Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Novel Analytical Method for Trace Ammonium in Freshwater and Seawater Using 4-Methoxyphthalaldehyde as Fluorescent Reagent Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:35:25 +0000 A novel fluorescent reagent for determination of ammonium, 4-methoxyphthalaldehyde (MOPA), was successfully synthesized in this study. Under alkaline conditions, MOPA could reacted with ammonium rapidly at room temperature, producing fluorescent substance which had maximum excitation at 370 nm and emission wavelength at 454 nm. Based on this, a novel fluorescence analysis method was established for the determination of trace ammonium in natural water. Experimental parameters including reagent concentration, pH, reaction equilibrium time, and metal ions masking agent were optimized. The results showed that the optimized MOPA concentration was 0.12 g/L, pH was in the range of 11.2–12.0, and sulfite concentration was 0.051 g/L, respectively. Metal ions masking agent had no obvious effect on the fluorescence signal. With the reaction time of 15 minutes, linear range of this method was between 0.025 and 0.300 μmol/L, and the method detecting limit was 0.0058 μmol/L. The matrix recovery of the proposed method was in the range of 93.6–108.1%. Compared with the OPA method, this method was much more sensitive and rapid without the interference of background peak and would be more suitable for developing a portable fluorescence detection system. Ying Liang, Yingming Pan, Qing Guo, Hongzhi Hu, Chancui Wu, and Qian Zhang Copyright © 2015 Ying Liang et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods Sun, 09 Aug 2015 06:04:25 +0000 As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. Haiyan Fu, Yao Fan, Xu Zhang, Hanyue Lan, Tianming Yang, Mei Shao, and Sihan Li Copyright © 2015 Haiyan Fu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Oxygen Element and Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Surface Wettability of Coal Dust with Various Metamorphic Degrees Based on XPS Experiment Wed, 15 Jul 2015 13:54:59 +0000 To investigate the difference of surface oxygen element and oxygen-containing functional groups among coal dusts with different metamorphic degrees and their influence on surface wettability, a series of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments on 6 coal samples are carried out. The result demonstrates that the O/C ratio of coal surface shows an overall increasing trend compared with the result of its elements analysis. As the metamorphic degree increases, the O/C ratio on the surface gradually declines and the hydrophilic groups tend to fall off from coal surface. It could be found that different coals show different surface distributions of carboxyl and hydroxyl which are considered as the greatest promoter to the wettability of coal surface. With the change of metamorphic degree, the distribution of ether group is irregular while the carbonyl distribution keeps stable. In general, as the metamorphic degree goes higher, the content of oxygen-containing polar group tends to reduce. According to the measurement results, the contact angle is negatively related to the content of oxygen element, surface oxygen, and polar groups. In addition, compared with surface oxygen content, the content of oxygen-containing polar group serves as a more reasonable indicator of coal dust wettability. Gang Zhou, Cuicui Xu, Weimin Cheng, Qi Zhang, and Wen Nie Copyright © 2015 Gang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Asia and South America Wed, 08 Jul 2015 09:59:09 +0000 Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw) were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw). Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw). The contents (mg kg−1 dw) of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru. Ji Zhang, Han-Mo Wang, Yan-Li Zhao, Zhi-Tian Zuo, Yuan-Zhong Wang, and Hang Jin Copyright © 2015 Ji Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques Sun, 05 Jul 2015 12:40:29 +0000 This paper reviews the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma techniques, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques published in international journals since 2013 are reviewed. Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu and Sung-Ok Baek Copyright © 2015 Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu and Sung-Ok Baek. All rights reserved. Optimization of a CUPRAC-Based HPLC Postcolumn Assay and Its Applications for Ginkgo biloba L. Extracts Sun, 05 Jul 2015 11:11:27 +0000 The aim of the present work was to improve and validate the HPLC-CUPRAC postcolumn method for the evaluation of active antioxidant markers from the acetonic extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves. Improvement of the HPLC online assay was performed by evaluating the suitable loop temperature, the reaction loop length, and the impact of flow rate. Separation of the analytes was performed by the HPLC method on an ACE C18 analytical column using a gradient elution program. The separated antioxidant markers in the extracts reacted with copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) reagent in the postcolumn reaction coil. The reagent was reduced by antioxidants to the copper(I)-neocuproine (Cu(I)-Nc) chelate with a maximum absorption at 450 nm. Validation experiments confirmed sufficient precision, sensitivity, and effectiveness of the corresponding method, which could be used for further evaluations of active antioxidant compounds in similar plant materials. Laura Rimkiene, Liudas Ivanauskas, Asta Kubiliene, Konradas Vitkevicius, Guoda Kiliuviene, and Valdas Jakstas Copyright © 2015 Laura Rimkiene et al. All rights reserved. Quality Degradation of Chinese White Lotus Seeds Caused by Dampening during Processing and Storage: Rapid and Nondestructive Discrimination Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Sun, 28 Jun 2015 09:49:40 +0000 Dampening during processing or storage can largely influence the quality of white lotus seeds (WLS). This paper investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and nondestructive discrimination of the dampened WLS. Regular () and dampened () WLS objects were collected from five main producing areas and NIR reflectance spectra (4000–12000 cm−1) were measured for bare kernels. The influence of spectral preprocessing methods, including smoothing, taking second-order derivatives (D2), and standard normal variate (SNV), on partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA) was compared to select the optimal data preprocessing method. A moving-window strategy was combined with PLSDA (MWPLSDA) to select the most informative wavelength intervals for classification. Based on the selected spectral ranges, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.927, 0.950, and 0.937 for SNV-MWPLSDA, respectively. Lu Xu, Hai-Yan Fu, Chen-Bo Cai, and Yuan-Bin She Copyright © 2015 Lu Xu et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Metals in Soil-Water Interface in a Manganese Mine Wed, 17 Jun 2015 08:06:36 +0000 In order to reveal the influence of the metals of soil-water interface in a manganese mine (Xiangtan, China), on local water environment, there are six kinds of metals (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) characterized by measuring their concentration, correlation, source, and special distribution using principal component analysis, single factor, and Nemero comprehensive pollution index. The results showed that the corresponding average concentration was 0.3358, 0.045, 0.0105, 0.0148, 0.0067, and 0.0389 mg/L. The logarithmic concentration of Mn, Zn, and Pb was normal distribution. The correlation coefficients (between Mn and Pb, Mn and Zn, Mn and Ni, Cu and Zn, Cu and Pb, and Zn and Cd) were found to range from 0.5 to 0.6, and those between Cu and Ni and Cu and Cd were below 0.3. It was found that Zn and Mn pollution were caused primarily by ore mining, mineral waste transportation, tailing slag, and smelting plants, while Cu and Ni mainly originate from the mining industry activities and the traffic transportation in the mining area. In addition, the Cd was considered to be produced primarily from the agricultural or anthropogenic activities. The pollution indexes indicated that metal pollution degree was different in soil-water interface streams as listed in increasing order of pollution level as Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Mn > Cd. For all of the pollution of the soil-water interface streams, there was moderate metal pollution but along the eastern mine area the pollution seemed to get more serious. There was only a small amount of soil-water interface streams not contaminated by the metals. Bozhi Ren, Qian Wang, Yangbo Chen, Wenjie Ding, and Xie Zheng Copyright © 2015 Bozhi Ren et al. All rights reserved. Relevance of Toxicity Assessment in Wastewater Treatments: Case Study—Four Fenton Processes Applied to the Mineralization of C.I. Acid Red 14 Mon, 08 Jun 2015 11:20:26 +0000 Fenton and Fenton-like processes, both in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases, have been applied to an aqueous solution containing the dye AR 14 in order to study the mineralization and toxicity of the solutions generated after color elimination. The mineralization of AR 14 occurred slower than the decolorization. The Microtox analysis of the treated solutions showed low toxicity intrinsic to the chemicals used in the process rather than the degradation products obtained after the treatment of the dye solution. The dye degradation for the Fenton oxidation process was initially faster than for the Fenton-like process but after a short time, the four processes showed similar degradation yields. All processes have shown good results being the heterogeneous process the most convenient since the pH adjustment is not necessary, the catalyst is recovered and reused and the generation of contaminated sludge is avoided. Rajaa Idel-aouad, Manuel Valiente, Carmen Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Mercè Vilaseca, Abdlrani Yaacoubi, Boumediene Tanouti, and Montserrat López-Mesas Copyright © 2015 Rajaa Idel-aouad et al. All rights reserved. Content and Bioaccumulation of Nine Mineral Elements in Ten Mushroom Species of the Genus Boletus Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:41:53 +0000 Concentrations and bioconcentration potential of nine elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn) in ten species of wild edible Boletus and the corresponding underlying soils were analyzed. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Boletus showed relative abundant contents of P, K, Fe, Mg, Ca, and Na and less of Zn, Cu, and Mn. Caps compared to stalks were enriched in P, K, Cu, Mg, and Zn, while stalks were enriched in Mn. The elements such as P and K were accumulated (), while Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Na were excluded () in the fruiting bodies. The correlation analysis indicated high correlations between Cu, Mn, Ca, and Fe in the mushrooms as compared to the corresponding soils. Significant correlations were also obtained between Cu-P (), Fe-P (), and Zn-P () for caps and Cu-Mg (), Fe-Mg (), Zn-Mg (), and Zn-P () for stalks. The results of this study imply that ability of fungi to accumulate elements from substrate could be influenced by mushroom species and underlying soil substrates. Xue-Mei Wang, Ji Zhang, Tao Li, Yuan-Zhong Wang, and Hong-Gao Liu Copyright © 2015 Xue-Mei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphisms as a Method to Differentiate Algal Species Tue, 26 May 2015 11:56:06 +0000 Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP) was explored as a fast and inexpensive method to differentiate both prokaryotic (blue-green) and eukaryotic (green and brown) algae. A selection of two blue-green algae (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena inaequalis), five green algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Oedogonium foveolatum, Mougeotia sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Ulothrix fimbriata), and one brown algae (Ectocarpus sp.) were examined and CE-SSCP electropherogram “fingerprints” were compared to each other for two variable regions of either the 16S or 18S rDNA gene. The electropherogram patterns were remarkably stable and consistent for each particular species. The patterns were unique to each species, although some common features were observed between the different types of algae. CE-SSCP could be a useful method for monitoring changes in an algae species over time as potential shifts in species occurred. Alice Jernigan and Christa Hestekin Copyright © 2015 Alice Jernigan and Christa Hestekin. All rights reserved. Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco by Chemometric Optimization and Cation-Selective Exhaustive Injection in Combination with Sweeping-Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Tue, 26 May 2015 08:41:36 +0000 Nicotine is a potent chemical that excites the central nervous system and refreshes people. It is also physically addictive and causes dependence. To reduce the harm of tobacco products for smokers, a law was introduced that requires tobacco product containers to be marked with the amount of nicotine as well as tar. In this paper, an online stacking capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with cation-selective exhaustive injection sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweeping-MEKC) is proposed for the optimized analysis of nicotine in tobacco. A higher conductivity buffer (160 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3)) zone was injected into the capillary, allowing for the analytes to be electrokinetically injected at a voltage of 15 kV for 15 min. Using 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 25% methanol in the sweeping buffer, nicotine was detected with high sensitivity. Thus, optimized conditions adapted from a chemometric approach provided a 6000-fold increase in the nicotine detection sensitivity using the CSEI-sweeping-MEKC method in comparison to normal CZE. The limits of detection were 0.5 nM for nicotine. The stacking method in combination with direct injection which matrix components would not interfere with assay performance was successfully applied to the detection of nicotine in tobacco samples. Yi-Hui Lin, Chia-Hsien Feng, Shih-Wei Wang, Po-Yun Ko, Ming-Hsun Lee, and Yen-Ling Chen Copyright © 2015 Yi-Hui Lin et al. All rights reserved. Applying 1H NMR Spectroscopy to Detect Changes in the Urinary Metabolite Levels of Chinese Half-Pipe Snowboarders after Different Exercises Mon, 25 May 2015 14:25:39 +0000 Monitoring physical training is important for the health and performance of athletes, and real-time assessment of fatigue is crucial to improve training efficiency. The relationship between key biomarkers and exercise has been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of training exercises on the urine metabolome. 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis was performed on urine samples from half-pipe snowboarders, and spectral profiles were subjected to PCA and PLS-DA. Our results show that metabolic profiles varied during different stages of exercises. Lactate, alanine, trimethylamine, malonate, taurine, and glycine levels decreased while TMAO and phenylalanine levels increased in the stage with higher amount and intensity of exercise. Although the amount of exercise was reduced in subsequent stage, no significant variations of metabolic profile were found. Metabolic changes induced by training level were analyzed with related metabolic pathway. Studying metabolome changes can provide a better understanding of the physiology of athletes and could aid in adjusting training. Fuqiu Wang, Jiao Han, Qing He, Zhufeng Geng, Zhiwei Deng, and Decai Qiao Copyright © 2015 Fuqiu Wang et al. All rights reserved. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Two Recently FDA Approved TKIs in Human Plasma Using Diode Array Detection Mon, 25 May 2015 13:21:21 +0000 Generally, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have narrow therapeutic window and large interpatient variability compared to intrapatient variability. In order to support its therapeutic drug monitoring, two fast and accurate methods were developed for the determination of recently FDA approved anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors, afatinib and ibrutinib, in human plasma using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to PDA detection. Diclofenac sodium was used as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 analytical column using a mobile phase combining ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile at a constant flow rate of 0.4 mL/min using gradient elution mode. A µSPE (solid phase extraction) procedure, using Oasis MCX µElution plates, was processed and it gave satisfying and reproducible results in terms of extraction yields. Additionally, the methods were successfully validated using the accuracy profiles approach (β = 95% and acceptance limits = ±15%) over the ranges 5–250 ng/mL for afatinib and from 5 to 400 ng/mL for ibrutinib in human plasma. Marwa Fouad, Maxime Helvenstein, and Bertrand Blankert Copyright © 2015 Marwa Fouad et al. All rights reserved. Amine Analysis Using AlexaFluor 488 Succinimidyl Ester and Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Tue, 19 May 2015 09:47:38 +0000 Fluorescent probes enable detection of otherwise nonfluorescent species via highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence. Organic amines are predominantly nonfluorescent and are of analytical interest in agricultural and food science, biomedical applications, and biowarfare detection. Alexa Fluor 488 N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (AF488 NHS-ester) is an amine-specific fluorescent probe. Here, we demonstrate low limit of detection of long-chain (C9 to C18) primary amines and optimize AF488 derivatization of long-chain primary amines. The reaction was found to be equally efficient in all solvents studied (dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide). While an organic base (N,N-diisopropylethylamine) is required to achieve efficient reaction between AF488 NHS-ester and organic amines with longer hydrophobic chains, high concentrations (>5 mM) result in increased levels of ethylamine and propylamine in the blank. Optimal incubation times were found to be >12 hrs at room temperature. We present an initial capillary electrophoresis separation for analysis using a simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) buffer consisting of 12 mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and 5 mM carbonate, pH 10. Limits of detection using the optimized labeling conditions and these separation conditions were 5–17 nM. The method presented here represents a novel addition to the arsenal of fluorescent probes available for highly sensitive analysis of small organic molecules. Christian G. Kendall, Amanda M. Stockton, Stephen Leicht, Heather McCaig, Shirley Chung, Valerie Scott, Fang Zhong, and Ying Lin Copyright © 2015 Christian G. Kendall et al. All rights reserved. Single-Round Patterned DNA Library Microarray Aptamer Lead Identification Thu, 14 May 2015 12:53:53 +0000 A method for identifying an aptamer in a single round was developed using custom DNA microarrays containing computationally derived patterned libraries incorporating no information on the sequences of previously reported thrombin binding aptamers. The DNA library was specifically designed to increase the probability of binding by enhancing structural complexity in a sequence-space confined environment, much like generating lead compounds in a combinatorial drug screening library. The sequence demonstrating the highest fluorescence intensity upon target addition was confirmed to bind the target molecule thrombin with specificity by surface plasmon resonance, and a novel imino proton NMR/2D NOESY combination was used to screen the structure for G-quartet formation. We propose that the lack of G-quartet structure in microarray-derived aptamers may highlight differences in binding mechanisms between surface-immobilized and solution based strategies. This proof-of-principle study highlights the use of a computational driven methodology to create a DNA library rather than a SELEX based approach. This work is beneficial to the biosensor field where aptamers selected by solution based evolution have proven challenging to retain binding function when immobilized on a surface. Jennifer A. Martin, Peter A. Mirau, Yaroslav Chushak, Jorge L. Chávez, Rajesh R. Naik, Joshua A. Hagen, and Nancy Kelley-Loughnane Copyright © 2015 Jennifer A. Martin et al. All rights reserved. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency Wed, 13 May 2015 09:39:49 +0000 A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm, 110 Å) using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48 : 52 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, and robustness provided suitable results regarding all parameters investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10.0–70.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. Precision (intraday and interday) was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.0%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of FA from polymeric microparticles (99.02% to 100.73%). Specificity showed no interference from the components of polymeric microparticles or from the degradation products derived from acidic, basic, and photolytic conditions. In conclusion, the method is suitable to be applied to assay FA as bulk drug and into polymeric microparticles and can be used for studying its stability and degradation kinetics. Jessica Mendes Nadal, Maria da Graça Toledo, Yasmine Mendes Pupo, Josiane Padilha de Paula, Paulo Vitor Farago, and Sandra Maria Warumby Zanin Copyright © 2015 Jessica Mendes Nadal et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting Thu, 30 Apr 2015 11:49:01 +0000 A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED) employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control. Xiaoping Xing and Dan Li Copyright © 2015 Xiaoping Xing and Dan Li. All rights reserved. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr(III) and Pb(II) Using Their Complexes with 5,11,17,23-Tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene Thu, 23 Apr 2015 08:32:21 +0000 New complexes of 5,11,17,23-tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene (TEAC) with Pb(II) and Cr(III) were prepared in basic solution with a mixture of MeOH and H2O as solvent. The ratio of TEAC and metal ion in complexes was found to be 1 : 1 under investigated condition. The complex formation constants (based on Benesi-Hildebrand method) for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III) were 4.03 × 104 and 1.2 × 104, respectively. Additionally, the molar extinction coefficients were 5 × 104 and 1.42 × 104 for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III), respectively. The H-Point Standard Addition Method (HPSAM) has been applied for simultaneous determination of complexes formation of Cr(III)/Pb(II) and TEAC with concentration from 2 : 1 to 1 : 20 (w/w). The proposed method was successfully utilized to invest lead and chromium contents in plating wastewater samples. The results for several analyzed samples were found to be in satisfied agreement with those acquired by using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. Le Van Tan, Tran Quang Hieu, and Nguyen Van Cuong Copyright © 2015 Le Van Tan et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potentials of Antidesma thwaitesianum by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Tue, 21 Apr 2015 09:33:48 +0000 Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has increasingly gained attention as an alternative technique for extraction of natural products without leaving toxic residues in extracts. Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae), or ma mao, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant health benefits due to its phenolic constituents. To determine whether SFE technique could impact on phenolic contents and associated antioxidant potentials, ripe fruits of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae) were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional solvents (ethanol, water). The results showed that the SC-CO2 extract contained significantly higher yield, total phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents than those obtained from ethanol and water. It also demonstrated the greatest antioxidant activities as assessed by ABTS radical cation decolorization, DPPH radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Further analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD/MSD) revealed the presence of catechin as a major phenolic compound of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae), with the maximum amount detected in the SC-CO2 extract. These data indicate that SFE technology improves both quantity and quality of Antidesma thwaitesianum fruit extract. The findings added more reliability of using this technique to produce high added value products from this medicinal plant. Warut Poontawee, Surapol Natakankitkul, and Orawan Wongmekiat Copyright © 2015 Warut Poontawee et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Method to Detect Three Monohydroxylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatographic Tandem Mass Spectrometry Mon, 20 Apr 2015 09:21:47 +0000 A liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaP), and 3-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene (3-OHBaA) in human urine has been developed. With the exception of 3-OHBaP at a low spiking level, the average recoveries were greater than 80%. The method has good accuracy (72.1–107.7%) and reproducibility (1.8–11.4%) and was successfully used to study the uptake of pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene from cigarette smoke. The results indicated that urinary 1-OHP concentration in the smoking group (66.58 ± 70.91 ng/g creatinine) was higher than that observed in the nonsmoking group (58.16 ± 49.48 ng/g creatinine). Urinary 3-OHBaA concentrations in nonsmokers and smokers with 8 mg and 10 mg tar cigarettes were 10.98 ± 4.39 ng/g creatinine, 11.01 ± 13.30 ng/g creatinine, and 9.17 ± 12.89 ng/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary 3-OHBaP concentrations in nonsmokers and smokers with 8 mg and 13 mg tar cigarettes were 1.30 ± 0.20 ng/g creatinine, 2.83 ± 1.78 ng/g creatinine, and 6.00 ± 4.44 ng/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels exhibited a significant correlation with BaP yield in cigarette smoke under the Canadian intense smoking condition (, , ). Xiaotao Zhang, Hongwei Hou, Wei Xiong, and Qingyuan Hu Copyright © 2015 Xiaotao Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomicrospheres as Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersant Combined with Gas Chromatography for Determination of Four Phosphorothioate Pesticides in Carrot and Yacon Tue, 14 Apr 2015 11:15:10 +0000 An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD) coupled with gas chromatography (GC), was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl) from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy template via surface grafting polymerization on nanosilica. Then, these four pesticides in carrot and yacon were extracted and adsorbed using the imprinted nanomicrospheres and further determined by gas chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of four pesticides was obtained in a range of 0.05–17.0 ng·g−1 with R varying from 0.9971 to 0.9996, and the detection limit of the method was 0.012~0.026 ng·g−1 in carrot and yacon samples. The recovery rates at two spiked levels were in the range of 85.4–105.6% with RSD ≤9.6%. The presented MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD for allowing the extraction, dispersion, and homogenization in two steps and the advantages of MIPs for high affinity and selectivity towards four phosphorothioate pesticides, which could be applied to the determination of pesticide residues in complicated vegetal samples. Mengchun Zhou, Nana Hu, Shaohua Shu, and Mo Wang Copyright © 2015 Mengchun Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Headspace-Solid-Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography as Analytical Methodology for the Determination of Volatiles in Wild Mushrooms and Evaluation of Modifications Occurring during Storage Tue, 07 Apr 2015 14:33:59 +0000 Mushrooms are sources of food, medicines, and agricultural means. Not much is reported in the literature about wild species of the Mediterranean flora, although many of them are traditionally collected for human consumption. The knowledge of their chemical constituents could represent a valid tool for both taxonomic and physiological characterizations. In this work, a headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with GC-MS and GC-FID was developed to evaluate the volatile profiles of ten wild mushroom species collected in South Italy. In addition, in order to evaluate the potential of this analytical methodology for true quantitation of volatiles, samples of the cultivated species Agaricus bisporus were analyzed. The choice of this mushroom was dictated by its ease of availability in the food market, due to the consistent amounts required for SPME method development. For calibration of the main volatile compounds, the standard addition method was chosen. Finally, the assessed volatile composition of A. bisporus was monitored in order to evaluate compositional changes occurring during storage, which represents a relevant issue for such a wide consumption edible product. Rosaria Costa, Selenia De Grazia, Elisa Grasso, and Alessandra Trozzi Copyright © 2015 Rosaria Costa et al. All rights reserved. Response Surface Optimization of a Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tetracycline Antibiotics in Manure Wed, 01 Apr 2015 10:27:24 +0000 A rapid and cleanup-free ultrasound-assisted extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline in manure. The analytes were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. The influence of several variables on the efficiency of the extraction procedure was investigated by single-factor experiments. The temperature, pH, and amount of extraction solution were selected for optimization experiment using response surface methodology. The calibration curves showed good linearity () for all analytes in the range of 0.1–20 μg/mL. The four antibiotics were successfully extracted from manure with recoveries ranging from 81.89 to 92.42% and good reproducibility (RSD, <4.06%) under optimal conditions, which include 50 mL of McIlvaine buffer extraction solution (pH 7.15) mixed with 1 g of manure sample, extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 10 min, and three extraction cycles. Method quantification limits of 1.75–2.32 mg/kg were obtained for the studied compounds. The proposed procedure demonstrated clear reductions in extraction time and elimination of cleanup steps. Finally, the applicability to tetracyclines antibiotics determination in real samples was evaluated through the successful determination of four target analytes in swine, cow manure, and mixture of animal manure with inorganic fertilizer. Lanqing Li, Mingxing Sun, Hui Zhou, Yun Zhou, Ping Chen, Hong Min, and Guoqing Shen Copyright © 2015 Lanqing Li et al. All rights reserved. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant Sun, 29 Mar 2015 07:50:19 +0000 Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. Xu Ping, Wang Jing, Zhang Yajun, Wang Jie, and Si Shuai Copyright © 2015 Xu Ping et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Gradient HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Sotalol and Sorbate in Oral Liquid Preparations Using Solid Core Stationary Phase Tue, 24 Mar 2015 10:06:35 +0000 A selective and sensitive gradient HPLC-UV method for quantification of sotalol hydrochloride and potassium sorbate in five types of oral liquid preparations was developed and fully validated. The separation of an active substance sotalol hydrochloride, potassium sorbate (antimicrobial agent), and other substances (for taste and smell correction, etc.) was performed using an Ascentis Express C18 (100 × 4.6 mm, particles 2.7 μm) solid core HPLC column. Linear gradient elution mode with a flow rate of 1.3 mL min−1 was used, and the injection volume was 5 µL. The UV/Vis absorbance detector was set to a wavelength of 237 nm, and the column oven was conditioned at 25°C. A sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate solution (pH 2.5; 17.7 mM) was used as the mobile phase buffer. The total analysis time was 4.5 min (+2.5 min for reequilibration). The method was successfully employed in a stability evaluation of the developed formulations, which are now already being used in the therapy of arrhythmias in pediatric patients; the method is also suitable for general quality control, that is, not only just for extemporaneous preparations containing the mentioned substances. Ludmila Matysova, Oxana Zahalkova, Sylva Klovrzova, Zdenka Sklubalova, Petr Solich, and Lukas Zahalka Copyright © 2015 Ludmila Matysova et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Antitumor Molecular Mechanism of Chlorogenic Acid on Inducting Genes GSK-3 and APC and Inhibiting Gene -Catenin” Wed, 18 Mar 2015 13:41:35 +0000 Ruoshi Xu, Qiumei Kang, Jie Ren, Zukun Li, and Xiaoping Xu Copyright © 2015 Ruoshi Xu et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “The Studies of Chlorogenic Acid Antitumor Mechanism by Gene Chip Detection: The Immune Pathway Gene Expression” Mon, 16 Mar 2015 06:49:39 +0000 Tian Yi Kang, Hua Rong Yang, Jie Zhang, Dan Li, Jie Lin, Li Wang, and XiaoPing Xu Copyright © 2015 Tian Yi Kang et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Propranolol Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Near Infrared Spectrometry with Fiber Optic Probe and Multivariate Calibration Methods Thu, 12 Mar 2015 13:55:40 +0000 A method for determination of propranolol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation using near infrared spectrometry with fiber optic probe (FTNIR/PROBE) and combined with chemometric methods was developed. Calibration models were developed using two variable selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). The treatments based on the mean centered data and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were selected for models construction. A root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 8.2 mg g−1 was achieved using siPLS (s2i20PLS) algorithm with spectra divided into 20 intervals and combination of 2 intervals (8501 to 8801 and 5201 to 5501 cm−1). Results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those using the pharmacopoeia reference method and significant difference was not observed. Therefore, proposed method allowed a fast, precise, and accurate determination of propranolol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out on-line analysis of this active principle in pharmaceutical formulations with use of fiber optic probe. Jucelino Medeiros Marques Junior, Aline Lima Hermes Muller, Edson Luiz Foletto, Adilson Ben da Costa, Cezar Augusto Bizzi, and Edson Irineu Muller Copyright © 2015 Jucelino Medeiros Marques Junior et al. All rights reserved. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters Thu, 05 Mar 2015 06:56:50 +0000 An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms) and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms). This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between −34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions) was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng/L and from 1 to 20 ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters. Michela Mazzoni, Marianna Rusconi, Sara Valsecchi, Claudia P. B. Martins, and Stefano Polesello Copyright © 2015 Michela Mazzoni et al. All rights reserved.