973805.fig.002a
(a)
973805.fig.002b
(b)
Figure 2: Typical examples of predator ( ) and prey ( ) population dynamics. Allee effect of predator (or prey) starts to occur at . (a) Predator with Allee effect, and (b) prey with Allee effect. Before the Allee effect ( ), the system stays in steady state. Parameter values: , , , , and .