Table 4: The results of different penalty methods.

Penalty methodsCost (mean)Cost (st. dev.)Success rate (mean)Success rate (st. dev.)CPU time

WP1010.36666782.237454060.9070175440.0777996841.074814229
DP1016.5101.11916830.9754385960.0330952751.00755095
RPGA1006.483.139102380.982456140.0287722251.075849966