Journal of Applied Mathematics The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Product Demand Forecasting and Dynamic Pricing considering Consumers’ Mental Accounting and Peak-End Reference Effects Tue, 02 Sep 2014 14:08:01 +0000 We introduce a demand forecasting model for a monopolistic company selling products to consumers with double-entry mental accounting, which means consumers experience pleasure when consuming goods or service and feel pains when paying for them. Moreover, as the monopolist changes prices, consumers form a reference price that adjusts an anchoring standard based on the lowest price that they perceived, namely, the peak-end anchoring. We obtain the steady state prices under three different payment schemes for two- and infinite-period. We also analyze the relationship between these steady prices and maximal profit and compare the steady state prices of different payment schemes by changing the double-entry mental accounting’s parameters through numerical examples. The proposed model is computationally tractable for demand forecasting of realistic size. Wenjie Bi and Mengqi Liu Copyright © 2014 Wenjie Bi and Mengqi Liu. All rights reserved. Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:15:26 +0000 The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF) operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the above problem, and the design method is given. The simulation and experiment results proved that the proposed variable structure control algorithm can eliminate the chattering problem existing in traditional variable structure control effectively, is insensitive to system disturbance, and has good robustness and fast dynamic response speed and stable DC bus voltage with small fluctuation. The above advantages ensure the compensation effect of APF. Baolian Liu, Zujun Ding, Huanyu Zhao, and Defei Jin Copyright © 2014 Baolian Liu et al. All rights reserved. Stochastically Ultimate Boundedness and Global Attraction of Positive Solution for a Stochastic Competitive System Tue, 02 Sep 2014 11:27:15 +0000 A stochastic competitive system is investigated. We first show that the positive solution of the above system does not explode to infinity in a finite time, and the existence and uniqueness of positive solution are discussed. Later, sufficient conditions for the stochastically ultimate boundedness of positive solution are derived. Also, with the help of Lyapunov function, sufficient conditions for the global attraction of positive solution are established. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to justify our theoretical results. Shengliang Guo, Zhijun Liu, and Huili Xiang Copyright © 2014 Shengliang Guo et al. All rights reserved. Empirical Likelihood for Partial Parameters in ARMA Models with Infinite Variance Tue, 02 Sep 2014 11:07:11 +0000 This paper proposes a profile empirical likelihood for the partial parameters in ARMA models with infinite variance. We introduce a smoothed empirical log-likelihood ratio statistic. Also, the paper proves a nonparametric version of Wilks’s theorem. Furthermore, we conduct a simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. Jinyu Li, Wei Liang, and Shuyuan He Copyright © 2014 Jinyu Li et al. All rights reserved. Improved Filter-SQP Algorithm with Active Set for Constrained Minimax Problems Tue, 02 Sep 2014 09:41:54 +0000 An improved filter-SQP algorithm with active set for constrained finite minimax problems is proposed. Firstly, an active constraint subset is obtained by a pivoting operation procedure. Then, a new quadratic programming (QP) subproblem is constructed based on the active constraint subset. The main search direction is obtained by solving this (QP) subproblem which is feasible at per iteration point and need not to consider the penalty function by using the filter technique. Under some suitable conditions, the global convergence of our algorithm is established. Finally, some numerical results are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Zhijun Luo and Lirong Wang Copyright © 2014 Zhijun Luo and Lirong Wang. All rights reserved. Frank Aggregation Operators for Triangular Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Set and Its Application in Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making Tue, 02 Sep 2014 07:04:07 +0000 This paper investigates an approach to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems, in which the individual assessments are in the form of triangle interval type-2 fuzzy numbers (TIT2FNs). Firstly, some Frank operation laws of triangle interval type-2 fuzzy set (TIT2FS) are defined. Secondly, some Frank aggregation operators such as the triangle interval type-2 fuzzy Frank weighted averaging (TIT2FFWA) operator and the triangle interval type-2 fuzzy Frank weighted geometric (TIT2FFWG) operator are developed for aggregation TIT2FNs. Furthermore, some desirable properties of the two aggregation operators are analyzed in detail. Finally, an approach based on TIT2FFWA (or TIT2FFWG) operator to solve MAGDM is developed. An illustrative example about supplier selection is provided to illustrate the developed procedures. The results demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of our new method. Jindong Qin and Xinwang Liu Copyright © 2014 Jindong Qin and Xinwang Liu. All rights reserved. On the Existence of Global Weak Solutions for a Weakly Dissipative Hyperelastic Rod Wave Equation Tue, 02 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Assuming that the initial value belongs to the space , we prove the existence of global weak solutions for a weakly dissipative hyperelastic rod wave equation in the space . The limit of the viscous approximation for the equation is used to establish the existence. Haibo Yan, Ls Yong, Yu Yang, and Yang Wang Copyright © 2014 Haibo Yan et al. All rights reserved. New Uncertainty Measure of Rough Fuzzy Sets and Entropy Weight Method for Fuzzy-Target Decision-Making Tables Mon, 01 Sep 2014 13:01:31 +0000 In the rough fuzzy set theory, the rough degree is used to characterize the uncertainty of a fuzzy set, and the rough entropy of a knowledge is used to depict the roughness of a rough classification. Both of them are effective, but they are not accurate enough. In this paper, we propose a new rough entropy of a rough fuzzy set combining the rough degree with the rough entropy of a knowledge. Theoretical studies and examples show that the new rough entropy of a rough fuzzy set is suitable. As an application, we introduce it into a fuzzy-target decision-making table and establish a new method for evaluating the entropy weight of attributes. Huani Qin and Darong Luo Copyright © 2014 Huani Qin and Darong Luo. All rights reserved. New Solutions of Elastic Waves in an Elastic Rod under Finite Deformation Mon, 01 Sep 2014 09:58:19 +0000 The nonlinear wave equation of an elastic rod under finite deformation is solved by the extended mapping method. Abundant new exact traveling wave solutions for this equation are obtained, which contain trigonometric function solutions, solitary wave solutions, Jacobian elliptic function solutions, and Weierstrass elliptic function solutions. The method can be used in further works to establish more entirely new solutions for other kinds of nonlinear evolution equations arising in physics. Peng Guo, Xiang Wu, and Liangbi Wang Copyright © 2014 Peng Guo et al. All rights reserved. Birhythmicity and Hard Excitation from Coupled Synthetic Feedback Loops Mon, 01 Sep 2014 08:50:37 +0000 Synthetic biology opens up the possibility of creating circuits that would not survive in the natural world and studying their behaviors in living cells, expanding our notion of biology. Based on this, we analyze on a synthetic biological system the effect of coupling between two instability-generating mechanisms. The systems considered are two topologically equivalent synthetic networks. In addition to simple periodic oscillations and stable steady state, the system can exhibit a variety of new modes of dynamic behavior: coexistence between two stable periodic regimes (birhythmicity) and coexistence of a stable periodic regime with a stable steady state (hard excitation). Birhythmicity and hard excitation have been proved to exist in biochemical networks. Through bifurcation analysis on these two synthetic cellular networks, we analyze the function of network structure for the collapse and revival of birhythmicity and hard excitation with the variation of parameters. The results have illustrated that the bifurcation space can be divided into four subspaces for which the dynamical behaviors of the system are generically distinct. Our analysis corroborates the results obtained by numerical simulation of the dynamics. Aimin Chen, Caixia Liu, and Junwei Wang Copyright © 2014 Aimin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Gossip Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks Mon, 01 Sep 2014 08:23:38 +0000 We study some nonlinear gossip algorithms for wireless sensor networks. Firstly, two types of nonlinear single gossip algorithms are proposed. By using Lyapunov theory, Lagrange mean value theorem, and stochastic Lasalle’s invariance principle, we prove that the nonlinear single gossip algorithms can converge to the average of initial states with probability one. Secondly, two types of nonlinear multigossip algorithms are also presented and the convergence is proved by the same methods. Finally, computer simulation is also given to show the validity of the theoretical results. Chao Shi, Yuanshi Zheng, Hongbing Qiu, and Junyi Wang Copyright © 2014 Chao Shi et al. All rights reserved. An Algebraic Relation between Consimilarity and Similarity of Quaternion Matrices and Applications Mon, 01 Sep 2014 07:52:40 +0000 This paper, by means of complex representation of a quaternion matrix, discusses the consimilarity of quaternion matrices, and obtains a relation between consimilarity and similarity of quaternion matrices. It sets up an algebraic bridge between consimilarity and similarity, and turns the theory of consimilarity of quaternion matrices into that of ordinary similarity of complex matrices. This paper also gives algebraic methods for finding coneigenvalues and coneigenvectors of quaternion matrices by means of complex representation of a quaternion matrix. Tongsong Jiang, Xuehan Cheng, and Sitao Ling Copyright © 2014 Tongsong Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Surface Simplification of 3D Animation Models Using Robust Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Mon, 01 Sep 2014 07:33:54 +0000 The goal of 3D surface simplification is to reduce the storage cost of 3D models. A 3D animation model typically consists of several 3D models. Therefore, to ensure that animation models are realistic, numerous triangles are often required. However, animation models that have a high storage cost have a substantial computational cost. Hence, surface simplification methods are adopted to reduce the number of triangles and computational cost of 3D models. Quadric error metrics (QEM) has recently been identified as one of the most effective methods for simplifying static models. To simplify animation models by using QEM, Mohr and Gleicher summed the QEM of all frames. However, homogeneous coordinate problems cannot be considered completely by using QEM. To resolve this problem, this paper proposes a robust homogeneous coordinate transformation that improves the animation simplification method proposed by Mohr and Gleicher. In this study, the root mean square errors of the proposed method were compared with those of the method proposed by Mohr and Gleicher, and the experimental results indicated that the proposed approach can preserve more contour features than Mohr’s method can at the same simplification ratio. Juin-Ling Tseng Copyright © 2014 Juin-Ling Tseng. All rights reserved. Research on Roll Stabilizing Based on Energy Optimization for Autonomous Surface Vehicle Mon, 01 Sep 2014 07:21:51 +0000 Considering the case of ASV (autonomous surface vehicle) navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for design of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance. Control system design is based on GPC (general predictive control) theory and working principle of zero-speed fin stabilizer. Coupling horizontal motion model of ASV is decoupled, and an equivalent transfer function of roll motion is obtained and transformed into a discrete difference equation through inverse Laplace transformation and Euler approximation. Finally, predictive model of GPC, namely, the difference equation of roll motion, is given. GPC algorithm of ASV roll motion is derived from performance index based on roll stabilizing performance and energy consumption used for driving fin stabilizer. In allusion to time-variant parameters in roll motion model, recursive least square method is adopted for parameter estimation. Simulation results of ASV roll motion control show better stabilizing performance and minimized energy consumption improved by self-adaptive GPC. Hongjian Wang, Linlin Wang, and Lixin Pan Copyright © 2014 Hongjian Wang et al. All rights reserved. Newton’s Method for the Matrix Nonsingular Square Root Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:21:32 +0000 Two new algorithms are proposed to compute the nonsingular square root of a matrix A. Convergence theorems and stability analysis for these new algorithms are given. Numerical results show that these new algorithms are feasible and effective. Chun-Mei Li and Shu-Qian Shen Copyright © 2014 Chun-Mei Li and Shu-Qian Shen. All rights reserved. Implicit Damping Iterative Algorithm to Solve Elastoplastic Static and Dynamic Equations Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:51:07 +0000 This paper presents an implicit damping iterative algorithm to simultaneously solve equilibrium equations, yield function, and plastic flow equations, without requiring an explicit expression of elastoplastic stiffness matrices and local iteration for “return mapping” stresses to the yield surface. In addition, a damping factor is introduced to improve the stiffness matrix conformation in the nonlinear iterative process. The incremental iterative scheme and whole amount iterative scheme are derived to solve the dynamical and static and dynamical elastoplastic problems. To validate the proposed algorithms, computation procedures are designed and the numerical tests are implemented. The computational results verify the correctness and reliability of the proposed implicit iteration algorithms. Huaifa Ma, Jikai Zhou, and Guoping Liang Copyright © 2014 Huaifa Ma et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Acceleration-Velocity-Bounded Trajectory Planning in Dynamic Crowd Simulation Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:13:00 +0000 Creating complex and realistic crowd behaviors, such as pedestrian navigation behavior with dynamic obstacles, is a difficult and time consuming task. In this paper, we study one special type of crowd which is composed of urgent individuals, normal individuals, and normal groups. We use three steps to construct the crowd simulation in dynamic environment. The first one is that the urgent individuals move forward along a given path around dynamic obstacles and other crowd members. An optimal acceleration-velocity-bounded trajectory planning method is utilized to model their behaviors, which ensures that the durations of the generated trajectories are minimal and the urgent individuals are collision-free with dynamic obstacles (e.g., dynamic vehicles). In the second step, a pushing model is adopted to simulate the interactions between urgent members and normal ones, which ensures that the computational cost of the optimal trajectory planning is acceptable. The third step is obligated to imitate the interactions among normal members using collision avoidance behavior and flocking behavior. Various simulation results demonstrate that these three steps give realistic crowd phenomenon just like the real world. Fu Yue-wen, Li Meng, Liang Jia-hong, and Hu Xiao-qian Copyright © 2014 Fu Yue-wen et al. All rights reserved. A Decomposition-Based Approach for the Multiperiod Multiproduct Distribution Planning Problem Sun, 31 Aug 2014 08:27:19 +0000 We address the most general case of multiperiod, multiproduct network planning problems, where we allow spoilage on arcs and storage at nodes. In our models, all network parameters change over time and products. The minimum-cost flow problem in the discrete-time model with varying network parameters is investigated when we allow storage and/or spoilage, and some reformulation techniques employing polyhedrals are developed to obtain optimal solutions for a predefined horizon. Our methods rely on appropriate definitions of polyhedrals and matrices that lead to LP problems comprising a set of sparse subproblems with special structures. Knowing that computational expenses of solving such a large-scale planning problem can be decreased by using decomposition techniques, the special structure of polyhedrals is utilized to develop algorithmic approaches based on decomposition techniques to handle the global problem aiming to save computational resources. S. Ahmad Hosseini, Güvenç Şahin, and Tonguç Ünlüyurt Copyright © 2014 S. Ahmad Hosseini et al. All rights reserved. A New Approach to the Fuzzification of Convex Structures Sun, 31 Aug 2014 07:50:11 +0000 A new approach to the fuzzification of convex structures is introduced. It is also called an -fuzzifying convex structure. In the definition of -fuzzifying convex structure, each subset can be regarded as a convex set to some degree. An -fuzzifying convex structure can be characterized by means of its -fuzzifying closure operator. An -fuzzifying convex structure and its -fuzzifying closure operator are one-to-one corresponding. The concepts of -fuzzifying convexity preserving functions, substructures, disjoint sums, bases, subbases, joins, product, and quotient structures are presented and their fundamental properties are obtained in -fuzzifying convex structure. Fu-Gui Shi and Zhen-Yu Xiu Copyright © 2014 Fu-Gui Shi and Zhen-Yu Xiu. All rights reserved. Profit Malmquist Index and Its Global Form in the Presence of the Negative Data in DEA Sun, 31 Aug 2014 07:07:17 +0000 This paper first introduces the allocative and profit efficiency in the presence of the negative data and then presents a new circular index to measure the productivity change of decision making units (DMUs) for the case that the dataset contains the inputs and/or outputs with the negative values in data envelopment analysis (DEA). The proposed index is decomposed into four components in the two stages. The range directional model (RDM) and the proposed efficiencies are used to compute the proposed index and its components. The interpretations of the components are presented. Finally, a numerical example is organized to illustrate the proposed index and its components at three successive periods of time. Ghasem Tohidi, Shabnam Razavyan, and Simin Tohidnia Copyright © 2014 Ghasem Tohidi et al. All rights reserved. Fast Stiffness Matrix Calculation for Nonlinear Finite Element Method Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:36:36 +0000 We propose a fast stiffness matrix calculation technique for nonlinear finite element method (FEM). Nonlinear stiffness matrices are constructed using Green-Lagrange strains, which are derived from infinitesimal strains by adding the nonlinear terms discarded from small deformations. We implemented a linear and a nonlinear finite element method with the same material properties to examine the differences between them. We verified our nonlinear formulation with different applications and achieved considerable speedups in solving the system of equations using our nonlinear FEM compared to a state-of-the-art nonlinear FEM. Emir Gülümser, Uğur Güdükbay, and Sinan Filiz Copyright © 2014 Emir Gülümser et al. All rights reserved. Application of a New Membership Function in Nonlinear Fuzzy PID Controllers with Variable Gains Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:36:01 +0000 This paper proposes a nonlinear fuzzy PID control algorithm, whose membership function (MF) is adjustable, is universal, and has a wide adjustable range. Appling this function to fuzzy control theory will increase system’s tunability. The continuity of this function is proved. This method was employed in the simulation and HIL experiments. Effectiveness and feasibility of this function are demonstrated in the results. Xuda Zhang, Hong Bao, Jingli Du, and Congsi Wang Copyright © 2014 Xuda Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Time-Dependent Global Attractor for a Class of Nonclassical Parabolic Equations Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:32:32 +0000 Based on the recent theory of time-dependent global attractors in the works of Conti et al. (2013) and di Plinio et al. (2011), we prove the existence of time-dependent global attractors as well as the regularity of the time-dependent global attractor for a class of nonclassical parabolic equations. Fang-hong Zhang Copyright © 2014 Fang-hong Zhang. All rights reserved. A Hierarchy of Discrete Integrable Coupling System with Self-Consistent Sources Wed, 27 Aug 2014 11:54:33 +0000 Integrable coupling system of a lattice soliton equation hierarchy is deduced. The Hamiltonian structure of the integrable coupling is constructed by using the discrete quadratic-form identity. The Liouville integrability of the integrable coupling is demonstrated. Finally, the discrete integrable coupling system with self-consistent sources is deduced. Yuqing Li, Huanhe Dong, and Baoshu Yin Copyright © 2014 Yuqing Li et al. All rights reserved. A Poisson Cluster Stochastic Rainfall Generator That Accounts for the Interannual Variability of Rainfall Statistics: Validation at Various Geographic Locations across the United States Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:50:03 +0000 A novel approach for a Poisson cluster stochastic rainfall generator was validated in its ability to reproduce important rainfall and watershed response characteristics at 104 locations in the United States. The suggested novel approach, The Hybrid Model (THM), as compared to the traditional Poisson cluster rainfall modeling approaches, has an additional capability to account for the interannual variability of rainfall statistics. THM and a traditional approach of Poisson cluster rainfall model (modified Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model) were compared in their ability to reproduce the characteristics of extreme rainfall and watershed response variables such as runoff and peak flow. The results of the comparison indicate that THM generally outperforms the traditional approach in reproducing the distributions of peak rainfall, peak flow, and runoff volume. In addition, THM significantly outperformed the traditional approach in reproducing extreme rainfall by 2.3% to 66% and extreme flow values by 32% to 71%. Dongkyun Kim, Jongho Kim, and Yong-Sik Cho Copyright © 2014 Dongkyun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Iterations for the Fixed Point Problem and Variational Inequalities Wed, 27 Aug 2014 07:51:59 +0000 A hybrid iterative algorithm with Meir-Keeler contraction is presented for solving the fixed point problem of the pseudocontractive mappings and the variational inequalities. Strong convergence analysis is given as . Li-Jun Zhu, Shin Min Kang, Zhangsong Yao, and Young Chel Kwun Copyright © 2014 Li-Jun Zhu et al. All rights reserved. A Multistep Framework for Vision Based Vehicle Detection Wed, 27 Aug 2014 07:29:44 +0000 Vision based vehicle detection is a critical technology that plays an important role in not only vehicle active safety but also road video surveillance application. In this work, a multistep framework for vision based vehicle detection is proposed. In the first step, for vehicle candidate generation, a novel geometrical and coarse depth information based method is proposed. In the second step, for candidate verification, a deep architecture of deep belief network (DBN) for vehicle classification is trained. In the last step, a temporal analysis method based on the complexity and spatial information is used to further reduce miss and false detection. Experiments demonstrate that this framework is with high true positive (TP) rate as well as low false positive (FP) rate. On road experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm performs better than state-of-the-art vehicle detection algorithm in testing data sets. Hai Wang and Yingfeng Cai Copyright © 2014 Hai Wang and Yingfeng Cai. All rights reserved. Real-Time Control Strategy of Elman Neural Network for the Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tue, 26 Aug 2014 13:00:05 +0000 Through researching the instantaneous control strategy and Elman neural network, the paper established equivalent fuel consumption functions under the charging and discharging conditions of power batteries, deduced the optimal control objective function of instantaneous equivalent consumption, established the instantaneous optimal control model, and designs the Elman neural network controller. Based on the ADVISOR 2002 platform, the instantaneous optimal control strategy and the Elman neural network control strategy were simulated on a parallel HEV. The simulation results were analyzed in the end. The contribution of the paper is that the trained Elman neural network control strategy can reduce the simulation time by 96% and improve the real-time performance of energy control, which also ensures the good performance of power and fuel economy. Ruijun Liu, Dapai Shi, and Chao Ma Copyright © 2014 Ruijun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Continuous Nondestructive Monitoring Method Using the Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Conductivity Images via GREIT for Tissue Engineering Tue, 26 Aug 2014 12:41:48 +0000 A continuous Nondestructive monitoring method is required to apply proper feedback controls during tissue regeneration. Conductivity is one of valuable information to assess the physiological function and structural formation of regenerated tissues or cultured cells. However, conductivity imaging methods suffered from inherited ill-posed characteristics in image reconstruction, unknown boundary geometry, uncertainty in electrode position, and systematic artifacts. In order to overcome the limitation of microscopic electrical impedance tomography (micro-EIT), we applied a 3D-specific container with a fixed boundary geometry and electrode configuration to maximize the performance of Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT). The separation of driving and sensing electrodes allows us to simplify the hardware complexity and obtain higher measurement accuracy from a large number of small sensing electrodes. We investigated the applicability of the GREIT to 3D micro-EIT images via numerical simulations and large-scale phantom experiments. We could reconstruct multiple objects regardless of the location. The resolution was 5 mm3 with 30 dB SNR and the position error was less than 2.54 mm. This shows that the new micro-EIT system integrated with GREIT is robust with the intended resolution. With further refinement and scaling down to a microscale container, it may be a continuous nondestructive monitoring tool for tissue engineering applications. Sujin Ahn, Hun Wi, Tong In Oh, Alistair Lee McEwan, Sung Chan Jun, and Eung Je Woo Copyright © 2014 Sujin Ahn et al. All rights reserved. The Interval-Valued Triangular Fuzzy Soft Set and Its Method of Dynamic Decision Making Tue, 26 Aug 2014 12:26:40 +0000 A concept of interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft set is presented, and some operations of “AND,” “OR,” intersection, union and complement, and so forth are defined. Then some relative properties are discussed and several conclusions are drawn. A dynamic decision making model is built based on the definition of interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft set, in which period weight is determined by the exponential decay method. The arithmetic weighted average operator of interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft set is given by the aggregating thought, thereby aggregating interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft sets of different time-series into a collective interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft set. The formulas of selection and decision values of different objects are given; therefore the optimal decision making is achieved according to the decision values. Finally, the steps of this method are concluded, and one example is given to explain the application of the method. Xiaoguo Chen, Hong Du, and Yue Yang Copyright © 2014 Xiaoguo Chen et al. All rights reserved.