Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Quantitative Analysis of Matrine in Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles by HPLC Mon, 14 Apr 2014 16:19:44 +0000 A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed to quantitatively determine matrine in liquid crystal nanoparticles. The chromatographic method is carried out using an isocratic system. The mobile phase was composed of methanol-PBS(pH6.8)-triethylamine (50 : 50 : 0.1%) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min with SPD-20A UV/vis detector and the detection wavelength was at 220 nm. The linearity of matrine is in the range of 1.6 to 200.0 μg/mL. The regression equation is (). The average recovery is 101.7%; %  (). This method provides a simple and accurate strategy to determine matrine in liquid crystalline nanoparticle. Xinsheng Peng, Baohong Li, Min Hu, Yahao Ling, Yuan Tian, Yanxing Zhou, and Yanfang Zhou Copyright © 2014 Xinsheng Peng et al. All rights reserved. Studies on the Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Its Mechanisms of Sophoridine Wed, 09 Apr 2014 08:51:35 +0000 This work is to study the anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanisms of sophoridine in vitro and in vivo. For this aim, the influences of sophoridine on several inflammatory mediators were investigated. Excessive inflammatory response in vitro model was developed by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate the mouse peritoneal macrophages and HL-60 cells to produce IL-6 and IL-8. Carrageenin-induced mouse paw edema model was used as inflammatory response in vivo model. MTT method, ultraviolet spectrophotometric method, and radioimmunoassay were used to measure the changes of TNFα, IL-6, PGE2, and IL-8 in in vitro cell culture supernatant or in the local inflammatory exudates. The results showed that sophoridine inhibited the production of IL-8 in in vitro cell culture supernatant and inhibited the production of TNFα, PGE2, and IL-8 in the local inflammatory exudates but had no significant effects on the production of IL-6 in vitro and in vivo. It is demonstrated that sophoridine’s anti-inflammatory effect was due to its ability to inhibit the production of cytokine and inflammatory mediators. Xiumei Huang, Bo Li, and Lianzhong Shen Copyright © 2014 Xiumei Huang et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Fluorometric Assay for Ozone in Solution Mon, 24 Mar 2014 07:20:50 +0000 Ozone is widely used for sterilization, deodorization, and cleaning. However, the effects of ozone on human are not well understood, because there is currently no reliable assay method for ozone. Therefore the accurate measurement of ozone is important for its safe use. Here, we report optimized conditions for use with fluorescein derivative 1 (probe 1). Under optimum conditions, probe 1 reacted with ozone quantitatively and specifically to generate a fluorescent substance with an excitation maximum at 493 nm and an emission maximum at 523 nm. We conclude that this assay will be useful for quantifying ozone in solution. Hiromi Nagano, Gotaro Shiota, and Hidetoshi Arakawa Copyright © 2014 Hiromi Nagano et al. All rights reserved. Extraction and Chromatographic Determination of Shikimic Acid in Chinese Conifer Needles with 1-Benzyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid Aqueous Solutions Sun, 23 Mar 2014 09:45:38 +0000 An ionic liquids-based ultrasound-assisted extraction (ILUAE) method was successfully developed for extracting shikimic acid from conifer needles. Eleven 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated and 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide solution was selected as the solvent. The conditions for ILUAE, including the ionic liquid concentration, ultrasound power, ultrasound time, and liquid-solid ratio, were optimized. The proposed method had good recovery (99.37%–100.11%) and reproducibility (RSD, n = 6; 3.6%). ILUAE was an efficient, rapid, and simple sample preparation technique that showed high reproducibility. Based on the results, a number of plant species, namely, Picea koraiensis, Picea meyeri, Pinus elliottii, and Pinus banksiana, were identified as among the best resources of shikimic acid. Fengli Chen, Kexin Hou, Shuangyang Li, Yuangang Zu, and Lei Yang Copyright © 2014 Fengli Chen et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Lactones in Wines by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry Thu, 20 Mar 2014 07:52:54 +0000 Application of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with high-resolution gas chromatographic (HRGC) analysis was studied for determining lactones in wines. Six different SPME fibers were tested, and the influence of different factors such as temperature and time of desorption, ionic strength, time of extraction, content of sugar, ethanol, tannins and anthocyanins, and pH and influence of SO2 were studied. The proposed HS-SPME-GC method is an appropriate technique for the quantitative analysis of -butyrolactone, -hexalactone, trans-whiskey lactone, -octalactone, cis-whiskey lactone, -nonalactone, -decalactone, -decalactone, and -undecalactone in wines. Method reproducibility and repeatability ranged between 0.6 and 5.2% for all compounds. Detection limit for -butyrolactone was 0.17 mg/L and a few g/L for the rest of the compounds. The optimized method has been applied to several wine samples. S. J. Pérez-Olivero, M. L. Pérez-Pont, J. E. Conde, and J. P. Pérez-Trujillo Copyright © 2014 S. J. Pérez-Olivero et al. All rights reserved. Urinary Metabolomics on the Biochemical Profiles in Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rat Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight SYNAPT High-Definition Mass Spectrometry Tue, 18 Mar 2014 07:17:09 +0000 Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight synapt high-definition mass spectrometry metabolomics was used to characterize the urinary metabolic profiling of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in a rat model. Analysis was done by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, correlation analysis, heat map analysis, and KEGG pathways analysis. Potential biomarkers were chosen by S-plot and were identified by accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and MS/MS fragments information. Significant differences in fatty acid, amino acid, nucleoside, and bile acid were observed, indicating the perturbations of fatty acid, amino acid, nucleoside, and bile acid metabolisms in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia rats. This study provides further insight into the metabolic profiling across a wide range of biochemical pathways in response to diet-induced hyperlipidaemia. Hua Miao, Hua Chen, Xu Zhang, Lu Yin, Dan-Qian Chen, Xian-Long Cheng, Xu Bai, and Feng Wei Copyright © 2014 Hua Miao et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Flavonoids from Ultraviolet-B Radiation in Leaves and Roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Using LC-UV-ESI-Q/TOF/MS Thu, 13 Mar 2014 16:46:12 +0000 Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines. It has been used for anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial activities, and so forth. Long-term enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation caused more effect on leaves than on roots of the plant. Liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-UV-ESI-Q/TOF/MS) method was applied for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of flavonoids in leaves and roots of S. baicalensis by enhanced UV-B radiation. Both low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation were not significantly increaseing the contents of baicalin, wogonoside, and wogonin in roots. However different intensity of radiation has different effects on several flavonoids in leaves. Both low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation had no significant effect on contents of baicalin and tectoridin in leaves; the content of scutellarin was significantly decreased by low-intensity radiation; chrysin was detected in low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation, and chrysin content is the highest in low-intensity radiation, but chrysin was not detected in control group. Different changes of different flavonoids under enhanced UV-B radiation indicate that induction on flavonoids is selective by enhanced UV-B radiation. Wen-Ting Tang, Min-Feng Fang, Xiao Liu, and Ming Yue Copyright © 2014 Wen-Ting Tang et al. All rights reserved. Using the Doubly Charged Selected Ion Coupled with MS/MS Fragments Monitoring (DCSI-MS/MS) Mode for the Identification of Gelatin Species Thu, 13 Mar 2014 13:47:53 +0000 In electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, peptides and proteins can be multiply charged ions; in this situation a doubly charged selected ion (DCSI) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragments monitoring (DCSI-MS/MS) method is the most suitable scanning mode to detect known peptides in complex samples when an ion-trap mass spectrometer is the instrument used for the analysis. In this mode, the MS detector is programmed to only select a doubly charged ion as a precursor and to perform continuous MS/MS on one or more of the selected precursors, either during a specific time interval or along the whole chromatographic run. Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides from the hydrolysis of collagen. In this study, the DCSI-MS/MS monitoring mode was applied to the detection of previously characterized species-specific peptides from different gelatins. The proposed methodology makes use of tryptic digestion for sample preparation and peptide separation and identification by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap working in the DCSI-MS/MS mode for the analysis. This methodology was applied to the differential classification of five commercial, homological species of gelatins and proved to be an excellent tool for gelatin product authentication. Xian-Long Cheng, Feng Wei, Jia Chen, Ming-hua Li, Lei Zhang, Ying-Yong Zhao, Xin-Yue Xiao, Shuang-cheng Ma, and Rui-Chao Lin Copyright © 2014 Xian-Long Cheng et al. All rights reserved. One Single Amino Acid for Estimation the Content of Total Free Amino Acids in Qingkailing Injection Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection Thu, 13 Mar 2014 09:38:05 +0000 Qingkailing injection (QKLI), a modern traditional Chinese medicine preparation, has been widely used in clinics due to its fast and significant efficacy in treatment of high fever. The free amino acids (AAs) were considered to be the most abundant active ingredients indisputably. So developing an accurate and simple determination method to measure the contents of total free AAs in QKLI is very crucial. In current study, the accurate and simple method of using one single standard AA for simultaneous quantification of multiple AAs (One for M) in QKLI was developed. Particularly, the calculation methods and the robustness of relative correction factors (RCFs) were investigated systematically. No statistically significant difference between these two quantification methods of One for M and classic regression equation was found by the -test (  =  95%, ). The results showed that the precision (RSD < 4.88%), the robustness (RSD < 4.04%), and the average recoveries (94.11%–107.94%) of this newly proposed method all met the requirements for content determination. This One for M method will provide a scientific reference for the quantitative determination of AAs in other traditional Chinese medicines and their preparations owing to its accuracy and simplicity. Li Zhang, Xue Wang, Jiankun Su, Haiyu Liu, Zhixin Zhang, Lingling Qin, Cheng He, Long Peng, Mingxing Guo, and Xiaoyan Gao Copyright © 2014 Li Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A New Method for the Analysis of Bacterial Endotoxins in Ultrapure Paraffin Oil Sun, 09 Mar 2014 13:40:38 +0000 The paper demonstrates the feasibility of the gel-clot method for the analysis of bacterial endotoxins in water extracts of ultrapure paraffin oil which is a water insoluble oily medical device. Because ultrapure paraffin oil is water insoluble oily liquid, the ultrapure paraffin oil (10 mL) was shaken with 10 mL water for 15 minutes at 2000 rpm, the endotoxin present was extracted to the aqueous phase without interference inhibition/enhancement of the product, the recovery of the endotoxin added to the ultrapure paraffin oil was determined. A validation study confirmed that endotoxins present in ultrapure paraffin oil which is water insoluble liquid medical device pass over into the aqueous phase at concentrations of 20, 10, and 5 EU/mL with recoveries of 94.2% to 111%. So the conclusion is that the gel-clot test is suitable for detecting bacterial endotoxins in ultrapure paraffin oil which is a water insoluble oily medical device. Dandan Chen Copyright © 2014 Dandan Chen. All rights reserved. Study on Dicarboxylic Acids in Aerosol Samples with Capillary Electrophoresis Sun, 09 Mar 2014 06:24:36 +0000 The research was performed to study the simultaneous detection of a homologous series of α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (C2–C10), oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, and sebacic acids, with capillary electrophoresis using indirect UV detection. Good separation efficiency in 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as background electrolyte modified with myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide was obtained. The dicarboxylic acids were ionised and separated within five minutes. For the study, authentic samples were collected onto dry cellulose membrane filters of a cascade impactor (12 stages) from outdoor spring aerosols in an urban area. Hot water and ultrasonication extraction methods were used to isolate the acids from membrane filters. Due to the low concentrations of acids in the aerosols, the extracts were concentrated with solid-phase extraction (SPE) before determination. The enrichment of the carboxylic acids was between 86 and 134% with sample pretreatment followed by 100-time increase by preparation of the sample to 50 μL. Inaccuracy was optimised for all the sample processing steps. The aerosols contained dicarboxylic acids C2–C10. Then, mostly they contained C2, C5, and C10. Only one sample contained succinic acid. In the study, the concentrations of the acids in aerosols were lower than 10 ng/m3. Heidi Adler and Heli Sirén Copyright © 2014 Heidi Adler and Heli Sirén. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination of Cortisol and Cortisone from Human Serum by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Thu, 06 Mar 2014 09:00:12 +0000 A fast, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was validated and then the levels of cortisol and cortisone from sera of healthy adults were determined by the LC-MS/MS method. One hundred μL of serum sample was directly extracted by adding 2 mL ethyl acetate, followed by chromatographic separation on a C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol (25 : 75, v/v). The precision, accuracy, and average recovery of the method were 1.5–5.3%, 95.4–102.5%, and 96.4% for cortisol, and 1.9–6.0%, 89.2–98.8%, and 79.9% for cortisone, respectively. The method was linear from 1.0 to 500.0 ng/mL for cortisol and 2.5 to 100.0 ng/mL for cortisone. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 and 1.0 ng/mL for cortisol, and 1.0 and 2.5 ng/mL for cortisone, respectively. The average cortisol concentration ( ng/mL) of samples collected between 9:00 and 11:00 a.m. was higher approximately 4.4 times than that of cortisone ( ng/mL) . The average cortisone/cortisol ratio was 0.225. Therefore, the LC-MS/MS method may be useful for the diagnosis of some adrenal diseases and the assessment of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) activity in clinical laboratories. Sanghoo Lee, Hwan-Sub Lim, Hye-Jin Shin, Seol-A Kim, Jimyeong Park, Hyun-Chul Kim, Hyogyeong Kim, Hyung Joo Kim, Yun-Tae Kim, Kyoung-Ryul Lee, and Young-Jin Kim Copyright © 2014 Sanghoo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterization of an Amphipathic Magnetic Nanosphere Wed, 05 Mar 2014 13:38:03 +0000 The amphipathic magnetic nanospheres were synthesized using C8 and polyethylene glycol as ligands. Their morphology, structure, and composition were characterized by transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, and elementary analysis. The prepared materials presented uniform sphere with size distribution about 200 nm. The magnetic characteristics of magnetic nanomaterials were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The target products had a saturation magnetization value of 50 emu g−1 and superparamagnetism. The adsorption capability was also studied by static tests, and the material was applied to enrich benzenesulfonamide from calf serum. The results exhibited that the C8-PEG phase owned better adsorption capability, biocompatible property, and dispersivity in aqueous samples. Yongsheng Ji, Ruihong Lv, Zhigang Xu, Chuande Zhao, and Haixia Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yongsheng Ji et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Polyphenol Components of Korean Prostrate Spurge (Euphorbia supina) by Using Liquid Chromatography—Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Overall Contribution to Antioxidant Activity Mon, 03 Mar 2014 08:07:27 +0000 The Korean prostrate spurge Euphorbia supina is a weed that has been used in folk medicine in Korea against a variety of diseases. Nine polyphenols were characterized for this plant by using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and the results were compared with the literature data. The individual components were validated using the calibration curves of structurally related external standards and quantified for the first time by using the validated method. Correlation coefficients () were >0.9907. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method were >0.028 mg/L and 0.094 mg/L, respectively. Recoveries measured at 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L were 76.1–102.8% and 85.2–98.6%, respectively. The total amount of the identified polyphenols was 3352.9 ± 2.8 mg/kg fresh plant. Quercetin and kaempferol derivatives formed 84.8% of the total polyphenols. The antioxidant activities of the flavonoids were evaluated in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation-scavenging activity, and the reducing power showed a dose-dependent increase. Cell viability was effectively suppressed at polyphenol mixture concentrations >250 mg/L. Yi Song, Sung Woo Jeong, Won Sup Lee, Semin Park, Yun-Hi Kim, Gon-Sup Kim, Soo Jung Lee, Jong Sung Jin, Chi-Yeon Kim, Ji Eun Lee, Se Yun Ok, Ki-Min Bark, and Sung Chul Shin Copyright © 2014 Yi Song et al. All rights reserved. Halogenated Anesthetics Determination in Urine by SPME/GC/MS and Urine Levels Relationship Evaluation with Surgical Theatres Contamination Thu, 27 Feb 2014 07:09:12 +0000 In this work, a new sensitive analytical method has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the most commonly used gaseous anesthetics, desflurane, sevoflurane, and this latter’s hepatic metabolite hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in the urine. In addition, an evaluation of anesthetics exposition on the urine levels of a small population of surgical operators has been performed and results are briefly discussed. Serena Indelicato, David Bongiorno, Sergio Indelicato, Leopoldo Ceraulo, Ernesto Tranchina, Giuseppe Avellone, Concetta Arcadipane, and Filippo Giambartino Copyright © 2014 Serena Indelicato et al. All rights reserved. A Metabolomic Strategy to Screen the Prototype Components and Metabolites of Shuang-Huang-Lian Injection in Human Serum by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Wed, 26 Feb 2014 16:25:15 +0000 Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic to treat acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, and so forth. Despite the widespread clinical application, the prototype components and metabolites of SHLI have not been fully elucidated, especially in human body. To discover and screen the constituents or metabolites of Chinese medicine in biofluids tends to be more and more difficult due to the complexity of chemical compositions, metabolic reactions and matrix effects. In this work, a metabolomic strategy to comprehensively elucidate the prototype components and metabolites of SHLI in human serum conducted by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was developed. Orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to distinguish the exogenous, namely, drug-induced constituents, from endogenous in human serum. In the S-plot, 35 drug-induced constituents were found, including 23 prototype compounds and 12 metabolites which indicated that SHLI in human body mainly caused phase II metabolite reactions. It was concluded that the metabolomic strategy for identification of herbal constituents and metabolites in biological samples was successfully developed. This identification and structural elucidation of the chemical compounds provided essential data for further pharmacological and pharmacokinetics study of SHLI. Mingxing Guo, Baosheng Zhao, Haiyu Liu, Li Zhang, Long Peng, Lingling Qin, Zhixin Zhang, Jian Li, Chengke Cai, and Xiaoyan Gao Copyright © 2014 Mingxing Guo et al. All rights reserved. A Proposal for Six Sigma Integration for Large-Scale Production of Penicillin G and Subsequent Conversion to 6-APA Mon, 24 Feb 2014 15:47:44 +0000 Six Sigma methodology has been successfully applied to daily operations by several leading global private firms including GE and Motorola, to leverage their net profits. Comparatively, limited studies have been conducted to find out whether this highly successful methodology can be applied to research and development (R&D). In the current study, we have reviewed and proposed a process for a probable integration of Six Sigma methodology to large-scale production of Penicillin G and its subsequent conversion to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). It is anticipated that the important aspects of quality control and quality assurance will highly benefit from the integration of Six Sigma methodology in mass production of Penicillin G and/or its conversion to 6-APA. Anirban Nandi, Sharadwata Pan, Ravichandra Potumarthi, Michael K. Danquah, and Indira P. Sarethy Copyright © 2014 Anirban Nandi et al. All rights reserved. Determination of (4E,6E,12E)-Tetradecatriene-8,10-diyne-1,3-diyl Diacetate in Rat Plasma and Tissues by HPLC-UV Method and Their Application to a Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distribution Study Mon, 24 Feb 2014 12:34:42 +0000 In China Atractylodis Rhizoma is widely used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases and digestive disorders. Stir-frying with wheat bran is the most common processing method. In order to clarify the influence of processing on pharmacological properties of Atractylodis Rhizoma, an investigation was carried out to compare the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of typical constituent after oral administration of raw Atractylodis Rhizoma and processed ones. A simple, rapid, and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed and validated for the determination of (4E,6E,12E)-tetradecatriene-8,10-diyne-1,3-diyl diacetate in rat plasma. A chromatography was carried out on Diamonsil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) analytical column, using a mobile phase which consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid water (60 : 40, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min−1. The wavelength was set at 336 nm. The LLOQ of (4E,6E,12E)-tetradecatriene-8,10-diyne-1,3-diyl diacetate was 0.00143 μg·mL−1. Both accuracy and precision were satisfactory. The pharmacokinetic results showed that the was 1 hour in advance and the was increased after processing. Tissue distribution showed that the highest level was in spleen. And the concentrations in the spleen were increased after stir-frying with bran. Yan Huo, Yu-Qiang Liu, Zhong-Xu Bai, and Qian Cai Copyright © 2014 Yan Huo et al. All rights reserved. Determination of 16 Selected Trace Elements in Children Plasma from China Economical Developed Rural Areas Using High Resolution Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry Thu, 20 Feb 2014 11:34:49 +0000 A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1 mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1 μg/L, 0–10 μg/L and 0–100 μg/L. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02 μg/L (Rb) to 1.89 μg/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3–12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002. Xiaobing Liu, Jianhua Piao, Zhenwu Huang, Shuang-Qing Zhang, Weidong Li, Yuan Tian, and Xiaoguang Yang Copyright © 2014 Xiaobing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Analysis of Cepharanthine in Plasma Based on Semiautomatic Microextraction by Packed Sorbent Combined with Liquid Chromatography Sun, 16 Feb 2014 13:56:22 +0000 The spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance toward most of the used drugs requires new antimalarial compounds. Taking advantage of the biodiversity, the ethnopharmacological approach opens the way for the discovery and the characterization of potent original molecules. Previous works led to the selection of a bisbenzylisoquinoline, cepharanthine, extracted from Stephania rotunda, which is mainly present in Cambodia. A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography method has been developed for the determination of cepharanthine in mouse plasma. The method involved a semiautomated microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) using 4 mg of solid phase silica-C8 sorbent. LC separation was performed on a Kinetex XB-C18 column (2.6 µm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile containing formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.5. Data were acquired at 282 nm with a diode array detector. The drug/internal standard peak area ratios were linked via linear relationships to plasma concentrations (75–2,000 ng/mL). Precision was below 5% and accuracy was 99.0–102%. Extraction recovery of cepharanthine was 56–58%. The method was successfully used to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of cepharanthine in healthy and Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The infection did not impact pharmacokinetic parameters of cepharanthine. Camille Desgrouas, Marc Desbordes, Jérôme Dormoi, Evelyne Ollivier, Daniel Parzy, and Nicolas Taudon Copyright © 2014 Camille Desgrouas et al. All rights reserved. Solid Phase Microextraction and Related Techniques for Drugs in Biological Samples Thu, 13 Feb 2014 17:10:29 +0000 In drug discovery and development, the quantification of drugs in biological samples is an important task for the determination of the physiological performance of the investigated drugs. After sampling, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Because of the low concentration levels of drug in plasma and the variety of the metabolites, the selected extraction technique should be virtually exhaustive. Recent developments of sample handling techniques are directed, from one side, toward automatization and online coupling of sample preparation units. The primary objective of this review is to present the recent developments in microextraction sample preparation methods for analysis of drugs in biological fluids. Microextraction techniques allow for less consumption of solvent, reagents, and packing materials, and small sample volumes can be used. In this review the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME), microextraction in packed sorbent (MEPS), and stir-bar sorbtive extraction (SBSE) in drug analysis will be discussed. In addition, the use of new sorbents such as monoliths and molecularly imprinted polymers will be presented. Mohammad Mahdi Moein, Rana Said, Fatma Bassyouni, and Mohamed Abdel-Rehim Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Mahdi Moein et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and UV-B Absorbing Compounds in Mung Bean Using UV-B and Red LED Radiation Wed, 12 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Various factors have important effects on the types and contents of plant chemical components. In order to study quality of mung bean from different light sources, mung bean seedlings were exposed to red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B). Changes in the growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and the content of UV-B absorbing compounds were measured. The results showed that photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations were enhanced by red LEDs. The concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced by UV-B on the 20th day, while photosynthetic characteristics, plant length, and the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were reduced by UV-B on the 40th day; at the same time the values of the stem diameter, plant fresh weight, dry weight, and the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced. It is suggested that red LEDs promote the elongation of plant root growth and photosynthetic characteristics, while UV-B promotes horizontal growth of stems and the synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds. Fang-Min Li, Zhi-Guo Lu, and Ming Yue Copyright © 2014 Fang-Min Li et al. All rights reserved. Simple and Sensitive Analysis of Blonanserin and Blonanserin C in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application Tue, 11 Feb 2014 09:18:54 +0000 A highly sensitive, simple, and rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to simultaneously determine blonanserin and blonanserin C in human plasma with AD-5332 as internal standard (IS) was established. A simple direct protein precipitation method was used for the sample pretreatment, and chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters XBridge C8 ( mm, 3.5 μm) column. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid in water (A) and 0.1% formic acid in methanol (B). To quantify blonanserin, blonanserin C, and IS, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was performed in positive ESI mode. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.012–5.78 ng·mL−1 for blonanserin and 0.023–11.57 ng·mL−1 for blonanserin C (). The intra- and interday precision of three quality control (QC) levels in plasma were less than 7.5%. Finally, the current simple, sensitive, and accurate LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of blonanserin and blonanserin C in healthy Chinese volunteers. Yunliang Zheng, Xingjiang Hu, Jian Liu, Guolan Wu, Huili Zhou, Meixiang Zhu, You Zhai, Lihua Wu, and Jianzhong ShenTu Copyright © 2014 Yunliang Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Comparisons of Multi-Ingredients after Oral Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Extract, Hawthorn Extract, and a Combination of Both Extracts to Rats Mon, 10 Feb 2014 14:17:04 +0000 A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma. This method validated was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the main active ingredients after oral administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract (SME), hawthorn extract (HTE), and a combination of both extracts (2.5 : 1) to rats. The results indicated that there have been great differences in pharmacokinetics between a single extract and a combination of both extracts. A combination of both extracts can enhance their bioavailabilities and delay the elimination of SAB and DSS in rats. Yu-Qiang Liu, Qian Cai, Chang Liu, Feng-Wei Bao, and Zhen-Qiu Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yu-Qiang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytoprotective Activity of Agathi Leaf Protein Tue, 28 Jan 2014 09:29:15 +0000 In the present study a protein termed agathi leaf protein (ALP) from Sesbania grandiflora Linn. (agathi) leaves was isolated after successive precipitation with 65% ammonium sulphate followed by purification on Sephadex G 75. The column chromatography of the crude protein resulted in four peaks of which Peak I (P I) showed maximum inhibition activity against hydroxyl radical. SDS-PAGE analysis of P I indicated that the molecular weight of the protein is ≈29 kDa. The purity of the protein was 98.4% as determined by RP-HPLC and showed a single peak with a retention time of 19.9 min. ALP was able to reduce oxidative damage by scavenging lipid peroxidation against erythrocyte ghost (85.50 ± 6.25%), linolenic acid (87.67 ± 3.14%) at 4.33 μM, ABTS anion (88 ± 3.22%), and DNA damage (83 ± 4.20%) at 3.44 μM in a dose-dependent manner. The purified protein offered significant protection to lymphocyte (72% at 30 min) induced damage by t-BOOH. In addition, ALP showed strong antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20 ± 3.64 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (19 ± 1.53 mm) at 200 μg/mL. The safety assessment showed that ALP does not induce cytotoxicity towards human lymphocyte at the tested concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. A. S. Zarena, Shubha Gopal, and R. Vineeth Copyright © 2014 A. S. Zarena et al. All rights reserved. Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate, Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride, and Enrofloxacin in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using Acid Dyes Wed, 22 Jan 2014 14:33:43 +0000 Simple, rapid, and extractive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of some fluoroquinolones antibiotics: gemifloxacin mesylate (GMF), moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MXF), and enrofloxacin (ENF) in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the basic drugs and acid dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG), bromocresol purple (BCP), bromophenol blue (BPB), bromothymol blue (BTB), and methyl orange (MO) in acidic buffer solutions. The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform and measured at 420, 408, 416, 415, and 422 nm for BCG, BCP, BPB, BTB, and MO, respectively, for GMF; at 410, 415, 416, and 420 nm for BCP, BTB, BPB, and MO, respectively, for MXF; and at 419 and 414 nm for BCG and BTB, respectively, in case of ENF. The analytical parameters and their effects are investigated. Beer’s law was obeyed in the ranges 1.0–30, 1.0–20, and 2.0–24 μg mL−1 for GMF, MXF, and ENF, respectively. The proposed methods have been applied successfully for the analysis of the studied drugs in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference methods showed excellent agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision. Ayman A. Gouda, Alaa S. Amin, Ragaa El-Sheikh, and Amira G. Yousef Copyright © 2014 Ayman A. Gouda et al. All rights reserved. Synchronized Analysis of FTIR Spectra and GCMS Chromatograms for Evaluation of the Thermally Degraded Vegetable Oils Sun, 19 Jan 2014 13:12:47 +0000 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) are two common instruments used for analysis of edible oils. The output signal is often analysed on the software attached to the workstations. The processing software is usually individualised for a specific source. The output of GCMS cannot be analysed on the FTIR hence analysts often need to juggle between instruments when multiple techniques are employed. This could become exhaustive when a large dataset is involved. This paper reports a synchronised approach for analysis of signal from FTIR and GCMS. The algorithm is demonstrated on a dataset of edible oils to investigate the thermal degradation of seven types of edible oils treated at 100°C and 150°C. The synchronised routines identify peaks present in FTIR and GCMS spectra/chromatograms where the information is subsequently extracted onto peak tables for further analysis. In this study, it is found that palm based products and corn oils were relatively more stable with higher content of antioxidants tocopherols and squalene. As a conclusion, this approach allows simultaneous analysis of signal from multiple sources and samples enhancing the efficiency of the signal processing process. Siong Fong Sim, Terri Zhuan Ean Lee, Nurul Aida Lu Mohd Irwan Lu, and Benedict Samling Copyright © 2014 Siong Fong Sim et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment Thu, 16 Jan 2014 13:03:26 +0000 Due to the specific structure of surfactants molecules they are applied in different areas of human activity (industry, household). After using and discharging from wastewater treatment plants as effluent stream, surface active agents (SAAs) are emitted to various elements of the environment (atmosphere, waters, and solid phases), where they can undergo numerous physic-chemical processes (e.g., sorption, degradation) and freely migrate. Additionally, SAAs present in the environment can be accumulated in living organisms (bioaccumulation), what can have a negative effect on biotic elements of ecosystems (e.g., toxicity, disturbance of endocrine equilibrium). They also cause increaseing solubility of organic pollutants in aqueous phase, their migration, and accumulation in different environmental compartments. Moreover, surfactants found in aerosols can affect formation and development of clouds, which is associated with cooling effect in the atmosphere and climate changes. The environmental fate of SAAs is still unknown and recognition of this problem will contribute to protection of living organisms as well as preservation of quality and balance of various ecosystems. This work contains basic information about surfactants and overview of pollution of different ecosystems caused by them (their classification and properties, areas of use, their presence, and behavior in the environment). Ewa Olkowska, Marek Ruman, and Żaneta Polkowska Copyright © 2014 Ewa Olkowska et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetics of PEGylated Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Rats Thu, 09 Jan 2014 13:18:32 +0000 rHuEPO plays a central role as chemicals for the treatment of many diseases. Due to its short half-life, the main aim for this pharmacokinetic study is to investigate a newly developed PEG-rHuEPO with large molecular weight in SD rats. After a single intramuscular administration of different doses of 125I-PEG-rHuEPO, pharmacokinetic parameters, tissue distribution, and excretion were analyzed. In in vivo half-life time measured after 125I-PEG-rHuEPO administration at the doses of 1, 2, and 3 g/kg, 1/2 was 1.90, 1.19, and 2.50 hours, respectively, whereas 1/2 was 22.37, 26.21, and 20.92 hours, respectively; at 8, 24, and 48 hours after intramuscular administration, PEG-rHuEPO was distributed to all of the examined tissues, however, with high concentrations of radioactivity, only in plasma, blood, muscle at the administration site, and bone marrow. Following a 2 g/kg single intramuscular administration, approximately 21% of the radiolabeled dose was recovered after almost seven days of study. Urine was the major route of excretion; 20% of the administered dose was recovered in the urine, while excretion in the feces was less than 1.4%. Therefore, this PEG-rHuEPO has potential to be clinically used and could reduce frequency of injection. Xiaohan Cao, Zhiyong Chen, Zhuoran Yu, Yonghong Ge, and Xianyin Zeng Copyright © 2014 Xiaohan Cao et al. All rights reserved. Expression of Recombinant Human Alpha-Lactalbumin in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Using a Hybrid Pomoter/Enhancer Thu, 09 Jan 2014 12:44:20 +0000 To improve nutrient content of goat milk, we describe the construction of a vector (pBLAC) containing a hybrid goat β-lactoglobulin (BLG) promoter/cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer. We also describe the generation of transgenic goats expressing rhLA by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Of 334 one-cell stage embryos derived from three transgenic cell lines and 99 embryos derived from non-transgenic (NT) cells surgically transferred to the oviducts of 37 recipients, two recipients delivered two kids (2%) from the non-transfected line and five recipients delivered six kids (1.8%) from transgenic cell lines, three of which died within 2 days. Compared to the NT donor cells, transfection of donor cells does not negatively affect the development of nuclear transfer embryos into viable transgenic offspring. However, the clone efficiency in cell line number 1 was lower than that in numbers 2 and 3, and in the NT lines (0.9% versus 1.9% 2.4% and 2%; ). Two transgenic cloned goats expressed rhLA in the milk at 0.1–0.9 mg/mL. The mammary gland-specific expression vector pBLAC with hybrid BLG/CMV can drive the hLA gene to express in vitro and in vivo. These data establish the basis for use of a hybrid promoter/enhancer strategy to produce rhLA transgenic goats. Yu-Guo Yuan, Liyou An, Baoli Yu, Shaozheng Song, Feng Zhou, Liqing Zhang, Yinyin Gu, Minghui Yu, and Yong Cheng Copyright © 2014 Yu-Guo Yuan et al. All rights reserved.