About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 819524, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/819524
Research Article

Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage

1Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Shasreza 86145-311, Iran
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord 88186-34141, Iran
3R&D Unit, Barzin Sepand Sepahan Company, Dehagh Industrial City, Isfahan 19615-134, Iran
4Quality Control Unit, Sepahan Oil Company, Isfahan 15119-15513, Iran

Received 7 November 2011; Revised 23 January 2012; Accepted 24 January 2012

Academic Editor: FakhrEldin O. Suliman

Copyright © 2012 Behnam Rahimi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. M. Mortier, M. F. Fox, and S. T. Orszulik, Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants, Springer, 2010.
  2. G. Denis, H. Briant, and B. Hipeaux, Lubricant Properties Analysis and Testing, Editions TECHNIP, 2000.
  3. D. Troyer and J. Fitch, Oil Analysis Basics, Noria Corporation, 2001.
  4. L. A. Toms, Machinery Oil Analysis—Methods, Automation & Benefits, STLE, 3rd edition, 2008.
  5. J. Fitch, Source Book for Used Oil Elements, Noria Corporation, 2001.
  6. J. S. Evans, Oil Analysis Handbook (Coxmoor's Machine & Systems Condition Monitoring), Coxmoor, 2008.
  7. R. F. Haycock, A. J. Caines, and J. E. Hillier, Automotive Lubricants Reference Book, SAE, 2004.
  8. J. G. Speight, Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis, Wiley Intersciences, New Jersey, NJ, USA, 2002.
  9. V. Macián, B. Tormos, P. Olmeda, and L. Montoro, “Analytical approach to wear rate determination for internal combustion engine condition monitoring based on oil analysis,” Tribology International, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 771–776, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. E. Kauffman, “Complete oil analysis technique,” US patent 5071527, 1991.
  11. A. Prabhakaran and C. R. Jagga, “Condition monitoring of steam turbine-generator through contamination analysis of used lubricating oil,” Tribology International, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 145–152, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Verlinden, “Laboratories at work: used oil analysis at wear check, Belgium,” TriboTest, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 331–346, 1995. View at Scopus
  13. R. A. A. Munoz, P. V. Oliveira, and L. Angnes, “Combination of ultrasonic extraction and stripping analysis: an effective and reliable way for the determination of Cu and Pb in lubricating oils,” Talanta, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 850–856, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. K. Tamrakar and K. S. Pitre, “Electroanalysis of trace metals in lubricating oils,” Bulletin of Electrochemistry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35–40, 2002. View at Scopus
  15. R. A. A. Munoz, C. S. Silva, P. V. Oliveria, and L. Angnes, “Potentiometric stripping analysis for simultaneous determination of copper and lead in lubriatig oils after total digestion in a focused microwave-assisted oven,” Microchimica Acta, pp. 199–204, 2005.
  16. J. G. Antón and J. R. Grima, “Determination of zinc in lubricating oil by polarography of emulsified samples,” Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 343, no. 12, pp. 905–906, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. P. Granchi, J. A. Biggerstaff, L. J. Milliard, and P. Grey, “Use of a robot and flow injection for automated sample preparation and analysis of used oils by ICP emission spectrometry,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B, vol. 42, no. 1-2, pp. 169–180, 1987. View at Scopus
  18. F. R. van de Voort, J. Sedman, V. Yaylayan, and C. Saint-Laurent, “Saint-laurent, the determination of acid and base number in lubricants by FTIR spectroscopy,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1425–1431, 2003. View at Scopus
  19. F. R. Van De Voort, J. Sedman, V. Yaylayan, and C. Saint Laurent, “Determination of acid number and base number in lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1425–1431, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Q. Aucélio, R. M. de Souza, R. C. de Campos, N. Miekeley, and C. L. P. da Silveira, “The determination of trace metals in lubricating oils by atomic spectrometry,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 952–961, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. H. Khraisha and I. M. Shbib, “Thermal analysis of shale oil using thermogravimetry and differential scanning gravimetry,” Energy Conversion & Manangement, vol. 43, pp. 229–239, 2002.
  22. M. Pouzar, T. Cernohorsky, and A. Krejocova, “Detrmination of metals in lubricating oils by X- ray fluorescence spectrometry,” Talanta, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 829–835, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. P. Yaroshchyk, R. J. S. Morrison, D. Body, and B. L. Chadwick, “Quantitative determination of wear metals in engine oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a comparison between liquid jets and static liquids,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 60, no. 7-8, pp. 986–992, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. M. Gambrill, A. G. Gassmann, and W. R. O'Neill, “Spectrographic analysis of new and used lubricating oils,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1365–1369, 1951. View at Scopus
  25. M. H. Jones, “Ferrography applied to diesel engine oil analysis,” Wear, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 93–103, 1979. View at Scopus
  26. T. J. Cardwell, R. Colton, N. Lambropoulos, J. C. Traeger, and P. J. Marriott, “Electrospray mass spectrometry of zinc dithiophosphate derivatives and its application to the analysis of engine oil antiwear additives,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 280, no. 2, pp. 239–244, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. M. Levermore, M. Josowicz, W. S. Rees, and J. Janata, “Headspace analysis of engine oil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1361–1365, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. R. Rudnick, Synthetic, Mineral Oils and Bio-Based Lubricants, Taylor & Francis, 2006.
  29. T. Mang and W. Dresel, Lubricants and Lubrication, Wiley VCH, 2nd edition, 2007.
  30. H. S. Langeroodi and A. Semnani, “Behavior of esters in blend and its possible application,” African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 241–246, 2009.
  31. A. Semnani and H. S. Langeroodi, “An investigation on the behavior of solvent neutral 500: polyisobutene blends,” Petroleum Science and Technology. In press.
  32. H. S. Langeroodi and A. Semnani, “the production of a group (iii) base oil and investigation on its polyisobutene blends,” Petroleum Science and Technology. In press.
  33. Noria Corporation, Noria Sampaling Procedures Manual, Noria Corporation, 2010.
  34. L. R. Rudnick, Lubricant Additives, Chemistry and Application, Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  35. M. R. Ranney, Synthetic Oils and Additives for Lubricants, Noyes Data, 1978.
  36. S. Q. A. Rizvi, ASM Hand Book, vol. 18, ASM International, 1992.
  37. A. M. Barnes, K. D. Bartle, and V. R. A. Thibon, “A review of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPS): characterisation and role in the lubricating oil,” Tribology International, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 389–395, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. M. Pirro, A. A. Wessol, J. G. Wills, et al., Lubrication Fundamentals, Marcel Dekker, 2001.
  39. T. C. Davenport, The Rheology of Lubricants, Wiley, 1973.
  40. H. A. Wary, Manual on Flash Point Standards and Their Use, ASTM, West Conshohoken, Pa, USA, 1992.