Table 1: Ellipsometric measurements of the surface layer thickness after each reaction step.

StepsSample thickness (nm)
1234

Oxide 7 3 . 4 ± 0 . 2 72.4 ± 0.275.0 ± 0.375.8 ± 0.4
APTES + GA2.1 ± 0.23.1 ± 0.33.1 ± 0.33.0 ± 0.4
Protein A0.85 ± 0.10.67 ± 0.080.75 ± 0.10.68 ± 0.09
Spectral range500–1600500–1600500–1600500–1600
𝜒 2 0.450.430.470.54

1, 2, 3, 4 represents four random microwells of the wafer chosen for chemical and physical characterization.