Table 4: The function error values achieved via CCoDE-umbest and CoDE on CEC2005's test functions.

FES
Alg.
CCoDE-umbest CoDE CCoDE-umbest CoDE
Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std.

f1
f2
f3
f4
f5
f6
f7
f8
f9
f10
f11
f12
f13
f14
f15
f16
f17
f18
f19
f20
f21
f22
f23
f24
f25

Sign test on mean Neg_Dif Pos_Dif Ties P value Neg_Dif Pos_Dif Ties P value
16 4 5 0.012 15 5 5 0.041

“FES” denotes the number of function evaluations. “Std.” denotes the standard deviation of 25 mean errors. The two bottom lines record the test statistics for sign test on mean errors. “Neg_Dif” and “Pos_Dif” denote the number of negative and positive differences, respectively. “P value” denotes the probability value supporting the null hypothesis. Here the both P value are less than the significance level at 0.05.