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Journal of Applied Mathematics

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 414831, 35 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/414831

## A System of Mixed Equilibrium Problems, a General System of Variational Inequality Problems for Relaxed Cocoercive, and Fixed Point Problems for Nonexpansive Semigroup and Strictly Pseudocontractive Mappings

^{1}Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Bangkok 10140, Thailand^{2}Centre of Excellence in Mathematics, CHE, Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand^{3}Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Science and Agricultural Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna Tak, Tak 63000, Thailand

Received 17 November 2011; Accepted 23 January 2012

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Marino

Copyright © 2012 Poom Kumam and Phayap Katchang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We introduce an iterative algorithm for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a system of mixed equilibrium problems, the set of solutions of a general system of variational inequalities for Lipschitz continuous and relaxed cocoercive mappings, the set of common fixed points for nonexpansive semigroups, and the set of common fixed points for an infinite family of strictly pseudocontractive mappings in Hilbert spaces. Furthermore, we prove a strong convergence theorem of the iterative sequence generated by the proposed iterative algorithm under some suitable conditions which solves some optimization problems. Our results extend and improve the recent results of Chang et al. (2010) and many others.

#### 1. Introduction

Let be a real Hilbert space with inner product and norm . Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of . Recall that a mapping is *nonexpansive* if
We denote the set of *fixed points of * by , that is . A mapping is said to be an *-contraction* if there exists a coefficient such that
Let be a mapping. Then is called:(1)*monotone* if
(2)*-strongly monotone* if there exists a positive real number such that
for constant , this implies that
that is, is -expansive and when , it is expansive;(3)*-Lipschitz continuous* if there exists a positive real number such that(4)*-cocoercive* [1, 2] if there exists a positive real number such that
Clearly, every -cocoercive map is -Lipschitz continuous;(5)*relaxed **-cocoercive*, if there exists a positive real number such that
(6)*relaxed **-cocoercive*, if there exists a positive real number such that
for , is -strongly monotone. This class of mapping is more general than the class of strongly monotone mapping. It is easy to see that we have the following implication: -strongly monotonicity implying relaxed -cocoercivity,(7)*-strictly pseudocontractive*, if there exists a constant such that

*Remark 1.1 (see [3, Remark 1.1 pages 135-136]). *If is a -Lipschitz continuous and relaxed -cocoercive mapping with and , then satisfies the following:
where .

Similarly, if -Lipschitz continuous and relaxed -cocoercive mapping with and , then the mapping satisfies the following:
where .

Let be a *strongly positive linear bounded operator* on if there is a constant with the property
We recall *optimization problem* (for short, OP) as the following
where are infinitely closed convex subsets of such that , , is a real number, is a strongly positive linear bounded operator on , and is a potential function for (i.e., for ). This kind of optimization problem has been studied extensively by many authors, see, for example, [4–7] when and , where is a given point in .

On the other hand, a family of mappings of into itself is called a *nonexpansive semigroup* on if it satisfies the following conditions:(i) for all ;(ii) for all ;(iii) for all and ;(iv)for all is continuous.

We denote by the set of all common *fixed points of *, that is, . It is known that is closed and convex.

Let be a real-valued function and let be a finite family of equilibrium functions, that is, for each . The *system of mixed equilibrium problems* (for short, SMEP) for function is to find such that
The set of solutions of (1.15) is denoted by , where is the set of solutions of the *mixed equilibrium problem* (for short, MEP), which is to find such that
In particular, if , and , then the problem (1.15) reduces to the *equilibrium problem* (for short, EP), which is to find such that
It is well known that the SMEP includes fixed point problem, optimization problem, variational inequality problem, and Nash equilibrium problem as its special cases (see [8–13] for more details).

For solving the solutions of a nonexpansive semigroup and the solutions of the system of mixed equilibrium problems were studied by many authors see [14–23] and reference therein. In 2010, Chang et al. [24] studied the following approximation method: where is the mapping defined by (2.22) below, is the mapping defined by (2.12), and is a nonexpansive semigroup. They proved that converges strongly to a fixed point of under control conditions on the parameters.

Let be two mappings. The *general system of variational inequalities problem* (see [25]) is to find such that
where and are two positive real numbers. The set of solutions of the general system of variational inequalities problem is denoted by . In particular, if , then the problem (1.20) reduces to the following equation:
which is defined by Verma [26] (see also Verma [27]), and is called the *new system of variational inequalities*. Further, if we set , then problem (1.20) reduces to the *classical variational inequality* is to find such that
We denoted by the set of solutions of the variational inequality problem. The variational inequality problem has been extensively studied in literature, see, for example, [28–31] and references therein. In order to find the solutions of the general system of variational inequality problem (1.20), Wangkeeree and Kamraksa [32] considered the following iterative algorithm:
where is a -Lipschitz continuous and relaxed -cocoercive mapping and -Lipschitz continuous and relaxed -cocoercive mapping, respectively. They proved that converges strongly to a fixed point of which is a solution of general system of variational inequality (1.20). Very recently, Jaiboon and Kumam [33] studied a new general iterative method for finding a common element of the set of solution of a mixed equilibrium problem, the set of fixed points of an infinite family of nonexpansive mappings, and the set of solutions of variational inequalities for an inverse-strongly monotone mapping in Hilbert spaces, which solves some optimization problems.

Inspired and motivated by Chang et al. [24], Jaiboon and Kumam [33], Kumam and Jaiboon [34] and Wangkeeree and Kamraksa [32], the purpose of this paper is to introduce an iterative algorithm for finding a common element of the set of solutions of (1.15), the set of solutions of (1.20) for Lipschitz continuous and relaxed cocoercive mappings, the set of common fixed points for nonexpansive semigroup, and the set of common fixed points for an infinite family of strictly pseudocontractive mappings. Consequently, we prove the strong convergence theorem in Hilbert spaces under control conditions on the parameters. Furthermore, we can apply our results for solving some optimization problems. Our results extend and improve the corresponding results in Chang et al. [24], Kumam and Jaiboon [34], Wangkeeree and Kamraksa [32], and many others.

#### 2. Preliminaries

Let a real Hilbert space and a nonempty closed convex subset of . We denote strong convergence (weak convergence) by notation . In a real Hilbert space , it is well known that for all and .

Recall that for every point , there exists a unique nearest point in , denoted by , such that
is called the *metric projection* of onto . It is well known that is a nonexpansive mapping of onto and satisfies
for every . Obviously, this immediately implies that
Moreover, is characterized by the following properties: and
for all .

In order to prove our main results, we need the following lemmas.

Lemma 2.1 (see [35]). *Let be a -strict pseudo-contraction, then*(1)*the fixed point set of is closed convex so that the projection is well defined;*(2)*define a mapping by
If , then is a nonexpansive mapping such that .*

A family of mappings is called *a family of uniformly **-strict pseudo-contractions*, if there exists a constant such that
Let be a countable family of uniformly -strict pseudo-contractions. Let be the sequence of nonexpansive mappings defined by (2.9), that is,

Let be a sequence of nonexpansive mappings of into itself defined by (2.11) and let be a sequence of nonnegative numbers in . For each , define a mapping of into itself as follows: Such a mapping is nonexpansive from to and it is called the -mapping generated by and .

For each , let the mapping be defined by (2.12). Then we can have the following crucial conclusions concerning . You can find them in [36]. Now we only need the following similar version in Hilbert spaces.

Lemma 2.2 (see [36]). *Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space . Let be nonexpansive mappings of into itself such that is nonempty, let be real numbers such that for every . Then,*(1)* is nonexpansive and , for all ;*(2)*for every and , the limit exists;*(3)*a mapping defined by
is a nonexpansive mapping satisfying and it is called the -mapping generated by and .*

Lemma 2.3 (see [37]). *Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of a Hilbert space , a countable family of nonexpansive mappings with , a real sequence such that . If is any bounded subset of , then
*

Lemma 2.4 (see [38]). *Each Hilbert space satisfies Opial’s condition, that is, for any sequence with , the inequality
**
holds for each with .*

Lemma 2.5 (see [39]). *Assume is a strongly positive linear bounded operator on with coefficient and . Then, .*

For solving the system of mixed equilibrium problems (1.15), let us assume that function satisfies the following conditions:(H1) is monotone, that is, , for all ;(H2) for each fixed , is convex and upper semicontinuous;(H3) for each is convex.

Let and be two mappings. is said to be(1)*monotone* if
(2)*-strongly monotone* if there exists a positive real number such that
(3)*-Lipschitz continuous* if there exists a constant such that

Let be a differentiable functional on , which is called:(1)*-convex* [40] if
where is the Fréchet derivative of at ;(2)*-strongly convex* [41] if there exists a constant such that

In particular, if for all , then is said to be *strongly convex*.

Lemma 2.6 (see [42]). *Let be a real Hilbert space and let be a lower semicontinuous and convex functional from to . Let be a bifunction from to satisfying (H1)–(H3). Assume that*(i)* is -Lipschitz continuous with constant such that(a) ,
(b) is affine in the first variable,(c)for each fixed , is sequentially continuous from the weak topology to the weak topology;*(ii)

*is -strongly convex with constant and its derivative is sequentially continuous from the weak topology to the strong topology;*(iii)

*for each , there exist bounded subsets and such that for any , For given , let be the mapping defined by*

*for all . Then*(1)

*is single-valued.*(2)

*, where is the set of solution of the mixed equilibrium problem,*(3)

*is closed and convex.*

Lemma 2.7 (see [43]). *Let and be bounded sequences in a Banach space and let be a sequence in with . Suppose for all integers and . Then, .*

Lemma 2.8 (see [44]). *Assume is a sequence of nonnegative real numbers such that
**
where is a sequence in and is a sequence in such that*(1)*,
*(2)* or .**Then, .*

Lemma 2.9 (see [45]). *Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space and a proper lower-semicontinuous differentiable convex function. If is a solution to the minimization problem
**
then
**
In particular, if solves problem , then
*

Lemma 2.10 (see [46]). *Let be a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of a Hilbert space and let be a nonexpansive semigroup on , then for any ,
*

Lemma 2.11 (see [47]). *Let C be a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of , a sequence in C, and a nonexpansive semigroup on . If the following conditions are satisfied:*(i)*;*(ii)*, then .*

Lemma 2.12 (see [25]). *For given and is a solution of the problem (1.20) if and only if is a fixed point of the mapping is defined by
**
where , and are positive constants and are two mappings.*

Throughout this paper, the set of fixed points of the mapping is denoted by .

Lemma 2.13 (see [32]). *Let be defined in Lemma 2.12. If is a -Lipschitzian and relaxed -cocoercive mapping and is a -Lipschitz and relaxed -cocoercive mapping where and , then G is nonexpansive.*

Lemma 2.14 (demiclosedness principle [48]). *Assume that is a nonexpansive self-mapping of a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space . If has a fixed point, then is demiclosed; that is, whenever is a sequence in converging weakly to some (for short, ), and the sequence converges strongly to some (for short, ), it follows that . Here is the identity operator of . *

#### 3. Main Results

In this section, we prove a strong convergence theorem of an iterative algorithm (3.1) for finding the solutions of a common element of the set of solutions of (1.15), the set of solutions of (1.20) for Lipschitz continuous and relaxed cocoercive mappings, the set of common fixed points for nonexpansive semigroups, and the set of common fixed points for an infinite family of strictly pseudocontractive mappings in a real Hilbert space.

Theorem 3.1. *Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space which and let be a contraction of into itself with . Let be a lower semicontinuous and convex functional from to and let be a finite family of equilibrium functions satisfying conditions (H1)–(H3). Let be a nonexpansive semigroup on and let be a positive real divergent sequence. Let be a countable family of uniformly -strict pseudo-contractions, let be the countable family of nonexpansive mappings defined by , let be the -mapping defined by (2.12), and let be a mapping defined by (2.13) with . Let be a strongly positive linear bounded operator on with coefficient and let , be a -Lipschitz continuous and relaxed -cocoercive mapping with , and let be a -Lipschitz continuous and relaxed -cocoercive mapping with . Suppose that , where . Let , and , which are constants. For given arbitrarily and fixed , suppose , , and are the sequences generated iteratively by
**
where
** is the mapping defined by (2.22) and and are two sequences in for all . Assume the following conditions are satisfied:*(C1)* is -Lipschitz continuous with constant such that(a) ,
(b) is affine,(c)for each fixed , is sequentially continuous from the weak topology to the weak topology;*(C2)

*is -strongly convex with constant and its derivative is not only sequentially continuous from the weak topology to the strong topology but also Lipschitz continuous with a Lipschitz constant such that ;*(C3)

*for each and for all , there exist bounded subsets and such that for any ,*(C4)

*and ;*(C5)

*;*(C6)

*and .*

*Then, converges strongly to , which solves the following optimization problem (OP):*

*and is a solution of the general system of variational inequality problem (1.20) such that .*

*Proof. *By the condition (C4) and (C5), we may assume, without loss of generality, that for all . Indeed, is a strongly positive bounded linear operator on , we have
Observe that
so this shows that is positive. It follows that
We shall divide the proofs into several steps.*Step 1. *We show that is bounded.

Let . In fact, by the assumption that for each , is nonexpansive. Let and . Then, we have and . Since , then
Putting , we have . Since and , therefore, we have
Because and are nonexpansive mappings and from Remark 1.1, we have
which yields that
It follows from (3.11) and induction that
Hence, is bounded, so are , , , , for all and , where .*Step 2. *We prove that and .

Again, from Remark 1.1, we have the following estimates:
On the other hand, since and are nonexpansive, we have
where is a constant such that for all . It follows from (3.13) and (3.14) that we have
It follows that
where .

Setting , for all , we have
Then, we obtain
It follows from (3.16) and (3.18) that
By the conditions (C4), (C5) and from , and , we have
Hence, by Lemma 2.7, we obtain
It follows that
Applying (3.22) into (3.13), we obtain that
*Step 3. *We show that , , and , where .

Since , we have
that is
By (C4), (C5), and (3.22) it follows that

Since is firmly nonexpansive, , where and , we have
and hence
Observe that