Journal of Aerodynamics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Shape Optimization of an Airfoil in Ground Effect for Application to WIG Craft Mon, 08 Dec 2014 08:09:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jaer/2014/931232/ This paper employs a multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to optimize the shape of a widely used wing in ground (WIG) aircraft airfoil NACA 4412 to improve its lift and drag characteristics, in particular to achieve two objectives, that is, to increase its lift and its lift to drag ratio. The commercial software ANSYS FLUENT is employed to calculate the flow field on an adaptive structured mesh generated by ANSYS ICEM software using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a one equation Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The results show significant improvement in both the lift coefficient and lift to drag ratio of the optimized airfoil compared to the original NACA 4412 airfoil. It is demonstrated that the performance of a wing in ground (WIG) aircraft can be improved by using the optimized airfoil. Yilei He, Qiulin Qu, and Ramesh K. Agarwal Copyright © 2014 Yilei He et al. All rights reserved. Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Offshore Upwind and Downwind Turbines Wed, 29 Oct 2014 09:10:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jaer/2014/860637/ Aerodynamic interactions of the model NREL 5 MW offshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are investigated using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Four wind turbine configurations are considered; three-bladed upwind and downwind and two-bladed upwind and downwind configurations, which operate at two different rotor speeds of 12.1 and 16 RPM. In the present study, both steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads, such as the rotor torque, blade hub bending moment, and base the tower bending moment of the tower, are evaluated in detail to provide overall assessment of different wind turbine configurations. Aerodynamic interactions between the rotor and tower are analyzed, including the rotor wake development downstream. The computational analysis provides insight into aerodynamic performance of the upwind and downwind, two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines. Qiuying Zhao, Chunhua Sheng, and Abdollah Afjeh Copyright © 2014 Qiuying Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Wind Loads of Solar Water Heaters: Wind Incidence Effect Mon, 27 Oct 2014 13:11:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jaer/2014/835091/ For applications of solar thermal energy, solar water heaters (SWHs) are becoming common. In this study, the effect of a crosswind on the aerodynamic characteristics of residential (an inclined flat plate with a horizontal cylinder) and large-scale SWHs (an inclined flat plate only) is experimentally investigated. The tests are conducted in a low speed wind tunnel and the relative wind direction with respect to the test model, , ranges from 0 to 135 deg. Measurements of the mean and fluctuating pressures are presented. These results demonstrate that higher suction and fluctuating pressure are observed near the upwind corner, particularly for the test case of  deg. Chin-Cheng Chou, Kung-Ming Chung, and Keh-Chin Chang Copyright © 2014 Chin-Cheng Chou et al. All rights reserved. On the Kutta Condition in Potential Flow over Airfoil Tue, 01 Apr 2014 08:17:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jaer/2014/676912/ This paper proposes a novel method to implement the Kutta condition in irrotational, inviscid, incompressible flow (potential flow) over an airfoil. In contrast to common practice, this method is not based on the panel method. It is based on a finite difference scheme formulated on a boundary-fitted grid using an O-type elliptic grid generation technique. The proposed algorithm uses a novel and fast procedure to implement the Kutta condition by calculating the stream function over the airfoil surface through the derived expression for the airfoils with both finite trailing edge angle and cusped trailing edge. The results obtained show the excellent agreement with the results from analytical and panel methods thereby confirming the accuracy and correctness of the proposed method. Farzad Mohebbi and Mathieu Sellier Copyright © 2014 Farzad Mohebbi and Mathieu Sellier. All rights reserved. Drag Reduction of Passenger Car Using Add-On Devices Sun, 23 Mar 2014 07:54:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jaer/2014/678518/ This work proposes an effective numerical model using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to obtain the flow structure around a passenger car with different add-on devices. The computational/numerical model of the passenger car and mesh was constructed using ANSYS Fluent which is the CFD solver and employed in the present work. In this study, numerical iterations are completed, and then aerodynamic data and detailed complicated flow structure are visualized. In the present work, a model of generic passenger car was developed using solidworks, generated the wind tunnel, and applied the boundary conditions in ANSYS workbench platform, and then testing and simulation have been performed for the evaluation of drag coefficient for passenger car. In another case, the aerodynamics of the most suitable design of vortex generator, spoiler, tail plates, and spoiler with VGs are introduced and analysed for the evaluation of drag coefficient for passenger car. The addition of these add-on devices are reduces the drag-coefficient and lift coefficient in head-on wind. Rounding the edges partially reduces drag in head-on wind but does not bring about the significant improvements in the aerodynamic efficiency of the passenger car with add-on devices, and it can be obtained. Hence, the drag force can be reduced by using add-on devices on vehicle and fuel economy, stability of a passenger car can be improved. Ram Bansal and R. B. Sharma Copyright © 2014 Ram Bansal and R. B. Sharma. All rights reserved. Calibration Technique for Recovery of Short Duration Aerodynamic Force Tue, 04 Mar 2014 12:32:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jaer/2014/574520/ Force measurement is one of the key issues for design of high speed vehicle configurations. They are routinely tested in impulse facilities where the test duration is in the order of few milliseconds. Since, the experiments are performed in short test times, it is expected that the model never achieves the steady state. So, the measurement diagnostics must account this fact while inferring the forces from the measured parameters. One of the methods is the determination of characteristics system response function by including the dynamics of the system. The aim of this work is to develop a calibration experimental setup and measure axial force on generic aerodynamic body configurations during a short time (~0.6 ms). A generic aerodynamic model attached to a “stress bar” is suspended freely and an impulse load is applied at the tip of the model. An accelerometer fitted with the model records the signal corresponding to the motion of the model. Then, the system characteristics function (impulse response function) is obtained from input force history and output accelerometer signal and further used to predict any unknown forces of similar nature. The recovered forces are compared well with the applied ones with a reasonable accuracy of %. Niranjan Sahoo and P. Ramesh Babu Copyright © 2014 Niranjan Sahoo and P. Ramesh Babu. All rights reserved. Experimental Evaluation of an Internally Passively Pressurized Circulation Control Propeller Mon, 03 Feb 2014 08:39:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jaer/2014/834132/ The purpose of circulation control for fixed wing aircrafts is to increase the lifting force when large lifting forces and/or slow speeds are required, such as at takeoff and landing. Wing flaps and slats are used on almost all fixed-wing aircraft. While effective in increasing lift, they do so with penalty of increasing drag, weight, and control complexity. The goal of this research was to find an alternative way of pumping pressurized air to the trailing edge slot on a UAV propeller. This design called for rerouting stagnation pressure from the frontal propeller area through the inside of the propeller blades to ejection slots on the trailing edge. This allows for the forward velocity of the aircraft to drive the pressurization of the circulation control plenum passively, without additional hardware. For this study, a Clark-Y airfoil section propeller with an overall diameter of 0.609 meters was designed and tested. The comparison of the augmented to unaugmented propeller showed a 5.12 percent increase in efficiency, which is shown to act over the entire range of flight envelopes of the aircraft and is shown to be particularly beneficial at advance ratios above 0.30, normal operating conditions of propeller-driven UAVs. Jonathan Kweder, Cale H. Zeune, Jon Geiger, Andrew D. Lowery, and James E. Smith Copyright © 2014 Jonathan Kweder et al. All rights reserved.