969837/ Studies indicate that substance use among Ethiopian adolescents is considerably rising; in particular college and university students are the most at risk of substance use. The aim of the study was to assess substance use and associated factors among university students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1040 Haramaya University students using self-administered structured questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. About two-thirds (62.4%) of the participants used at least one substance. The most commonly used substance was alcohol (50.2%). Being male had strong association with substance use (AOR (95% CI), 3.11 (2.20, 4.40)). The odds of substance use behaviour is higher among third year students (AOR (95% CI), 1.48 (1.01, 2.16)). Being a follower of Muslim (AOR (95% CI), 0.62 (0.44, 0.87)) and Protestant (AOR (95% CI), 0.25 (0.17, 0.36)) religions was shown to be protective of substance use. Married (AOR (95% CI), 1.92 (1.12, 3.30)) and depressed (AOR (95% CI), 3.30 (2.31, 4.72)) students were more likely to use substances than others. The magnitude of substance use was high. This demands special attention, emergency preventive measures, and targeted information, education and communication activity. Gezahegn Tesfaye, Andualem Derese, and Mitiku Teshome Hambisa Copyright © 2014 Gezahegn Tesfaye et al. All rights reserved. Factor Structure of CIWA-Ar in Alcohol Withdrawal Sun, 06 Apr 2014 12:19:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/745839/ Objective. To identify the underlying factor structure of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as measured with CIWA-Ar. Methods. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the items of CIWA-Ar. On 201 alcohol-dependent male patients seeking treatment for alcohol withdrawal at 36 hours of abstinence. Results. A three-factor solution was obtained that accounted for 68.74% of total variance. First factor had loading from four items (34.34% variance), second factor also had four items (24.25% variance), and the third had two items (10.04% variance). Conclusions. Factor analysis reveals the existence of multidimensionality of alcohol withdrawal as measured with CIWA-Ar and we found three factors that can be named as delirious, autonomic and nonspecific factors. Ajay Kumar Bakhla, Christoday R. J. Khess, Vijay Verma, Mahesh Hembram, Samir Kumar Praharaj, and Subhas Soren Copyright © 2014 Ajay Kumar Bakhla et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of Alcohol to Hypertension Mortality in Russia Sun, 23 Feb 2014 06:52:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/483910/ Background. Hypertension (HTN) is reported to be the leading contributor to premature death globally. Considerable research evidence suggests that excessive alcohol intake (binge drinking) is an independent risk factor for HTN. It was repeatedly emphasized that binge drinking is a major contributor to a high cardiovascular mortality rate in Russia. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the aggregate-level relation between alcohol consumption and HTN mortality rates in Russia. Method. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female HTN mortality data for the period 1980–2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means of ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) time-series analysis. The level of alcohol consumption per capita has been estimated using the indirect method based on alcohol psychoses incidence rate and employing ARIMA time-series analysis. Results. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with both male and female HTN mortality rates: a 1-liter increase in overall alcohol consumption would result in a 6.3% increase in the male HTN mortality rate and in a 4.9% increase in female HTN mortality rate. The results of the analysis suggest that 57.5% of all male HTN deaths and 48.6% of all female HTN deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. Conclusions. The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high HTN mortality rate in the Russian Federation. The findings from the present study have important implications with to regards HTN mortality prevention, indicating that a restrictive alcohol policy can be considered as an effective measure of prevention in countries with a higher rate of alcohol consumption. Y. E. Razvodovsky Copyright © 2014 Y. E. Razvodovsky. All rights reserved. Age Differences in the Longitudinal Relationship between Work-Family Conflict and Alcohol Use Tue, 28 Jan 2014 06:38:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/354767/ Research on the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use has generally shown small effects possibly due to failure to include important individual differences relevant to the experience of work-family conflict and alcohol use, notably age. This study examined whether the relationships between aspects of work-family conflict and alcohol use variables differed by age. Participants were 543 individuals (51.2% women) from a community sample of working adults in the greater Chicagoland area who responded to a mail survey at three time points. Results showed important differences between age groups in several predictors of alcohol use. Strain versus time-based conflict had different effects on drinking, and strain-based forms of work-family conflict were related to increased problematic alcohol use depending on age. This study indicates that individual differences, particularly age, should be systematically accounted for when studying the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Jennifer M. Wolff, Kathleen M. Rospenda, and Judith A. Richman Copyright © 2014 Jennifer M. Wolff et al. All rights reserved. Pattern and Trend of Substance Abuse in Eastern Rural Iran: A Household Survey in a Rural Community Tue, 24 Dec 2013 11:15:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/297378/ Introduction and Aim. Substance abuse imposes hazards on human health in all biopsychosocial aspects. Limited studies exist on epidemiology of substance abuse and its trend in rural areas. The present study aimed to compare substance abuse in one of the rural areas of southeast Iran, in a 12-year period (2000 and 2012). Design and Methods. In a household survey conducted in 2012, in Dashtkhak/Kerman, 1200 individuals above 12 years of age completed a questionnaire to determine their frequency of substance abuse. The questionnaire included the following three areas: demographic characteristics, frequency of substance abuse and ease of access to various drugs. Results. Among 900 completed questionnaires, majority of the participants (61.8%) were below 30 years of age and among them 54.4% were male. Cigarette (17.0%), opium (15.7%) and opium residue (9.0%) were the most frequent substances abused on a daily basis. Based on the participant’s opinion, we conclude that the ease of access to cigarette, waterpipe and opium contributed to their increase in consumption compared with earlier years. Discussion and Conclusion. The steady rise in substance abuse in rural communities demands immediate attention and emergency preventive measures from policy makers. Hasan Ziaaddini, Tayebeh Ziaaddini, and Nouzar Nakhaee Copyright © 2013 Hasan Ziaaddini et al. All rights reserved. Drug Poisoning Deaths according to Ethnicity in Utah Wed, 11 Dec 2013 14:22:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/380161/ This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS). Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female) of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combination of drugs. For each combination, rates were significantly greater for non-Hispanics than Hispanics, with an exception for opiates and illicit drugs combined, where there was no significant difference. Approximately 79% of non-Hispanics and 65% of Hispanics had one or more of the selected problems (e.g., mental, physical, or crisis related). Rates for each combination of problems were significantly greater in non-Hispanics, with the exception of crisis. Hispanics were less affected by the rise in prescription drug abuse. Hispanic decedents had a greater proportion of illegal drugs, consistent with it being more difficult to obtain prescription drugs. Hispanic decedents were less likely to have physical and mental health problems, which may be related to a smaller chance of diagnosis of such problems through the healthcare system. Ray M. Merrill, Riley J. Hedin, Anna Fondario, Arielle A. Sloan, and Carl L. Hanson Copyright © 2013 Ray M. Merrill et al. All rights reserved. Association between Acculturation and Binge Drinking among Asian-Americans: Results from the California Health Interview Survey Wed, 11 Dec 2013 09:26:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/248196/ Objective. Evaluate the association between acculturation and binge drinking among six Asian-American subgroups. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of public access adult portion of 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Survey data was conducted. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized with any binge drinking in the past year as the outcome variable and language spoken at home and time in USA as proxy measures of acculturation. Results. A total of 1,631 Asian-Americans () were identified as binge drinkers. Binge drinking was positively associated with being first generation South Asian (, 95% , 5.98) and monolingual (English only) Vietnamese (; 95% , 5.70), especially among females. Other factors associated with increased binge drinking were being female (Chinese only), not being current married (South Asian only), and being an ever smoker (all subgroups except South Asians). Conclusion. First generation South Asians and linguistically acculturated Vietnamese, especially females, are at an increased risk of binge drinking. Future studies and preventive measures should address the cultural basis of such health risk behaviors among Asian-American adults. Monideepa B. Becerra, Patti Herring, Helen Hopp Marshak, and Jim E. Banta Copyright © 2013 Monideepa B. Becerra et al. All rights reserved. Exploring Spatial Associations between On-Sale Alcohol Availability, Neighborhood Population Characteristics, and Violent Crime in a Geographically Isolated City Wed, 27 Nov 2013 09:18:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/356152/ Objectives. Despite the increasing evidence of the associations between alcohol availability and violence, there are still inconsistent findings on the effects of on- and off-sale alcohol outlets on violent crime. The aim of this study was to examine spatial associations between on-sale alcohol availability, neighborhood characteristics, and violent crime in a geographically isolated city in Texas. Methods. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) and global regression models were employed to analyze the nature of the spatial relationship between violent crime, neighborhood sociocultural characteristics, and on-sale alcohol environment. Results. We found strong effects of neighborhood characteristics combined with on-sale alcohol availability on violence outcomes. Several neighborhood variables combined with alcohol availability explained about 63% of the variability in violence. An additional 7% was explained by the GWR model, while spatially nonstationary associations between violence and some predictor variables were observed. Conclusions. This study provided more credible evidence of the influence of on-sale alcohol outlets on violence in a unique setting. These findings have important policy implications in addressing the question of public health consequences of alcohol-related violence in local contexts. Daikwon Han and Dennis M. Gorman Copyright © 2013 Daikwon Han and Dennis M. Gorman. All rights reserved. Initial Smoking Experiences and Current Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions among Current Smokers Thu, 12 Sep 2013 10:07:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/491797/ Purpose. We examine early-onset cigarette smoking and how, if at all, it is related to subsequent smoking practices. Methods. From 2004 to 2007, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 485 adult cigarette smokers residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Data analysis involved a multivariate analysis to determine whether age of smoking onset was related to current smoking practices when the effects of gender, age, race, marital/relationship status, income, and educational attainment were taken into account. Results. The mean age for smoking onset was 14.8, and more than one-half of all smokers had their first cigarette between the ages of 12 and 16. Most people reported an interval of less than one month between their first and second time using tobacco. Earlier onset cigarette smoking was related to more cigarette use and worse tobacco-related health outcomes in adulthood. Conclusions. Early prevention and intervention are needed to avoid early-onset smoking behaviors. Intervening after initial experimentation but before patterned smoking practices are established will be challenging, as the interval between initial and subsequent use tends to be short. Hugh Klein, Claire E. Sterk, and Kirk W. Elifson Copyright © 2013 Hugh Klein et al. All rights reserved. Measuring Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the PUMP Scale Wed, 04 Sep 2013 14:46:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/912807/ This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of an English language measure of problematic mobile phone use. Participants were recruited from a university campus, health science center, and other public locations. The sample included 244 individuals (68.4% female) aged 18–75. Results supported a unidimensional factor structure for the 20-item self-report Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP) Scale. Internal consistency was excellent (). Strong correlations (, ) were found between the PUMP Scale and an existing scale of cellular phone dependency that was validated in Asia, as well as items assessing frequency and intensity of mobile phone use. Results provide preliminary support for the use of the PUMP Scale to measure problematic use of mobile phones. Lisa J. Merlo, Amanda M. Stone, and Alex Bibbey Copyright © 2013 Lisa J. Merlo et al. All rights reserved. An Exploration of Responses to Drug Conditioned Stimuli during Treatment for Substance Dependence Mon, 26 Aug 2013 10:08:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/394064/ Although it is well established that drug conditioned stimuli produce a variety of conditioned responses, it is not known whether such stimuli can also reinforce an arbitrary operant response and thus serve as conditioned reinforcers. Volunteers () recruited from a residential treatment center for substance dependence were tested on a task in which presses on computer keys activated images of drugs/drug paraphernalia on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. They also completed a personalized craving questionnaire and a personalized Implicit Association Test. A significant bias in responding was found for images of preferred drugs/route of drug administration. Craving, however, was low and the images generated negative evaluative reactions. Two additional studies were performed to ascertain the generalizability of the effects to a different population of drug-using individuals (i.e., students who drink) and to incentive stimuli of a different nature (i.e., sexual). The additional studies partially replicated and extended the central findings of the main study. Therefore, although these data should be considered preliminary in light of small group sizes, it is concluded that cue specificity and availability of the unconditioned stimuli (drugs and sex) plays a role in modulating responding maintained by conditioned reinforcers. Benjamin Goddard, Leanne S. Son Hing, and Francesco Leri Copyright © 2013 Benjamin Goddard et al. All rights reserved. Controlling Chaos: The Perceptions of Long-Term Crack Cocaine Users in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Wed, 24 Jul 2013 13:12:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/851840/ People who smoke crack cocaine are described as chaotic and more likely to engage in risky sex, polysubstance use and contract infectious diseases. However, little is known about how individuals perceive smoking crack as compared to other forms of cocaine use, especially injection. We explored the lived experience of people who smoke crack cocaine. Six gender-specific focus groups () of individuals who currently smoke crack in Vancouver, Canada, were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed by constant comparative methodology. We applied Rhodes’ risk environment to the phenomenological understanding that individuals have regarding how crack has affected their lives. Subjects reported that smoking rather than injecting cocaine allows them to begin “controlling chaos” in their lives. Controlling chaos was self-defined using nontraditional measures such as the ability to maintain day-to-day commitments and housing stability. The phenomenological lens of smoking crack instead of injecting cocaine “to control chaos” contributes a novel perspective to our understanding of the crack-smoking population. This study examines narratives which add to prior reports of the association of crack smoking and increased chaos and suggests that, for some, inhaled crack may represent efforts towards self-directed harm reduction. Steven Persaud, Despina Tzemis, Margot Kuo, Vicky Bungay, and Jane A. Buxton Copyright © 2013 Steven Persaud et al. All rights reserved. Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia Sun, 31 Mar 2013 15:21:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/516342/ Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use. Robyn L. Richmond, Devon Indig, Tony G. Butler, Kay A. Wilhelm, Vicki A. Archer, and Alex D. Wodak Copyright © 2013 Robyn L. Richmond et al. All rights reserved. Involvement in Specific HIV Risk Practices among Men Who Use the Internet to Find Male Partners for Unprotected Sex Mon, 25 Mar 2013 08:36:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/826039/ Purpose. Men who have sex with other men (MSM) account for more than one-half of all new HIV infections in the USA. This study reports on the prevalence of a variety of HIV risk behaviors in one specific subpopulation of risk-seeking MSM. Methods. The study was based on a national sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to find partners for unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Results. Unprotected oral and anal sex was commonplace among study participants. Men engaged in a large number of other risky behaviors as well, including having had multiple recent sex partners (mean number = 11), simultaneous double-penile penetration of the anus (16%), eating semen out of another man’s anus (17%), engaging in multiple-partner sexual encounters (47%), engaging in anonymous sex (51%), and having sex while “under the influence” (52%). Conclusions. HIV intervention and prevention programs need to address numerous behaviors that place MSM at risk for contracting/transmitting HIV. Merely focusing on unprotected anal sex does a disservice to members of this community, who typically engage in many types of behavioral risks, each of which requires addressing if HIV transmission rates are to be reduced. Hugh Klein Copyright © 2013 Hugh Klein. All rights reserved. Familial, Social, and Individual Factors Contributing to Risk for Adolescent Substance Use Wed, 20 Mar 2013 10:05:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/579310/ Data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveal high numbers of adolescent substance use in the United States. Substance use among adolescents can lead to increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, vehicular fatalities, juvenile delinquency, and other problems associated with physical and mental health. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to involvement in substance use due to the underdeveloped state of the adolescent brain, which can lead to reduced decision-making ability and increased long-term effects of drugs and alcohol. Understanding the causes of adolescent substance use is vital for successful prevention and intervention programs. Mackenzie Whitesell, Annette Bachand, Jennifer Peel, and Mark Brown Copyright © 2013 Mackenzie Whitesell et al. All rights reserved. Parental Factors Associated with Mexican American Adolescent Alcohol Use Thu, 14 Mar 2013 09:59:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/205189/ The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options. Cristina Mogro-Wilson Copyright © 2013 Cristina Mogro-Wilson. All rights reserved. Receipt of Prescribed Controlled Substances by Adolescents and Young Adults Prior to Presenting for Opiate Dependence Treatment Sun, 17 Feb 2013 08:56:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/680705/ Purpose. The objective of this study was to document the number of controlled substance prescriptions filled by adolescents and young adult patients in the 2 years prior to presentation for opiate dependence treatment. Methods. Opiate-dependent youth () presenting to our Medication-Assisted Treatment for Addiction program from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 were identified via electronic medical record. Subjects were further classified based on their opiate use as dependent to heroin-only, prescription (Rx) opiate-only, or combined heroin + Rx opiate only. The Ohio Automated Rx Reporting System (OARRS) was used to identify each subject's controlled substance prescription history. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationships between patient characteristics and the total number of prescriptions filled. Results. Twenty-five percent of subjects had filled ≥6 prescriptions, and 15% had filled ≥11 prescriptions. The mean number of prescriptions filled was 5 (range: 0–59). Thirteen percent had filled ≥6 opiate/narcotic prescriptions, and 8% had filled ≥11 prescriptions. Conclusions. A subset of opiate-dependent youth had filled multiple opiate/narcotic prescriptions providing some evidence that physician-provided prescriptions may be a source of opiate abuse or diversion for a minority of opiate-dependent adolescents and young adults. Steven C. Matson, Cathleen Bentley, Vicki Hughes Dughman, and Andrea E. Bonny Copyright © 2013 Steven C. Matson et al. All rights reserved. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood Tue, 15 Jan 2013 13:13:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2013/709207/ This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (; , ) completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults. Sasha A. Fleary, Robert W. Heffer, and E. Lisako J. McKyer Copyright © 2013 Sasha A. Fleary et al. All rights reserved.