Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Enrichment of the Glycyrrhizic Acid from Licorice Roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Isoelectric Focused Adsorptive Bubble Chromatography Mon, 01 Feb 2016 11:29:23 +0000 The main aim of this study was to enrich glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt known as one of the main compounds of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique with different foaming agents. In the experiments, four bubble separation parameters were used with β-lactoglobulin, albumin bovine, and starch (soluble) preferred as foaming agents and without additives. The enrichment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam was influenced by different additive substances. The results showed that highest enrichment values were obtained from β-lactoglobulin as much as 368.3 times. The lowest enrichment values (5.9 times) were determined for the application without additive. After enrichment, each experiment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt confirmed that these substances could be quantitatively enriched into the collection vessel with isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique. The transfer of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam from standard solution in the presence of additive was more efficient than aqueous licorice extract. Eyyüp Karaoğul, Perihan Parlar, Harun Parlar, and M. Hakkı Alma Copyright © 2016 Eyyüp Karaoğul et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Saponin Content in Hang Maidong and Chuan Maidong via HPLC-ELSD Analysis Wed, 27 Jan 2016 10:21:44 +0000 Zhejiang and Sichuan are regarded as two genuine producing areas of Ophiopogonis radix in China. To study the difference in the quality of Ophiopogonis radix from these two places, the contents of three reported bioactive saponins, that is, ophiopogonins B, D, and D′, in tubers and fibrous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus from Cixi city of Zhejiang and Santai county of Sichuan were quantified using HPLC-ELSD method and compared. Ophiopogonin B and ophiopogonin D′ content in tubers of HMD were higher than those in radix of CMD, whereas ophiopogonin D in HMD was about twice lower than that of CMD. Three ophiopogonins were all detected in fibrous roots of both HMD and CMD. Their averaged content in fibrous roots of CMD was about twice higher than that in tubers of CMD. Ophiopogonin D in fibrous roots of CMD was about five times higher than that of HMD. Our biochemical assay revealed that fibrous roots and tubers of CMD can be of an important saponin source, especially for ophiopogonin D. Xian-En Li, Yu-Xia Wang, Peng Sun, and Deng-Qun Liao Copyright © 2016 Xian-En Li et al. All rights reserved. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study Tue, 26 Jan 2016 09:06:44 +0000 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using  nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes. Reyna del Carmen Lara-Severino, Miguel Ángel Camacho-López, Jessica Marlene García-Macedo, Leobardo M. Gómez-Oliván, Ángel H. Sandoval-Trujillo, Keila Isaac-Olive, and Ninfa Ramírez-Durán Copyright © 2016 Reyna del Carmen Lara-Severino et al. All rights reserved. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Volatile Components of Zhengtian Pills Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Wed, 20 Jan 2016 08:57:36 +0000 Zhengtian pills (ZTPs) are traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which have been commonly used to treat headaches. Volatile components of ZTPs extracted by ethyl acetate with an ultrasonic method were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-two components were identified, accounting for 78.884% of the total components of volatile oil. The three main volatile components including protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). Baseline separation was achieved on an XB-C18 column with linear gradient elution of methanol-0.2% acetic acid aqueous solution. The UHPLC-DAD method provided good linearity (), precision (RSD < 3%), accuracy (100.68–102.69%), and robustness. The UHPLC-DAD/GC-MS method was successfully utilized to analyze volatile components, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide, in 13 batches of ZTPs, which is suitable for discrimination and quality assessment of ZTPs. Cui-ting Liu, Min Zhang, Ping Yan, Hai-chan Liu, Xing-yun Liu, and Ruo-ting Zhan Copyright © 2016 Cui-ting Liu et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Novel Ratio Spectra and Isoabsorptive Point Based Spectrophotometric Methods: Application on a Binary Mixture of Ascorbic Acid and Rutin Mon, 18 Jan 2016 09:32:25 +0000 This paper presents novel methods for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of rutin (RU) (coformulated drug) in their combined pharmaceutical formulation. The seven methods are ratio difference (RD), isoabsorptive_RD (Iso_RD), amplitude summation (A_Sum), isoabsorptive point, first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD), mean centering (MCN), and ratio subtraction (RS). On the other hand, RU was determined directly by measuring the absorbance at 358 nm in addition to the two novel Iso_RD and A_Sum methods. The work introduced in this paper aims to compare these different methods, showing the advantages for each and making a comparison of analysis results. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 4–50 μg/mL for AA and RU. The results show the high performance of proposed methods for the analysis of the binary mixture. The optimum assay conditions were established and the proposed methods were successfully applied for the assay of the two drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and combined pharmaceutical tablets with excellent recoveries. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. Hany W. Darwish, Ahmed H. Bakheit, and Ibrahim A. Naguib Copyright © 2016 Hany W. Darwish et al. All rights reserved. Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction of Bismuth in Various Samples and Determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Mon, 11 Jan 2016 08:04:00 +0000 A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of bismuth in various samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry is described. In this method, crystal violet was used as counter positive ion for complex ion, chloroform as extraction solvent, and ethanol as disperser solvent. The analytical parameters that may affect the extraction efficiency like acidity of sample, type and amount of extraction and disperser solvents, amount of ligand, and extraction time were studied in detail. The effect of interfering ions on the analyte recovery was also investigated. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.040–1.00 mg L−1 with detection limit of 4.0 μg L−1 (). The precision as relative standard deviation was 3% (, 0.20 mg L−1) and the enrichment factor was 74. The developed method was applied successfully for the determination of bismuth in various water, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic samples and the certified reference material (TMDA-64 lake water). Teslima Daşbaşı, Şenol Kartal, Şerife Saçmacı, and Ahmet Ülgen Copyright © 2016 Teslima Daşbaşı et al. All rights reserved. Selective and Sensitive Detection of Cyanide Based on the Displacement Strategy Using a Water-Soluble Fluorescent Probe Tue, 05 Jan 2016 13:39:10 +0000 A water-soluble fluorescent probe (C-GGH) was used for the highly sensitive and selective detection of cyanide (CN−) in aqueous media based on the displacement strategy. Due to the presence of the recognition unit GGH (Gly-Gly-His), the probe C-GGH can coordinate with Cu2+ and consequently display ON-OFF type fluorescence response. Furthermore, the in situ formed nonfluorescent C-GGH-Cu2+ complex can act as an effective OFF-ON type fluorescent probe for sensing CN− anion. Due to the strong binding affinity of CN− to Cu2+, CN− can extract Cu2+ from C-GGH-Cu2+ complex, leading to the release of C-GGH and the recovery of fluorescent emission of the system. The probe C-GGH-Cu2+ allowed detection of CN− in aqueous solution with a LOD (limit of detection) of 0.017 μmol/L which is much lower than the maximum contaminant level (1.9 μmol/L) for CN− in drinking water set by the WHO (World Health Organization). The probe also displayed excellent specificity for CN− towards other anions, including F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, SCN−, , , , AcO−, , and . Ming La, Yuanqiang Hao, Zhaoyang Wang, Guo-Cheng Han, and Lingbo Qu Copyright © 2016 Ming La et al. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Clopidogrel Bisulfate, Its Carboxylic Acid Metabolite, and Atorvastatin in Human Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study Tue, 29 Dec 2015 06:35:36 +0000 A simple, sensitive, and specific reversed phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of clopidogrel, its carboxylic acid metabolite, and atorvastatin in human serum. Plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and ibuprofen was chosen as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on an BDS Hypersil column (250 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) via gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of 10 mM phosphoric acid (sodium) buffer solution (pH = 2.6 adjusted with 85% orthophosphoric acid) : acetonitrile : methanol with flow rate of 1 mL·min−1. Detection was achieved with PDA detector at 220 nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantification, and stability tests. Calibration curves of the analytes were found to be linear in the range of 0.008–2 μg·mL−1 for clopidogrel, 0.01–4 μg·mL−1 for its carboxylic acid metabolite, and 0.005–2.5 μg·mL−1 for atorvastatin. The results of accuracy (as recovery) with ibuprofen as internal standard were in the range of 96–98% for clopidogrel, 94–98% for its carboxylic acid metabolite, and 90–99% for atorvastatin, respectively. Octavian Croitoru, Adela-Maria Spiridon, Ionela Belu, Adina Turcu-Ştiolică, and Johny Neamţu Copyright © 2015 Octavian Croitoru et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Gentisides Extraction from Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. by Response Surface Methodology Thu, 24 Dec 2015 16:46:31 +0000 Gentisides are a class of chemical compounds which is considered as potential therapeutic substance for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The heat reflux extraction conditions were optimized for seven kinds of gentisides from the root and rhizome of Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. by employing response surface method. Based on univariate test, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to the survey of relationships between response value (gentisides yield) and independent variables which were chosen from various extraction processes, including extraction temperature, extraction time, and solvent-material ratio. The optimized conditions for this extraction are as follows: extraction time of 3.40 h, extraction temperature of 74.33°C, and ratio of solvent to raw material of 10.21 : 1 mL/g. Verification assay revealed that the predicted value (99.24%) of extraction parameters from this model was mainly conformed to the experimentally observed values (). Bowen Chu, Yao Shi, Zhimin Li, Hao Tian, Wanyi Li, and Yuanzhong Wang Copyright © 2015 Bowen Chu et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination of Rutin, Luteolin, Quercetin, and Betulinic Acid in the Extract of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels by UPLC Tue, 22 Dec 2015 09:09:39 +0000 Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels, which belongs to genus Disporopsis, has been widely used for the treatment of abnormal sweating, chronic cough, and so forth. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was developed for the determination of rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels roots. UPLC analysis was conducted by using a Shim-pack XR-ODS column with gradient elution with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid and with a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, detected at 210, 254, and 280 nm. The method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2.0%. The recoveries for the four components in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels were between 98.5 and 100.9%. The average contents of rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid in roots were 5.63, 2.51, 3.87, and 2.41 μg/g, respectively. The method was accurate and reproducible and it can provide a quantitative basis for quality control of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels. Yanqi Wang, Shuyi Li, Dandan Han, Kehan Meng, Miao Wang, and Chunjie Zhao Copyright © 2015 Yanqi Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks Mon, 23 Nov 2015 16:05:14 +0000 Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite) and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of and but lower values of , , , and . The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes , , and from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of , , and . Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements. Weiqing Zhang, Shuguang Jiang, Christopher Hardacre, Peter Goodrich, Kai Wang, Hao Shao, and Zhengyan Wu Copyright © 2015 Weiqing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Development of Sensitive and Specific Analysis of Vildagliptin in Pharmaceutical Formulation by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Sun, 22 Nov 2015 09:55:12 +0000 A sensitive and selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and fully validated for the determination of vildagliptin (VIL) in pharmaceutical formulation. Prior to GC-MS analysis, VIL was efficiently derivatized with MSTFA/NH4I/β-mercaptoethanol at 60°C for 30 min. The obtained O-TMS derivative of VIL was detected by selected ion monitoring mode using the diagnostic ions m/z 223 and 252. Nandrolone was chosen as internal standard. The GC-MS method was fully validated by the following validation parameters: limit of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ), linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, stability, robustness, and ruggedness. LOD and LOQ were found to be 1.5 and 3.5 ng mL−1, respectively. The GC-MS method is linear in the range of 3.5–300 ng mL−1. The intra- and interday precision values were less than ≤3.62%. The intra- and interday accuracy values were found in the range of 0.26–2.06%. Finally, the GC-MS method was successfully applied to determine VIL in pharmaceutical formulation. Ebru Uçaktürk Copyright © 2015 Ebru Uçaktürk. All rights reserved. Determination of Cefoperazone Sodium in Presence of Related Impurities by Linear Support Vector Regression and Partial Least Squares Chemometric Models Thu, 19 Nov 2015 09:28:20 +0000 A comparison between partial least squares regression and support vector regression chemometric models is introduced in this study. The two models are implemented to analyze cefoperazone sodium in presence of its reported impurities, 7-aminocephalosporanic acid and 5-mercapto-1-methyl-tetrazole, in pure powders and in pharmaceutical formulations through processing UV spectroscopic data. For best results, a 3-factor 4-level experimental design was used, resulting in a training set of 16 mixtures containing different ratios of interfering moieties. For method validation, an independent test set consisting of 9 mixtures was used to test predictive ability of established models. The introduced results show the capability of the two proposed models to analyze cefoperazone in presence of its impurities 7-aminocephalosporanic acid and 5-mercapto-1-methyl-tetrazole with high trueness and selectivity (101.87 ± 0.708 and 101.43 ± 0.536 for PLSR and linear SVR, resp.). Analysis results of drug products were statistically compared to a reported HPLC method showing no significant difference in trueness and precision, indicating the capability of the suggested multivariate calibration models to be reliable and adequate for routine quality control analysis of drug product. SVR offers more accurate results with lower prediction error compared to PLSR model; however, PLSR is easy to handle and fast to optimize. Ibrahim A. Naguib, Eglal A. Abdelaleem, Hala E. Zaazaa, and Essraa A. Hussein Copyright © 2015 Ibrahim A. Naguib et al. All rights reserved. Developing a Novel Indolocarbazole as Histone Deacetylases Inhibitor against Leukemia Cell Lines Mon, 16 Nov 2015 10:13:30 +0000 A novel indolocarbazole (named as ZW2-1) possessing HDAC inhibition activity was synthesized and evaluated against human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and NB4. ZW2-1 performed anti-population growth effect which was in a concentration-dependent manner (2–12 μM) by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in cells. The compound also caused differentiation of HL-60 and NB4 cells as shown by increasing expression of CD11b, CD14, and CD38 at moderate concentration (4 μM). At relatively high concentration (8 μM), ZW2-1 significantly decreased intracellular histone deacetylase 1 level which was also observed. All the results indicated that ZW2-1 could be a novel antileukemia lead capable of simultaneously inducing apoptosis, autophagy, and differentiation. Wenjing Wang, Maomin Lv, Xiong Zhao, and Jingang Zhang Copyright © 2015 Wenjing Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Useful Strategy to Evaluate the Quality Consistency of Traditional Chinese Medicines Based on Liquid Chromatography and Chemometrics Wed, 04 Nov 2015 14:33:08 +0000 Evaluation of the batch consistency of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is essential for the promotion of the development and quality control of TCMs. The aim of the present work was to develop a useful strategy via liquid chromatography and chemometrics to evaluate the batch consistency of TCM preparations. Xin-Ke-Shu (XKS) tablet was chosen as a model for this method development. Four types of chromatographic fingerprint approaches were compared by using similarity analysis based on cosine of angel or correlation coefficient. Differences in the fingerprints of 71 batches of XKS tablet were illustrated by hierarchical cluster analysis. Then, Mahalanobis distance was employed for estimating the probability level () of the differences mentioned above. Additionally, t-test was applied to find out the chromatographic peaks which had significant differences. For XKS tablet, the maximum wavelength fingerprint had the largest range and dispersion degree of similarity as compared with the other three ones. There were two clear clusters in all the batches of samples. And we clearly arrived at the conclusion that higher similarity does not exactly indicate small Mahalanobis distance, while lower similarity indicated larger Mahalanobis distance. Finally, a useful strategy was proposed for evaluation of the batch consistency of XKS tablet. Pei Wang, Lei Nie, and Hengchang Zang Copyright © 2015 Pei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Separation of Berberine Hydrochloride and Tetrahydropalmatine and Their Quantitative Analysis with Thin Layer Chromatography Involved with Ionic Liquids Sun, 01 Nov 2015 08:26:54 +0000 [BMIM]OH was used in mobile and stationary phase of thin layer chromatography (TLC) to analyze berberine hydrochloride and tetrahydropalmatine for the first time. Supported imidazole ionic liquid with hydroxide ion on silica gel (SiO2·Im+·OH−) was synthesized through simple procedure and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, on the plates prepared by SiO2·Im+·OH−, the contents of the above alkaloids in the Chinese patent medicine (CPM) of “Stomacheasy” capsule were successfully determined by TLC scanner. The key conditions and chromatographic behaviors were also investigated in detail. According to similar ways, ionic liquids (ILs) also can be used in other planar chromatographies in two modes. This study is expected to be helpful in expanding the application of IL and its bonded silica gel in TLC separation field. Jing Lu, Hong-yan Ma, Wei Zhang, Zhi-guo Ma, and Shun Yao Copyright © 2015 Jing Lu et al. All rights reserved. Stability-Indicating HPLC Assay for Determination of Idebenone in Pharmaceutical Forms Thu, 29 Oct 2015 08:16:59 +0000 A stability-indicating method was validated for the determination in pharmaceutical forms of idebenone a coenzyme Q10-like compound. The assay was achieved by liquid chromatography analysis using a reversed-phase C18 column and a detector set at 480 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of isocratic flow rate at 1.0 mL/min for 3 min with methanol. The linearity of the assay was demonstrated in the range of 3.0 to 8.0 mg/mL with a correlation coefficient . The limits of detection and quantification were 0.03 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 1.0%. Accuracy of the method ranged from 98.6 to 101.5% with RSD < 0.6%. Specificity of the assay showed no interference from tablets components and breakdown products formed by alkaline, acidic, oxidative, sunlight, and high temperature conditions. This method allows accurate and reliable determination of idebenone for drug stability assay in pharmaceutical studies. Sonoube Kombath, Issa-Bella Balde, Sandra Carret, Sofiane Kabiche, Salvatore Cisternino, Jean-Eudes Fontan, and Joël Schlatter Copyright © 2015 Sonoube Kombath et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Trace Metals Concentration in Tree Barks as Indicator of Atmospheric Pollution within Ibadan City, South-West, Nigeria Wed, 28 Oct 2015 07:43:05 +0000 Tree bark species were randomly collected from 65 sites having different anthropogenic activities, such as industrial, high traffic commercial, residential high and residential low traffic volume areas of Ibadan City, Nigeria. Levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr of the dry-ashed bark samples were determined by AAS. The mean metal concentrations (mg kg−1) in samples from industrial zone were found as Pb: , Cd: , Zn: , Cu: , Co: , and Cr: . The trend of mean trace metal concentrations at high traffic commercial zone follows the order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Co > Cd. Residential high traffic and low traffic zones revealed the same trend as Cd < Co < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn. Relatively strong positive correlation between the heavy metals at , such as Zn versus Cu () and Co versus Cu (), was observed. The results of the study suggest that tree bark samples could potentially serve as bioindicators for Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and possibly Co and Cd. Furthermore, interspecies variation of heavy metal concentrations in plants barks is recommended. Ikechukwu P. Ejidike and Percy C. Onianwa Copyright © 2015 Ikechukwu P. Ejidike and Percy C. Onianwa. All rights reserved. Development of an HPLC Method for Absolute Quantification and QAMS of Flavonoids Components in Psoralea corylifolia L. Mon, 26 Oct 2015 12:46:57 +0000 The seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae) are a commonly used medicinal herb in eastern Asia with many beneficial effects in clinical therapies. In this study, a simple, sensitive, precise, and specific reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for quantification of 9 flavonoids in P. corylifolia, including isobavachin, neobavaisoflavone, bavachin, corylin, bavachalcone, bavachinin, isobavachalcone, corylifol A, and 4′-O-methylbavachalcone. Based on this method, a quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS) was carried out, and the relative correction factors (RCFs) were calculated for determining the contents of other flavonoids. The accuracy of QAMS method was verified by comparing with the results of external standard method, as well as the feasibility and adaptability of the method applied on quality control of P. corylifolia. The 9 compounds were baseline separated in 60 min with a good linearity of regression coefficient over 0.9991. The accuracies of QAMS were between 92.89% and 109.5%. The RSD values of in different injection volume were between 2.3% and 3.6%. The results obtained from QAMS suggested that it was a convenient and accurate method to determine multicomponents especially when some authentic standard substances were unavailable. It can be used to control the quality of P. corylifolia. Cuiping Yan, Yu Wu, Zebin Weng, Qianqian Gao, Guangming Yang, Zhipeng Chen, Baochang Cai, and Weidong Li Copyright © 2015 Cuiping Yan et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination of Six Active Compounds in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, by RP-HPLC-UV Method Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:31:30 +0000 In this study, a sensitive, precise, and accurate HPLC-UV method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the six analytes (luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, tilianin, and rosmarinic acid) in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, in which five analytes (i.e., luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, and rosmarinic acid) were determined for the first time in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, the content of tilianin in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules was reported in other literatures, and the content of tilianin in our work was higher than that of the literature reports. The quality of 11 batch samples from four different manufacturers was evaluated using the proposed determination method. The contents of the six analytes were largely different among samples from various manufacturers. Therefore, this determination method can provide a scientific basis for quality evaluation and control of Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules. Ning Yu, ChenHui He, Gulistan Awuti, Cheng Zeng, JianGuo Xing, and Wei Huang Copyright © 2015 Ning Yu et al. All rights reserved. Multivariate Calibration and Model Integrity for Wood Chemistry Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Tue, 20 Oct 2015 12:00:47 +0000 This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide better predictive capability while PCR exhibited a more precise estimate of loading peaks and suggests that PCR is better for model interpretation of key underlying functional groups. Specifically, when PCR was utilized, an error in peak loading of ±15 cm−1 from the true mean was quantified. Application of the first derivative appeared to assist in improving both PCR and PLS loading precision. Research results identified the wavenumbers important in the prediction of extractives, lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and further demonstrated the utility in FT-IR for rapid monitoring of wood chemistry. Chengfeng Zhou, Wei Jiang, Qingzheng Cheng, and Brian K. Via Copyright © 2015 Chengfeng Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Chemistry of Medicinal Plants, Foods, and Natural Products 2015 Sun, 18 Oct 2015 07:05:35 +0000 Shixin Deng, Shao-Nong Chen, and Jian Yang Copyright © 2015 Shixin Deng et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Nutritional Composition, Antioxidative Capacity, and Sensory Attributes of Seomae Mugwort, a Native Korean Variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot Tue, 13 Oct 2015 06:36:09 +0000 Few studies have investigated Seomae mugwort (a Korean native mugwort variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot), exclusively cultivated in the southern Korean peninsula, and the possibility of its use as a food resource. In the present study, we compared the nutritional and chemical properties as well as sensory attributes of Seomae mugwort and the commonly consumed species Artemisia princeps Pamp. In comparison with A. princeps, Seomae mugwort had higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and essential amino acids. In addition, Seomae mugwort had better radical scavenging activity and more diverse volatile compounds than A. princeps as well as favorable sensory attributes when consumed as tea. Given that scant information is available regarding the Seomae mugwort and its biological, chemical, and sensory characteristics, the results herein may provide important characterization data for further industrial and research applications of this mugwort variety. Jae Kyeom Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin, Ho-Jeong Lim, Soo Jung Choi, Cho Rong Kim, Soo Hwan Suh, Chang-Ju Kim, Gwi Gun Park, Cheung-Seog Park, Hye Kyung Kim, Jong Hun Choi, Sang-Wook Song, and Dong-Hoon Shin Copyright © 2015 Jae Kyeom Kim et al. All rights reserved. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze): A Polyphenol Rich Plant Mon, 12 Oct 2015 10:46:45 +0000 Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L.) germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols), are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures) and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure), for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants. P. A. Nimal Punyasiri, Brasathe Jeganathan, Jeevan Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi, Mahasen A. B. Ranatunga, I. Sarath B. Abeysinghe, M. T. Kumudini Gunasekare, and B. M. Rathnayake Bandara Copyright © 2015 P. A. Nimal Punyasiri et al. All rights reserved. The Content of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Wild Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria vesca L.) Sun, 11 Oct 2015 13:25:21 +0000 Chemical analyses carried out in 2011–2013 aimed at evaluating the contents of flavonoids, free phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity (%) by means of DPPH radical neutralization ability in fresh and air-dried fruits of three wild strawberry cultivars. Examinations revealed differences in contents of biologically active substances determined in raw versus dried material depending on the cultivar. Mean concentrations of flavonoids and tannins were highest in raw fruits of “Baron von Solemacher” cv., which amounted to 1.244 mg·g−1 and 6.09%, respectively. Fresh fruits of “Regina” cv. were characterized by the highest average content of phenolic acids and anthocyanins: 4.987 mg·g−1 and 0.636 mg·100 g−1. The pattern of mean contents of biologically active substances analyzed in air-dried fruits was similar. Significant differences in abilities to neutralize the DPPH radical to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined wild strawberry fruits were also indicated. Magdalena Dyduch-Siemińska, Agnieszka Najda, Jan Dyduch, Magdalena Gantner, and Kamila Klimek Copyright © 2015 Magdalena Dyduch-Siemińska et al. All rights reserved. Quality Assessment of Ojeok-San, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Chemometric Analysis Sun, 11 Oct 2015 13:22:34 +0000 Ojeok-san (OJS) is a traditional herbal formula consisting of 17 herbal medicines that has been used to treat various disorders. In this study, quantitative analytical methods were developed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector to determine 19 marker compounds in OJS preparations, which was then combined with chemometric analysis. The method developed was validated in terms of its precision and accuracy. The intra- and interday precision of the marker compounds were <3.0% of the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the recovery of the marker compounds was 92.74%–104.16% with RSD values <3.0%. The results of our quantitative analysis show that the quantities of the 19 marker compounds varied between a laboratory water extract and commercial OJS granules. The chemometric analysis used, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), also showed that the OJS water extract produced using a laboratory method clearly differed from the commercial OJS granules; therefore, an equalized production process is required for quality control of OJS preparations. Our results suggest that the HPLC analytical methods developed are suitable for the quantification and quality assessment of OJS preparations when combined with chemometric analysis involving PCA and HCA. Jung-Hoon Kim, Chang-Seob Seo, Seong-Sil Kim, and Hyeun-Kyoo Shin Copyright © 2015 Jung-Hoon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Characteristics and Composition of Three Morphotypes of Cyperus esculentus Tubers and Tuber Oils Sun, 11 Oct 2015 10:50:10 +0000 Tuber characteristics and nutrient composition of three morphotypes of Cyperus esculentus tubers and tuber oils were determined. The mean value for length and width of the tuber and one thousand dried tuber weights ranged from 0.98 to 1.31 cm, 0.90 to 1.19 cm, and 598 to 1044 g, respectively. Tubers displayed high level of starch (30.54–33.21 g 100 g−1), lipid (24.91–28.94 g 100 g−1), and sucrose (17.98–20.39 g 100 g−1). The yellow tubers had significantly higher content in lipid compared to black ones. Levels of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and β-carotene of the three morphotypes differed significantly. Yellow ones (morphotypes 1 and 2) were the richest in tocopherol and the poorest in β-carotene. Saturated fatty acid content of morphotype 2 was significantly lower than that of morphotypes 1 and 3. Morphotype 3 had the significantly lowest PUFA content compared to morphotypes 1 and 2. Morphotype 1 was found to be richer in Ca, Cu, and Mn contents. Al, Mg, P, S, and Si were most abundant in morphotype 2. Morphotype 3 had the highest content of Cl, K, and Zn. Souleymane Bado, Patrice Bazongo, Gouyahali Son, Moe Thida Kyaw, Brian Peter Forster, Stephan Nielen, Anne Mette Lykke, Amadé Ouédraogo, and Imaël Henri Nestor Bassolé Copyright © 2015 Souleymane Bado et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Reaction between -Lipoic Acid and 2-Chloro-1-methylquinolinium Tetrafluoroborate Used as a Precolumn Derivatization Technique in Chromatographic Determination of -Lipoic Acid Sun, 04 Oct 2015 12:44:16 +0000 The present study offers results of analysis concerning the course of reaction between reduced α-lipoic acid (LA) and 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate (CMQT). In water environments, the reaction between CMQT and hydrophilic thiols proceeds very rapidly and the resultant products are stable. For the described analysis, optimum reaction conditions, such as concentration of the reducing agent, environment pH, and concentration of the reagent were carefully selected. The spectrophotometric assay was carried out measuring absorbance at  nm (i.e., the spectral band of the obtained reaction product). Furthermore, the calibration curve of lipoic acid was registered. It was concluded that the Lambert-Beer law was observed within the range 1–10 μmol L−1. Later, the reaction between LA and CMQT was used as precolumn derivatization in a chromatographic determination of the lipoic acid in the range 2.5–50 μmol L−1. Practical applicability of the designed methods was evaluated by determining lipoic acid in Revitanerv pharmaceutical preparation which contains 300 mg LA in a single capsule. The error of the determination did not exceed 0.5% in relation to the declared value. Magdalena Godlewska, Angelika Odachowska, Monika Turkowicz, and Joanna Karpinska Copyright © 2015 Magdalena Godlewska et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Gelatin Adulteration in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Analysis of Deer-Horn Glue by Rapid-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Sun, 04 Oct 2015 11:12:06 +0000 Simultaneous identification of donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue was established by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Water containing 1% NH4HCO3 was used for sample dissolution and trypsin was used for hydrolysis of the gelatins. After separation by a SB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column, collagen marker peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was specific, precise and reliable, and suitable for detection of adulterants derived from donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue. Jia Chen, Xian-Long Cheng, Feng Wei, Qian-Qian Zhang, Ming-Hua Li, and Shuang-Cheng Ma Copyright © 2015 Jia Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Virtual Instrument System for Determining Sugar Degree of Honey Sun, 04 Oct 2015 08:55:23 +0000 This study established a LabVIEW-based virtual instrument system to measure optical activity through the communication of conventional optical instrument with computer via RS232 port. This system realized the functions for automatic acquisition, real-time display, data processing, results playback, and so forth. Therefore, it improved accuracy of the measurement results by avoiding the artificial operation, cumbersome data processing, and the artificial error in optical activity measurement. The system was applied to the analysis of the batch inspection on the sugar degree of honey. The results obtained were satisfying. Moreover, it showed advantages such as friendly man-machine dialogue, simple operation, and easily expanded functions. Qijun Wu and Xun Gong Copyright © 2015 Qijun Wu and Xun Gong. All rights reserved.