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Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 151934, 6 pages
Research Article

Determination of Morphine and Codeine in Human Urine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

1School of Pharmacy of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China
2The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China

Received 30 May 2013; Revised 22 August 2013; Accepted 28 August 2013

Academic Editor: Jianxiu Du

Copyright © 2013 Xiaoqian Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A sensitive and selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine. The GC-MS conditions were developed. The analysis was carried out on a HP-1MS column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) with temperature programming, and Helium was used as the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to quantify morphine and codeine. The derivation solvent, temperature, and time were optimized. A mixed solvent of propionic anhydride and pyridine (5 : 2) was finally used for the derivation at 80°C for 3 min. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 25–2000.0 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 25 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD) values were below 13%, and the accuracy was in the range 87.2–108.5%. This developed method was successfully used for the determination of morphine and codeine in human urine for forensic identification study.