- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Journal of Atomic and Molecular Physics

Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 451715, 4 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/451715

## Generation of Multiple Focal Hole Segments Using Double-Ring Shaped Azimuthally Polarized Beam

^{1}Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem, Tamilnadu 636 011, India^{2}Department of Physics, Chikkanna Government Arts College, Trippur, Tamilnadu 641 602, India^{3}Department of Physical Optics, Institute of Applied Optics, 04894 Warsaw, Poland^{4}National Institute of Telecommunications, 04894 Warsaw, Poland

Received 17 July 2012; Revised 4 January 2013; Accepted 18 February 2013

Academic Editor: Mark D. Havey

Copyright © 2013 K. Lalithambigai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We investigated the focusing properties of a double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam tightly focused with a high NA lens and a binary phase filter. We observe that by using 3 belts and 5 belts binary phase filters novel focal patterns including splitting of focal rings and multiring focus are obtained. We also found that a suitably designed phase structure can shift the focal rings along optical axis. The author expects such investigation is worthwhile for optical manipulation and material processing technologies.

#### 1. Introduction

Growing interest in the generation of three-dimensional (3D) optical beams that are dark regions in space surrounded by light is driven by wide ranging applications including dark optical traps for atoms [1], manipulation, guiding and binding of microparticles and biological cells [2], and erase beams for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy [3]. Such beams are also known as twice-closed tubular optical structure (TCTOS) [4], optical bubbles [5], and hollow dark spherical spots [6]. Optical beams with oscillating on-axis intensity due to interference resulting in 3D intensity voids and 3D optical chains were proposed recently for trapping of multiple particles along the beam propagation and for controllable particle delivery [7]. Over the past years, a variety of techniques have been proposed for generating such optical bottle beams for applications in optical tweezers and atom traps [8–15]. Recently, a subwavelength focal hole (*~*0.5) with a quite long depth of focus (*~*48) is achieved near the focus by tight focusing of double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam with high NA lens axicon [16]. In this paper we investigate the focal properties of the tightly focused azimuthally polarized double-ring-shaped beam using 3 belts and 5 belts binary phase filters. We observed that by properly designing the binary phase filters one can achieve many novel focal patterns including splitting of focal rings and generation of multiring structures.

#### 2. Theoretical Work

A schematic diagram of the suggested method is shown in Figure 1. The analysis was performed on the basis of Richards and Wolf’s vectorial diffraction method [17] widely used for high-NA focusing systems at arbitrary incident polarization. In the case of the azimuthally incident polarization, adopting the cylindrical coordinates and and the notations of [18], the electric field in the vicinity of the focal region can be written as Here is relative amplitude, = arcsin () is the maximum aperture angle with () is the numerical aperture, and is the index of refraction between the lens and the sample. denotes the Bessel functions of first order, and the function () describes the amplitude modulation.

For illumination by a double-ring-shaped R-TEM_{11}* beam with its waist in the pupil, this function is given by [19]
where is the parameter that denotes the ratio of pupil diameter to the beam diameter and is the generalized Laguerre polynomial. If , the incident azimuthally polarized beam is a double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam.

#### 3. Analysis of Binary Phase Plate

It is seen from (1) that an additional radial electric field component is produced after introducing the phase modulation to the input double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam [20]. Owing to this radial component, the polarization near the focal plane is rather complicated and space variant. We perform the integration of (1) numerically using parameters , , and of the objective is 0.9. Here, for simplicity, we assume that the refractive index and . The effect of phase modulation on the input double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam is evaluated by replacing the function by where for 3 belts binary phase plate (BPP) is given by

For 5-belt binary phase filter,

When a double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam without any phase modulation is tightly focused, a single-ring focal hole pattern is obtained and is shown in Figure 2(a). We observed that the FWHM of the generated focal hole is 0.782 and its corresponding focal depth is 4. Such a focal ring with subwavelength size can be used for stable trapping of single particle with low refractive index [21]. However, to trap two separates such particles and to manipulate them, we need to split this single-ring focal hole structure to a double ring structure. We observed that this is possible by introducing phase modulation to the input double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam through a 3-belt binary phase plate. We optimized the NA of the first, second, and third ring of the 3-belt binary phase plate as NA_{1} = 0.1, NA_{2} = 0.25, and = 0.9 for to achieve the above-mentioned task, and the generated focal segment is shown in Figure 2(b). From Figure 2(b), we observed that the single focal hole is splitted into two focal holes, and the FWHM of each focal hole segment is measured as 0.468 and is separated by the distance of 2.8 between them. We observed that the residual intensity that exists between the two rings is only 35% of the total intensity measured at the focal hole. The ring focus altered by the BPP can be used to move the trapped particle from one place to another. We also observed that it is possible to increase the separation distance between the two focal rings by setting NA_{1} and NA_{2} of the BPP as 0.2, 0.85 and by tuning , respectively. The corresponding focal hole segment generated is shown in Figure 2(c). From the figure we measured that the FWHM of each focal holes is 0.468 and is axially separated by the distance of 4 between them. We observed that the residual intensity that exists between the two rings is only 33% of the total intensity measured at the focal hole. It is also possible to achieve 3-ring focal hole segment by setting NA_{1} and NA_{2 }of the BPP as 0.3, 0.775 and by tuning . The corresponding focal hole segment generated is shown in Figure 2(d). From Figure 2(d), we measured that the FWHM of each focal hole is 0.468*λ*, and each of them is separated by the distance of 2.8. We observed that the residual intensity that exists between the rings is only 31% of the total intensity measured at the focal hole. We observed that by using 5 belts BPP, it is possible to generate double ring focal segments with FWHM of 0.468and are axially separated by a large distance of 9.4as shown in Figure 3(a).

The set of values of NA of BPP optimized to achieve the above-mentioned task is NA_{1} = 0.34, NA_{2} = 0.57, NA_{3} = 0.78, NA_{4} = 0.85, and = 0.9 for . From Figure 3(b) we also found that it is possible to generate four-ring patterns having almost uniform FWHM of 0.468 and are axially separated by the distance of 2.7 between them by setting NA_{1} = 0.24, NA_{2} = 0.354, NA_{3} = 0.6, NA_{4} = 0.8, and = 0.9 for . We observed that the residual intensity that exists between the rings is only 30% of the total intensity measured at the focal hole. Thus with the help of liquid crystal-based tunable BPP, it is possible to generate tunable subwavelength focal hole segment with input double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam.

#### 4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we show by vector diffraction theory that the tight focusing of double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam with a high NA lens and tunable BPP, it is possible to generate many novel focal patterns which are potentially useful for optical trapping and manipulation of low refractive index particles.

#### References

- N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, “Dark optical traps for cold atoms,”
*Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics*, vol. 48, pp. 99–151, 2002. - T. Cizmar, L. C. D. Romero, K. Dholakia, and D. L. Andrews, “Multiple optical trapping and binding: new routes to self-assembly,”
*Journal of Physics B*, vol. 43, Article ID 102001, 2010. - T. Watanabe, Y. Iketaki, T. Omatsu, K. Yamamoto, M. Sakai, and M. Fuji, “Two point separation in super-resolution fluorescence microscope based on up-conversion fluorescence depletion technique,”
*Optics Express*, vol. 11, pp. 3271–3276, 2003. - J. Garcia-Sucerquia, F. F. Medina, and G. Matteucci, “Optical tubular structures produced by diffraction of circular apertures,”
*Optics and Lasers in Engineering*, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 61–70, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - W. Chen and Q. Zhan, “Three-dimensional focus shaping with cylindrical vector beams,”
*Optics Communications*, vol. 265, pp. 411–417, 2006. - N. Bokor and N. Davidson, “Generation of a hollow dark spherical spot by $4\pi $ focusing of a radially polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beam,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 31, pp. 149–151, 2006. - B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, X. C. Yuan et al., “Design and fabrication of a double-axicon for generation of tailorable self-imaged three-dimensional intensity voids,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 987–989, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. Arlt and M. J. Padgett, “Generation of a beam with a dark focus surrounded by regions of higher intensity: the optical bottle beam,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 191–193, 2000. View at Scopus - B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, and S. H. Tao, “Transfer of “pure” on-axis spin angular momentum to the absorptive particle using self-imaged bottle beam optical tweezers system,”
*Optics Express*, vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 5172–5177, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Generating an adjustable three-dimensional dark focus,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 661–663, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. X. Pu, X. Y. Liu, and S. Nemoto, “Partially coherent bottle beams,”
*Optics Communications*, vol. 252, pp. 7–11, 2005. - L. Isenhower, W. Williams, A. Dally, and M. Saffman, “Atom trapping in an interferometrically generated bottle beam trap,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1159–1161, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - P. Xu, X. He, J. Wang, and M. Zhan, “Trapping a single atom in a blue detuned optical bottle beam trap,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 2164–2166, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Selective trapping of multiple particles by volume speckle field,”
*Optics Express*, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 3137–3142, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - B. Tian and J. Pu, “Tight focusing of a double-ring-shaped, azimuthally polarized beam,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2014–2016, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - K. Lalithambigai, P. Suresh, V. Ravi et al., “Generation of sub wavelength super-long dark channel using high NA lens axicon,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 37, pp. 999–1001, 2012. - B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems—II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,”
*Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A*, vol. 253, no. 1274, pp. 358–379, 1959. - K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,”
*Optics Express*, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 77–87, 2000. View at Scopus - K. B. Rajesh, N. V. Suresh, P. M. Anbarasan, K. Gokulakrishnan, and G. Mahadevan, “Tight focusing of double ring shaped radially polarized beam with high NA lens axicon,”
*Optics & Laser Technology*, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1037–1040, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - G. H. Yuan, S. B. Wei, and X.-C. Yuan, “Nondiffracting transversally polarized beam,”
*Optics Letters*, vol. 36, pp. 3479–3481, 2011. - X. Gao, S. Hu, and J. Wang, “Optical manipulation of azimuthally polarized beam altered by phase plate,”
*IEEE Computer Society*, vol. 163, pp. 657–661, 2008.